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  • The effect of working capital on profitability of poultry egg enterprise in Osun State, Nigeria
    Views:
    101

    This study investigated the effect of working capital on the profitability of poultry egg enterprise.   Primary data were collected from 180 poultry egg farmers using two-stage sampling technique. Data were collected on the socio-economic characteristics such as age, gender, educational qualification, farming experience and flock size owned, quantities of inputs and outputs. Descriptive statistics, farm budgetary technique and ordinary least square model were used to analyze the data collected.  The results from descriptive statistics show mean values of 42 years, 9 years and 5 persons for age, years of experience and household size, respectively. Majority of poultry egg farmers (52.2%) used their personal savings to fund their businesses while, some had access to loan from co-operative societies (37.2%), from SEAP microfinance (6.7%) and from banks (3.9%). Poultry egg producers invested their working capital on feeds (64.8%), rearing of poultry birds from day old chicks to point of lay (14.8%), account receivables (13.6%), drugs & vaccines (2.4%) and variable overheads (4.4%). A total cost of ₦5,494,927.04k was incurred by the poultry egg producers. Cost of feed accounted for 71.89% of the total cost of production. A total revenue of ₦9,388,555.60k and the net returns of ₦3,893,628.56k were realized. The net farm income per bird from the enterprise was ₦1,698.05k while the gross margin per bird was ₦1,795.32. The ordinary least squares regression estimates revealed that inventory, account receivable, operating cycle and flock size have significant effect on the profitability of poultry egg enterprises. The study concluded that poultry egg enterprise is profitable and working capital has a significant effect on the profitability of poultry egg enterprise. In light of the findings, the study recommended the expansion of the poultry flock size as well as reduction in the number of days of inventories, account receivables and operating cycle in order to increase the profitability of poultry egg enterprise.

  • Determinants of dividend payout policy: An empirical study of banking sector of Pakistan
    101-106
    Views:
    347

    One good way to communicate financial performance of a bank to its shareholders is the payment of dividend. The present study is attempted to explore the influence of financial efficiency, safety, risk and profitability on dividend policy using panel data of 10 commercial banks listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for a period of 9 years between 2006 to 2014. The panel regression technique is used to analyze the data. The analysis shows a positive relationship of dividend payout ratio with safety and profitability in banking sector of Pakistan. The study identifies a negative association of dividend payout measure with financial efficiency and risk. The results show the statistically significant association of safety, risk and profitability with dividend payout ratio. Based on these findings it is concluded that safety, risk and profitability measures are relatively strong measures for defining dividend policy. The results are strongly indicating that safer the banks, the greater payout ratio the bank has. Moreover; banks with higher profitability and lower non-performing loans (NPLs) are believed to pay more dividends.

    JEL code: G21, G23, G35

  • Intensity and Profitability of Smallholder Cassava Farmers’ Participation in Value Addition in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
    Views:
    134

    This study investigated the intensity and profitability of smallholder cassava farmers’ involvement in cassava value addition in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 cassava farming households through the use of a well-structured questionnaire and employing a simple random sampling procedure. The data collected included information on the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, intensity of value addition among the respondents, factors influencing their decisions to add value as well as the extent of value addition, profitability of cassava value addition and the factors that determined the profitability level of the enterprises. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics for profiling the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, gross margin was used to measure profitability, and ordinary least squares regression model was used to determine the factors influencing the decisions of smallholder cassava farmers to add value to cassava as well as the extent of value addition among them. The results revealed that majority of the respondents were females (52.7%) with average age between 31-40 years of age while the average household size (52.7%) is between 6-10 members. Regression analysis of the determinants of the intensity of value addition revealed that the decisions to add value to cassava as well as the extent to which value was added were influenced positively by educational attainment, household size, and years of experience in cassava value addition. Results of the gross margin analysis revealed a positive return on variable costs thus indicating that the cassava value adding enterprise is a profitable one. These findings presented the need for all the stakeholders concerned to focus their attentions on proffering solutions to the challenges faced by cassava processors within the minimum time possible.

    JEL code: L11, M11, M21, Q13, R32

  • The economic situation of Hungarian crop production enterprises, especially in Hajdú-Bihar county
    Views:
    167

    Increasing the competitiveness of Hungarian crop production plays a key role in moving forward at the international level. However, improving efficiency and profitability is essential in this regard. The natural resources in Hungary provide an excellent opportunity for crop production. About 8% of the arable land in Hungary (a total of 4.3 million hectares) belongs to farmers in Hajdú-Bihar County. This research is based on secondary data that can be found in the HCSO and EMIS databases. HCSO data was used for the comparison of national and county data characterising crop production, while the EMIS database was used to process the financial data of enterprises dealing with field crop production. The Hungarian sample size is 853, of which 69 enterprises are from Hajdú-Bihar County. The aim of this study is to assess the profitability, assets and financial situation of arable crop production enterprises operating in Hajdú-Bihar County as a function of national average data. Based on the examined profitability indicators (operating ROS and ROA), it was established that the enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County are profitable, even in a national context. In terms of operating ROS, the farms in the examined county were able to achieve a 3.6 percentage point higher value due to their more efficient cost management, despite having a similar level of technology compared to businesses spanning across the entire country. The proportion of farms with the lowest leverage ratio (<20%) is 16 percentage points higher at the county level than at the national level. In addition, almost 70% of the enterprises operating in Hajdú-Bihar County have excellent liquidity. This rate is 50% at the national level.

  • Profitability of cassava production in the Ashanti region of Ghana
    66-69
    Views:
    646

    Cassava is a crop that is massively produced and consumed in Ghana even though it is produced by subsistence farmers. The aim of this study is to analyse the cost and returns of cassava farmers.  Farmers profitability was accessed using the gross margin, net present value and the benefit cost ratio. SWOT analysis was conducted to access challenges faced by cassava farmers. Data was collected by personal interview from fifty (50) cassava growing farmers in the Sekyere East District of the Ashanti Region, Ghana. The Costs and returns analysis show gross margin of USD 22.75 per acre. It was concluded that cassava is cultivated for both consumption and revenue. Even though there is low investment of capital in cassava production, it helps farmers to make use of available resources (personal savings, land and labour) which would have been idle. Further should compare profitability of crops that compete for use of famers land. 

    JEL. CODE: Q13, Q19

  • A comparative analysis of the profitability of pineapple-mango blend and pineapple fruit juice processing in Ghana
    33-42
    Views:
    221

    This study analyzes the profitability of fruit juice processing using data from Kudors Fruit Juice Limited at Kasoa in Ghana. The cost involved in fruit juice processing (which includes the capital cost and the operating cost) was obtained from the Company. This study compares the profitability of blend (i.e. fruit juice made up of pineapple and mango blend) with that of pineapple juice alone. The viability of the project was determined using the discounted measures of project worth: Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The empirical results reveal that pineapple juice processing had a BCR of 1.03 which means that going into the pineapple juice processing is profitable. The value of the NPV (GHS11,728.00) and IRR (23%) further confirms that pineapple juice processing is profitable because the NPV is positive and the IRR is greater than the discounted factor (21%). The results also showed that it is more profitable to invest in the blend (pineapple and mango blend) than the pineapple juice alone as it yields a BCR of 1.36 which was greater than the BCR of 1.03 for the pineapple juice only. Furthermore, the value of the NPV (GHS176,831.00) which is greater than the pineapple juice only, suggests that the blend is more profitable even though the IRR for both are the same. Moreover, it is also more likely to recover capital investment earlier in the processing of the blend than when one goes into pineapple juice processing only, because the net cash flow in year 2 (GHS 58,146.00) for the blend is more than triple that of the pineapple juice only (GHS17,826.00).These results have policy implications for the development of Agribusinesses in Ghana.

  • Economic Profitability of Sweet Pepper Production under Different Irrigation Levels and Polyethylene Mulch in a Plastic Greenhouse
    109-116
    Views:
    144

    Field experiment was conducted, during two successive seasons of 2014- 2015 and 2015- 2016, at Dokki protected agricultural site, Giza Governorate, Egypt, to study the profitability of different applied irrigation levels and polyethylene (PE) mulch on plant growth and yield of sweet pepper, (Capsicum annum L.) cv. Godion F1, under plastic house condition. Three irrigation levels (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00) of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), using drip irrigation system and three PE mulch treatments (transparent, black and control) were applied. Data revealed that black PE recorded the highest values of early and total fruit yield per plant during the two seasons. Increasing water level up to 1.00 (ETc) enhanced yield with different PE mulch treatments, while water use efficiency (WUE) decreased with increasing water level. However, Using 0.50 (ETc), with different PE mulches increased WUE compared to using 0.75 (ETc) or 1.00 (ETc). The economic assessment of costs and returns from different treatments were calculated. It was found that the average yield was higher in 1.00 ETc with black mulch. Gross margin per 540 m2 were analysed using yield data, price structures and production costs. The 1.00 (ETc) with black mulch had the highest gross margin which is USD 416.8 and USD 533 (1 USD= 9 Egyptian pound) for the first and second seasons, respectively. The benefit cost ratios (BCRs) per 540 m2 were analysed, and 1.00 (ETc) with black mulch had the highest BCR with 1.36 in the first season and 1.45 in the second season.

    JEL Classification: Q 01, Q 12, Q 19

  • PERCEPTIONS, PROFITABILITY AND DETERMINANTS OF GRANULATED CASSAVA PACKAGING IN KUMASI METROPOLIS, GHANA
    Views:
    144

    Packaging does not only protect a product but also provides directions for using the product, as well as relevant information about its content and nutritional value. This study was undertaken to assess Granulated Cassava (Gari) sellers’ perception, profitability and determinants of packaging in Ashanti Region. The study area was purposively selected because of the active participation and contribution of marketing activities. A structured questionnaire was administered in the form of interview to obtain primary data from the respondents. Data was generated using binary and multinomial logit regression model and Garret ranking technique. The results showed that there is 0.11% difference in the gross margin of both ventures which is also statistically significant at 1%. Years of education, legal requirement, and durability of the packaging material and cost of packaging material were the significant factors that influence sellers’ choice of packaging. Lack of technical know-how, cost of capital equipment and lack of knowledge on packaging equipment and/or material were the most limiting constraints affecting Gari packaging. The study recommends that investors should invest in the Gari packaging business since it has a relatively higher rate of returns as compared to the unpackaged one.

  • Changes in costs of precision nutrition depending on crop rotation
    59-63
    Views:
    121

    By applying precision nutrition the yield heterogeneity owing to the different features of soil spots can be taken into consideration. The planned and sprayed fertilizer adjusted to the expected yield rendered to soil spots can reduce the negative effects of artificial chemicals on soil and environment. The aim of this paper is to examine how the quantity and the cost of fertilizer (material and operational) will change on spot level on a certain plot during a five-year period, considering crop rotation, too. The following crops are in the rotation: winter wheat, corn and sunflower. Precision nutrition can be used in all the cultures mentioned above. Our earlier (static) model calculations have revealed that the threshold price of precision production was lower by 31% than in conventional technology. So it is necessary to explore for a longer period how the profitability of precision nutrition reacts to the changes in input and yield prices in different crops. The risk receptivity of precision nutrition can be characterized with the help of price sensitive analyses. Effects on profitability of other technological elements are not analysed in this paper.

  • Profitability and efficiency – an analysis of the financial impact of the Szechenyi Plan in the Hungarian hospitality industry
    51-56
    Views:
    134

    Continuous changes in the market and macroeconomic factors have made a significant effect on the tourism sector in Hungary. A heavily growing number of hotels could be observed in the past decade. The main question about the hotels built with high investment costs was their expected time of return. Keeping Hungary’s natural conditions in mind, is it more expedient to build new hotels or refurbish old ones? I was seeking answers for these questions during my work. My research was aiming to explore the impacts of the non-refundable subsidies – financed by the government – provided for new health and wellness hotel projects carried out within the framework of the Széchenyi Plan. On the other hand, my study was expanded to the analysis of balance sheets and profit and loss accounts data of the hotels of Hungary according to their star (quality) rating. The major findings of the research: Considering high developmental costs subsidies play an important role in the hotel industry. It is impossible to carry out such investments using internal sources only. However, exclusive bank loans finance could drive insolvency so it is extremely risky. Non-refundable subsides provided for hotel investments created stable, countable payroll taxes and other forms of incomes for the country. In order to achieve more profitable operation, providing higher quality of services is indispensable. Taking Hungary’s conditions into account this can be reached more likely among four star rated hotels than any other star (quality) ranked establishments.

  • The examination of the profitability and competitiveness regarding the energy plantations of woody plants in the region of Észak-Alföld
    5-11
    Views:
    125

    Due to the decrease in the quantity of traditional energy sources, in the future an alternative energy production should be sought which provides minimum environmental burden and offers an opportunity to generate energy. The use of biomass provides another option to resolve this problem. The most important features of the biomass are that the quantity doesn’t decrease during conversions and are reproduced by natural processes. The main raw materials of the biomass are considered to be the energy plantations, which are economic in areas where the farmer, during the traditional production, can’t or with difficulties can cover the expenses, so that profitably sustainable cultivation branches can come to the forefront with less material and energy input. Those cases in which the cultivation of agricultural areas are not economically feasible, there is a possible utilization in our country which is the installation of plantations with energetic aim.

  • Key aspects of investment analysis
    53-56
    Views:
    691

    This paper reviewed principally accepted methods applied to investment analysis. To describe every aspect of investment analysis fully would require far more space than available here, so we highlight only of few of its aspects. This study collects several well-known bibliographies, contrasts them with each other and provides explanations for having done so. There are many questions about which authors and companies agree, including about how to apply certain methods, but on others there is disagreement. Four dynamic methods (Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Profitability Index, and Discounted Payback Period) are demonstrated from the viewpoint of application. Moreover, this study clarifies several sensitive questions, such as handling income taxes, inflation and uncertainty. Other examined issues are only mentioned at the end of this paper, and we will publish on these more thoroughly at a later date.

  • Economical aspects of thermal and medical tourism
    77-84
    Views:
    147

    Thermal and medical tourism in Hungary are characterised by a continuous development. The management, efficiency, operational effectiveness and offer of enterprises in the field of tourism influence the competitiveness of Hungary’s tourism. In the present day economic life the thorough analysis of the enterprises’ economy is indispensable. The result of the analytical methods applied by the report provide information for different stakeholders (owners, transporters, customers, employees, habilitators). The aim is to have data which inform us about the functioning, financial situation and profitability of the economic entities parallel with the factors and conditions determining these elements. In our paper we present the financial situation of the Demjén Thermal Spa Ltd., being one of the newest thermal spas of Hungary.

  • Efficiency analysis of dairy farms in the Northern Great Plain region using deterministic and stochastic DEA models
    113-122
    Views:
    124

    Running any dairy enterprise is a risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the price fluctuation of feed and animal health products from inputs, as well as by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances, it is essential for the cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in management as effectively as possible. In this research the efficiency and risk of 32 sample dairy farms were analysed in the Northern Great Plain Region from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) by applying classical Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and stochastic DEA models. The choice of this method is justified by the fact that there was not such an available reliable database by which production functions could have been defined, and DEA makes possible to manage simultaneously some inputs and outputs, i.e. complex decision problems. By using DEA, the sources that cause shortfall on inefficient farms can be identified, analysed and quantified, so corporate decision support can be reinforced successfully. A disadvantage of the classical DEA model is that the stochastic factors of farming cannot be treated either on the side of inputs or outputs; therefore, their results can be adopted with reservations, especially in agricultural models. This may have been because we could not discover that many agricultural applications. Considering the price of inputs and outputs as probability variables, 5000 simulation runs have been done in this research. As a result, it can be stated that at which intervals of the input and output factors can become competitive and the fluctuation of these factors can cause what level of risk at each farm.

  • Analyse the financing structure of agricultural enterprises in 2002–2006
    91-94
    Views:
    137

    The capital structure of agricultural enterprises notable modified since the change in Hungary’s economic system. The study discusses the capital structure of agricultural enterprises in Hungary and analyses the most significant indicators, that we can use to describe the financing situation of the firms. My empirical analysis is based on data containing 192 agricultural enterprises between 2002 and 2006. I try to assess the reasons of the changes in the structure of resources of enterprises in order to find the determinants effecting the capital structure. Furthermore, I assess the index numbers illustrating the management of the enterprises.

  • THE PROFIT EFFICIENCY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA PRODUCTION IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA
    Views:
    44

    This study examined the profit efficiency of Moringa oleifera production by farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from 150 respondents. Multistage sampling procedure was used for selecting respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and stochastic frontier production function. The findings revealed that male predominate moringa enterprise with about 55.3% male, most producers fall between the age bracket 41-50years with a mean age of 44.92 (± 13.168) years and the average farm size is 0.3 hectares whilst indicating that most producers had less than 0.1 hectares of land. Moringa production had a benefit cost ratio of ₦5.852, profit margin of ₦0.182, expense structure ratio of ₦0.107, net return on investment ₦4.857, rate of return of ₦5.482 and profitability ratio of ₦0.981. The average profit efficiency of moringa producers was 18.73% on the profit frontier.  Family labour, hired labour and transport cost were significant and had positive coefficient while the seed cost, pesticide cost, level of education and farm size are also significant but bears negative coefficient. The level of education and farm size are amongst the inefficiency variables considered. This study concludes that Moringa oleifera production is highly profitable but producers have not been able to maximize profit efficiency. It therefore recommends that producers improve on adding value to moringa products and extend their channels of distribution considering the cost incurred on transportation.

  • Current situation and development of the bee-keeping sector in Hungary
    71-74
    Views:
    173

    Rural development has become more and more important issue in Hungary since rural areas also contribute to the efficiency of the national economy. Development of rural areas also very important issue in the European Union, which could contribute to the improvement of profitability of small family businesses, higher employment rate in rural areas as well as slow down the migration of people from rural into urban areas. Nowadays the bee-keeping– as one of the activities can provide alternative income for small businesses in rural areas– has become more and more important topic in Hungary. Bee-keeping sector provides income roughly 15 thousands families in Hungary. At the same time it takes important role in the preservation of rural landscape, traditions and their regional values. However, the sector has serious problems, as well (for instance quality issues, competitors on the market, etc.). It can be stated that the market position of Hungarian honey can be preserved through the improvement of quality assurance and product development. These developments can be carried out by the utilization of national and European Union funds.

  • Plant production for biomass into energy: economics and energy efficiency view
    65-71
    Views:
    132

    The aim of the paper was to determine the influence of the fertilization level on the energy and economics efficiency of the production technologies of selected crops processed into bioethanol or biogas. There were investigated the following crops: rye, triticale, wheat, sugar beets, maize, sorghum, reed canarygrass and Virginia fanpetals. In the energetic efficiency the Energy Return on Energy Investment index (EroEI) was used. Apart from the ERoEI ratio, the Net Energy Value (NEV) ratio was also used. In the economics efficiency attitude, the Gross Margin (GM) was determined.The investigations proved that in general, the production technologies of crops where the lowest levels of nitrogen fertilization were applied proved to have the highest energetic efficiency. The highest economic efficiency was characterized by the production of corn for biogas. In the case of the production of bioethanol (all plants), ratios were on the verge of profitability or the lack of it showed.The analysis proved that the efficiency of the technologies of production of the crops to be processed into biogas is several times higher than the energetic efficiency of the technologies of production of the crops to be processed into bioethanol.

  • Investment analysis of a piglet producer farm – a Hungarian case study
    141-152
    Views:
    232

    The pig population in Hungary was about 8 million in 1990, while this number dropped to only 2.8 million by 2018. The previously so successful integrated domestic pig farming has almost completely disappeared and most of the smaller farms still operating in the 1990s are no longer functioning. At present, a process of concentration can be observed, which was accompanied by the further specialization of pig farming. The main profile of most pig farms is fattening, but there is a smaller number of farms in Hungary today specialized for piglet production, the successful operation of which requires significantly more expertise and more complex technology.

    The main aim of this study is to present the production and economic indicators of a pig farm specialized in piglet production in Hungary as a result of a greenfield investment in the current economic environment, on a case study basis. For this purpose, an economic simulation was prepared based on primary data collection, operating on a deterministic basis, modelling the production and economic processes of the farm. The performed calculation does not derive the economic indicators of the activity from accounting records, but assigns the prices of natural inputs used on the basis of technological data. Primary data and information collection (e.g. technological data, input and output prices, unit cost items, etc.) took place between 2018-2019.

    At the purchase prices of pigs in the last two years, which have increased significantly due to the African Swine Fever (ASF), the majority of pig farms in Hungary have an outstanding profit-making capacity. The physical efficiency indicators of the analysed pig farm are almost identical to the average data of such farms in the Netherlands, which has one of the most developed pig industry. The income of the examined pig farm at farm level is about 734 thousand EUR, i.e. 232 EUR per sow. Moreover, this activity is profitable even without subsidies. As a result, the greenfield investment pays off in the 8th year by default (average scenario). The investment has a Net Present Value (NPVr=3%) of EUR 2,609 thousand for 10 years, an Internal Rate of Return of 8.5%, and a Profitability Index (PIr=3%) of 1.3. At the same time, risk factors such as sales prices, output and capacity utilization, and feed costs should be taken into consideration as in extreme cases the return on investment may be unfavourable (pessimistic scenario).

    JEL code: D24, M11, Q12

  • Analyzing soundness of nationalized banks in India: a camel approach
    73-78
    Views:
    223

    Performance of the economy of any country is largely dependent on the performance of its banking sector. Since, banking sector constitutes a major component of the financial service sector. Soundness of the banking sector is essential for a healthy and vibrant economy. The efficiency, productivity, profitability, stability and a shock free economy is possible only when a country is having a sound and healthy banking sector. The present research work has been undertaken to analyze the soundness of five nationalized banks in India. In order to measure the performances of these banks CAMEL MODEL Approach has been applied, incorporating important parameters like Capital Adequacy, Assets Quality, Management Efficiency, Earnings Quality and Liquidity. The finding of the study shows that Bank of Baroda has been ranked at the top position, the Union Bank of India and Dena Bank secured the 2nd position, the next was the State Bank of India which secured the 4th position and in the last position was the UCO Bank which secured the 5th position.

    JEL Code: G2, G12, G21, G32& G33.

  • OPERATING RESULTS OF SILAGE ENTERPRISE OF A FARM - A CASE STUDY
    Views:
    67

    Improvements in agriculture has been focusing on innovations to improve the efficiency of the activity by making the traditional production structure currently in use more flexible and by making the necessary technological changes for farmers with large areas and the necessary machinery and equipment. Farms with significant arable land are able to offset the effects of changes affecting efficiency and profitability. The decisive sector of agriculture in Hungary is crop production, therefore its performance is largely determined by the annual output of the crop sector and the volatility in prices. From the farm data, we calculated farm-level results that support the need for machinery modernisation efforts, as precision tools and improvements already started in maize production can be applied fruitfully even in the light of the increasing frequency of negative climatic effects. During the development of silage maize cultivation technology, the achievements of precision farming were applied. Differentiated nutrient replenishment and sowing operations were used, in addition to the fact that harvesting was also documented. We set ourselves the goal of analyzing the management data of the study period between 2019-2022 in order to reveal the nature of the changes that occurred in terms of production value, production cost, and income, as well as the components that shape them. The presented values ​​are average values ​​of such conditions which are also suitable for crop-level conclusions. At the same time, they can be used to identify sector-level challenges and trends.

  • Future role of agriculture in multifunctional development of rural areas
    135-143
    Views:
    113

    In the paper the changes in agriculture in terms of falling share of agriculture in gross domestic product and decrease in the share of persons employed in agriculture in total employment in Poland and selected countries are discussed.The main driver of these changes is a faster pace of development of non-agricultural activities and continually deteriorating relations between the costs of production factors and prices of agricultural products. The rate of growth in labor costs and prices of the means of production for agriculture is much faster than the rate of increase in prices of agricultural products. This causes the decline in profitability of agricultural production which in creases the size of farms. The pace is dependent on the level of economic development of the country. The study also identified trends in the structure of farms, functions and systems of agriculture in the generational perspective.The polarization of the farms will deepen.A strong group of commodity farms and a group of so-called self – subsistence social farms will emerge. Agriculture in Poland will have a dual nature. In addition to the production function and social services agriculture will expand the scope of service functions for the environment and society.

  • Defining the strategic objectives of Hungarian mutton product chain and elements of marketing strategy in the beginning of the second decade of the century
    119-132
    Views:
    197

    The sheep sector is regarded to be a “black sheep” in Hungary, both in terms of economy and marketing. On one hand, the sector is not easily traceable as available relevant data are partial and infected by the effects of black market or underground economy; on the other hand, there are no clear, concrete statistical data or surveys on consumption either.
    The present study attempts to dissolve the above anomalies and present findings by fact-based model calculations and actual marketing surveys. The fact-based model developed and used for more than 200 variables verifies the correctness of economic calculations. Original examinations were performed by Béla Cehla, doctoral candidate, in 2000–2011. The marketing survey, although not in full accordance with statistical requirements, was carried out in 2012 and it processed relevant data authentically.
    The main conclusions are the following: It is clear so far that genetic basis should primarily be evolved in the industry, as it is the factor that mainly contributes to profitability and price-type factors come only following it. Genetic modification is achievable by changing breeds or crossbreeding. The findings of product chain level sensitivity analysis have provided clues that the added value generated in the sector is already determined during slaughter lamb production and progeny influences this value in approximately 80%. Critical points are feed conversion ratio and the relating price of lamb feed, which influence added values by 2.7–2.9%. The remaining factors affect added value through feeding costs, although not considerably.
    The following activities can boost interest in the market of sheep products:
    • Comprehensive market research
    • Stimulation of cultural development by product-tasting, exchanging information and recipes
    • Development of supply in accordance with demand
    • Identification of target markets, positioning products
    • Diversification of product range
    • Community trade mark to guarantee excellent quality and Hungarian origin
    • Selection of credible poster faces, organization of advertising campaigns

  • Future role of agriculture in multifunctional development of rural areas
    29-37
    Views:
    116

    In the paper the changes in agriculture in terms of falling share of agriculture in gross domestic product and decrease in the share of persons employed in agriculture in total employment in Poland and selected countries are discussed.The main driver of these changes is a faster pace of development of non-agricultural activities and continually deteriorating relations between the costs of production factors and prices of agricultural products. The rate of growth in labor costs and prices of the means of production for agriculture is much faster than the rate of increase in prices of agricultural products.This causes the decline in profitability of agricultural production which increases the size of farms. The pace is dependent on the level of economic development of the country. The study also identified trends in the structure of farms, functions and systems of agriculture in the generational perspective. The polarization of the farms will deepen.A strong group of commodity farms and a group of so-called self – subsistence social farms will emerge. Agriculture in Poland will have a dual nature. In addition to the production function and social services agriculture will expand the scope of service functions for the environment and society.

  • Assessing the financial viability of the floricultural industry in Ghana
    119-126
    Views:
    157

    This study determines the financial viability of the floricultural industry in Ghana using both discounting and non-discounting investment appraisal methods. The feasibility analysis suggests that large-scale floricultural firms are more profitable particularly with the production of cut flowers. However, investors with limited capital can venture into small-scale production specifically cut flowers. The conclusion is that the floriculture industry is financially viable therefore investors are encouraged to expend their resources in the industry. We recommend that the government and stakeholders need to create institutional support to enable the already established firms to further develop and attract new investors in the sector.

    JEL. Code: Q13

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