Vol 7, No 1 (2013)

Published March 31, 2013

Issue Description

Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce
(APSTRACT) is the official periodical of the International
MBA Network in Agribusiness and Commerce for the
discussion and dissemination of applied research in
agricultural economics, agribusiness and commerce
performed within the International MBA Network.
Submitted manuscripts should be related to rural
development or the economics of agriculture, natural
resources and environment. Papers should have a practical
orientation and demonstrate innovation in analysis, methods
or application. Topic areas include production economics
and farm management, agricultural policy, agricultural
environmental issues, regional planning and rural
development, methodology, the marketing of agricultural and
food products, international trade and development.
APSTRACT publishes practical research and case studies, as
well as papers discussing policy issues. Shorter features
include book reviews and comments on previously published
articles. In addition, the journal publishes on its website the
Annual Report of the International MBA Network in
Agribusiness and Commerce enabl. . .

Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce
(APSTRACT) is the official periodical of the International
MBA Network in Agribusiness and Commerce for the
discussion and dissemination of applied research in
agricultural economics, agribusiness and commerce
performed within the International MBA Network.
Submitted manuscripts should be related to rural
development or the economics of agriculture, natural
resources and environment. Papers should have a practical
orientation and demonstrate innovation in analysis, methods
or application. Topic areas include production economics
and farm management, agricultural policy, agricultural
environmental issues, regional planning and rural
development, methodology, the marketing of agricultural and
food products, international trade and development.
APSTRACT publishes practical research and case studies, as
well as papers discussing policy issues. Shorter features
include book reviews and comments on previously published
articles. In addition, the journal publishes on its website the
Annual Report of the International MBA Network in
Agribusiness and Commerce enabling the members of
International MBA Network to have immediate access to the
papers. Reactions to articles previously published in
APSTRACT should be sent to the Editor. Critical comments
and suggestions are always welcome.

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Articles

The determination of economic and public health benefits achievable by increasing regular physical exercise
5-13

There are various methods at our disposal to determine the direct expenses of the factors, which influence the state of health – such as inactive lifestyle –, but research studies aimed at comprehensively determining all direct and indirect expenses have not been conducted in Hungary, yet. We desired to remedy this deficiency with our resea...rch, which was prepared at the commissioned order and with the support of the Hungarian Society of Sport Science and the Department for Sport of the Ministry of Human Resources of the Hungarian Government. Using the factual data of OEP (National Health Insurance Fund) we determined the annual cost of illnesses, along with the extent of the cost of physical inactivity, (HUF billion), and we prepared an estimate of the possible amount of savings in Hungary (sick-pay, medication costs etc.), the methodology of which we adapted from international research projects, thus the resulting data in the case of Hungary will later be comparable to international data. International examples reveal the savings achievable by increasing physical exercise in a broad range, even though having conducted the research in different ways and time periods. All research projects concur about one thing, namely that the reduction of physical inactivity can result in significant savings. Our results have verified this statement statistically as well.

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An investigation on the international tourists’ expenditures in Thailand: a modelling approach
15-18

As a result of the increase in both the international tourists’ expenditures and tourist arrivals to Thailand, there is a growing interest in determining the trend of international tourists’ expenditures based on time-series modelling. In our article secondary data were used to produce forecasts of the international tourists’ expenditures... in Thailand between 2009 and 2010. The forecasting method is based on the ARFIMAX (0, 0.197, 0, 0.033) model. Furthermore, this method predicted that international tourists’ expenditures in Thailand between 2009 and 2010 will have to contract and slow down. This paper seeks to determine whether the international tourists’ expenditures are affected by other circumstances. The results of this study revealed that the international tourist arrivals to Thailand will also have to slow down. However, from the results, there is solid evidence to support such a claim.

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The present of equine tourism in Hungary in reflection to an empirical research
19-23

In the last years the necessity of developing equine tourism in Hungary has been called for by experts. Moreover, the government has spent a significant amount on constructing equestrian facilities all around the country, and has published equestrian brochures in order to attract foreign guests. On the contrary, little attention is paid to eque...strian life inside Hungary, though it would be essential to create a Hungarian equestrian audience, so that more and more horse riders could regularly exercise different riding activities.
A more economical operation of equestrian facilities is vital in order to achieve a busier domestic equestrian life, since it is currently self-supporting: it is covered exclusively by the incomes of horse riding. A reinforced financial support of the sector, however, would provide countless additional advantages for the economy. Moreover, enriched riding opportunities drive people back to nature, promote environmental awareness, and provide regular horse riding opportunities for a high number of riders. The present study aims at introducing an empirical survey research in the framework of which participants of Hungarian equestrian life and their features of touristic demand were investigated.
The results of the research show that Hungarians riding on a regular basis are mostly attracted by affordable European riding holidays and riding study visits.

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Success factors of international sporting events in different regions of Europe
25-29

Sport events always played an important role in human life from the ancient Olympics and marathon races to today’s modern Olympics, World and continental championships. In our days these remarkable sport events come to the fore because participants of the sporting world effectuate even more, greater and more varied ones. Furthermore, the comp...etition for organisation between cities and countries is becoming more and more intense (Zeman 2005). The organisation of international sporting events is an extremely complicated and multiple task. The organising committee has to manage the duties and activities, to co-ordinate the participants’ work, to satisfy the needs of international sport association(s), sponsors and other stakeholders. Within the frame of the research we reveal the success factors of international sporting events in different segments of Europe, and in addition to this compare the event organization practices of analysed regions along the identified success factors. In this study we represent the results of a quantitative research, where organizers of World and European Championships – organised between 2000 and 2008 in different European countries – were asked and statistical analyses have been applied. According to our results beside the essential technical and task oriented areas the human aspects of organisation, the partnerships, coordination and communication are all-important factors. Especially in countries of East-Central Europe, where organisers have to pay more attention on selection, control of partners as well as on continuous communication with them in order to assure accurate performance in time.

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The planned development’s effect on the performance in ice hockey
31-35

The sports are growing everywhere in the world, so there is no other way to maintain or to increase the level of quality just the strategic planned development (GÉCZI, 2012), because thousands of specialist are working hardly on the better results worldwide. The aim of this study was to monitor the ice hockey players’ physical development in... Hungary since 2007, focusing the results after opening the federations’ Methodical Center (MC). One can see a remarkable development during the last years in the domestic ice hockey, which is perceptible following the sport performance and results. The first step of the planned development was the reform of the curriculum in the coaches courses (from 2004 continuously) at every level, the second step was the opening our MC in 2010, where the Hungarian players and experts (coaches and officials) can develop their skills and their knowledge about the ice hockey. We examined the effect of the above mentioned procedures, comparing the national try-out test running events (10 m, 60 m, 6×9 m, 400 m, 1500 m) by the best twenty U18 players (N=80). According to the opening of the Methodical Center, we used the data from 2012, 2009, 2008 and 2007.

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Futsal for the blind: a new opportunity for Hungarian people with visual impairments to get engaged in physical activity
37-41

The proportion of Hungarian citizens involved in regular physical activity is extremely low and rates are even lower amongst people with disabilities. It is, however, undoubtedly easier to stimulate physical activity if a wide variety of different sports is accessible for them. Blind futsal was introduced by an NGO, Sports and Leisure Associati...on for the Visually Impaired and it has been played in Hungary for only a year.
The present work, by introducing this special sport through document analysis and semi-structured interviews, aims at calling sport professionals’ attention to the unexploited opportunities of adapting sports to blind people’s special needs. The author also wishes to highlight the power of a civil initiative and the inmense effort people with visual impairments themselves make for improving their own sporting opportunities.

 

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A study into the awareness and acceptance of utilizing vine branches in the micro-region of Gyöngyös
43-44

Every year, a significant amount of renewable dendromass is generated in Hungary. Various possibilities have been recognised by today that are not widespread yet. The greatest obstacle is frequently derived from the lack of the farmers’ knowledge as without having the required knowledge obtained they can become distrustful or adequate efficie...ncy will not be achieved during utilisation. In order to improve the rate of utilisation, targeted information methodologies should be applied that comply with the farmers’ knowledge. In this present study, the awareness and acceptance of vine-growers from the Micro-region of Gyöngyös related to the use of vine branches will be analysed based on the results of a questionnaire survey.
The survey was conducted in accordance with the number of wine-community members in personal interviews. The questionnaire contained questions about the farm, the use of vine branches as well as about the farmers.
Based on the results, information was obtained on the reasons for the use of by-products not being wide-spread among farmers as well as on the sources of information obtained. For the fragmented farms which are typical here it is important to know whether by-products are not utilised as it is not how they can be used or whether the vineyard is cultivated by others therefore the farmer lacks machinery. The level of acceptance was also studied by asking a question on the possible offer of the by-products for greater-scale site.
Our intention is to assist the generally badly off farmers to use the annually generated by-products in a reasonable way. This can be realized by various ways of providing information. By applying the results of the survey, adequate methods and knowledge can be provided for farmers.

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Theory and practice in the management of university championships organized in Hungary
47-51

After the 1989-1990 political changes the aim of the Hungarian University Sports Federation was to follow its traditions of nine decades in foreign policy as well, therefore the organization of international competitions in Hungary was promoted. Up to now the study of the management of these international events was neglected in the Hungarian s...cholarly literature, although all university sporting events held in Hungary were successful and they were highly appreciated internationally. Taking the example of three university world championships hosted by Hungarian towns, the objective of this paper is to analyze how the management succeeded to solve the major tasks of the organizational work and how some management theories were implemented in its activity. In order to collect data the following methods were used: analysis of documents, in-depth interviews and participant observation. The results are presented on the basis of some theses of the event planning theory, the event management theory, and the situational leadership theory. More specifically, the issues of motives-decisionactions, consistency- coherency- harmony and these of the quantity indicators of event organization in connection of the three underscored world championships organized in Hungary are discussed. In conclusion it is stated that in the management the situation theory had to be taken into consideration the most in the leading process. It was proven that despite preparations lasting often for several years and expanding to every detail of requirements, the flexibility of the management was crucial to search and to find response to every critical situation.

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Guest satisfaction survey at the Aquaticum Debrecen Thermal and Wellness Hotel
53-56

Aquaticum Debrecen Thermal and Wellness Hotel is one of the most successful hotels in the North Great Plains region as well as in Hungary. The key to success lies in high level customer satisfaction. On the one hand only the satisfied guests will return to the hotel, on the other hand the guests’ positive or negative opinions will be shared w...ith thousands of potential customers immediately by means of the Internet. Consequently, exploring the main factors of guest satisfaction has never been so important as nowadays. An online questionnaire system was introduced to the hotel in 2010, which resulted in an increased number of customer responses, thus it became possible to analyse the various aspects of customer satisfaction in a greater detail. In the present study the critical factors of guest satisfaction are analysed. We investigated the guests’ willingness to return to the hotel, and found that there is no significant difference between the guests’ gender, age, permanent place of residence and the fact if they travel alone or with a company and their willingness to return to the hotel, i.e. guest satisfaction. However, business travellers’ opinion significantly differs from the recreational travellers’ views concerning their return to the hotel. Business travellers are less satisfied and less willing to return. Furthermore, we investigated whether the problems experienced by the guests in the hotel influence the guests’ willingness to return to the hotel. We found that the guests who experienced problems are less willing to return. However, we also concluded that there was no significant difference in their willingness to return among those guests who experienced problems during their stay and these were efficiently handled, and those guests who did not experience any problem.

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Leisure activities and travel habits of college students in the light of a survey
57-61

In our article we deal with leisure activities and travel habits of 150 college students from Szolnok. We have analyzed the relationship between the frequencies of watching TV, that is: the time spent watching TV and doing sports. Furthermore, we have also investigated the frequencies of travels, and main motives of choosing travel destinations.... We have found that college students have several hours of leisure time daily. Among the recreational activities, the ones that occurred predominantly are watching TV, doing sports, and travelling. It is interesting to note that the relationship between the frequency of watching TV and doing sports has not been significant while the relationship between watching TV occasionally and doing regular physical activity has turned out to be significant. Students who play sports for 1-2 hours a day spend significantly less time in front of the TV compared to their peers who do not do sports. 92% of the students travel at least once a year. The participants of youth tourism are quite price-conscious. In choosing travel destinations favorable prices play an important role.

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Talent management based on therapeutic work with a professional handball team
63-66

All athletes regardless of their age should get mental skills development that could be integrated into their normal training. Psychological training is essential for better performance because in sports the psychological factors play a very important role. The aim of this presentation is to show the therapeutic work of a professional men’s h...andball team and demonstrate the nature of the social environment and how it can have an effect on their performance. The author examines how a team forms, develops and works and what factors contribute achieving the optimum performance. The functions, structures, dynamics and goals of an adult team were analyzed and on top of that the focus was on the a three­month long therapeutic process and its results as well. In order to improve the self­awareness and team building, the players were asked to fill out following questionnaires: psychometric questionnaire of Keczeli1, Keczeli2 questionnaire about roles, tasks and responsibilities within the team and player­coach relationship and attention questionnaire (Pieron). The conclusions of this work can be useful for further talent managment and develpoment.

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Bicycle tourism in Hungary
67-71

Side by side with the revaluation of a health-oriented lifestyle various kinds of axtive leisure activities and active tourism in particular have been gaining ground. Cycling, which is popular not only as a leisure time tourism activity but mainly within settlements, also as an environmentally-friendly and up to a certain extent, a highly pract...icable means of transport mainly in towns and cities in WesternEurope, has a privileged position within active tourism (SALAMIN, 2010). This article wishes to present the situation of bicycle tourism, the factors influencing the demand for it and the opportunities for and possibilities of improving it within Hungary by providing an evaluative analysis of the relevant sources of the technical literature. The most important finding of this secondary research-based study is that there is an increasing contention both internationally and within certain regions of tourist interest within Hungary although there is no detailed information available as regards the latter. Success on the market can only be achieved by following the good practices of internationally developed tourist destinations and by a concerted development and improvement of the infrastructure, services and target-group oriented marketing activities as well as attractions.

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A survey on tourism experiences by Hungarian travellers: towards guest satisfaction
73-76

In the 21st century experiences got great significance in the every-day life and in tourism as well. Human popularity can achieve very good and happy moments e.g. by shopping (complex experience in shopping centres) by common spare time activities in the nature and in towns, also by having vacation at a special destination. Animation/entertainm...ent is a sphere of hotel services that is to help the guests sparing their free time on holidays in a good atmosphere, by providing experienceful programs. Good memories of a tourism service can make guests satisfied and build a returning clientele sphere. That is why it is awaited to map the (potential) guests’ expectations and observations of services. This paper discusses Hungarian tourists’ experiences conducted in Hungary aiming to reveal the need for professional services focusing on the not-so-spread area, Animation. The experiential dimensions of every-day life and tourism was studied by an own-edited questionnaire (N = 1000) in the half-year period of 1st August 2010 – 31st January 2011. This study was extended by quality of life since summer 2011 and I am going to compare the results of these two surveys with the aim of development suggestions in order to achieve a main level of guest satisfaction and a loyal sphere of clientele.

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Differences in travel behaviors of small and large cycling events participants
77-82

Tourism has been and will continue to be one of the biggest and most profitable industries in the world. Sport is obviously a very important aspect of society in many different ways: culturally, economically and socially. Like in the past, local authorities continue to regard all sporting events as a way of promoting and positioning their desti...nation. Participation in sport events relates to tourism because it also involves travelling to host destinations. Therefore, the aim of our study is to compare participation in small and large sport-for-all events in relation to tourism in Slovenia. We analysed the factors determining differences in the travel behaviours of sport event participants and certain aspects of participation (travel behaviour, frequency of sport event participation, reasons for participation) at the largest cycling event in Slovenia (the Franja cycling marathon) and two smaller cycling events (the “Three hearts Radenci” recreational cycling marathon and the “Around the region of Prlekija” recreational cycling marathon). The study analysed the active participants of different cycling sport events. The sample of respondents consisted of 382 participants. We found that over the third of the participants take on the role of a sport tourist in their travels. They are also very sport-active in their leisure time. The majority of them are engaged in sport activities more than three times a week. The results indicate differences in travel behaviour and sport-active lifestyles among the participants of different types of small and larger sport events.

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Responsible behaviour or business? Social responsibility (CSR) in sport management
83-90

CSR has become increasingly important in today’s business world and managers must consider not only the economic results of their decisions but also the legal, ethical, moral, and social impact and repercussions of each of their decisions. Some multinational companies’ CSR activities even clearly represent applicability of CSR in sport mana...gement. The aim of this study was to do a critical comparative analysis, present the changes, alterations in the traditional company philosophy, objectsystem; then to define the concept of CSR, its importance in sport, finally to analyze some of the top 20 World Food & Beverage Companies’ (Coca-Cola, Danone, Nestle) CSR activities in sport management. Similarly to the whole economics – beside traditional theoretical tendencies, parallel to them and not developing them – a new kind of company theory concerning the long-term balance problems of the natural environment and society is being formed. Although the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is prominent in some of the current discussions and investigations about the role of business in society, the concept – integrate social and environmental aspects in their business activity – is not new. According to the websites and sustainability reports of the international parent companies and domestic subsidiaries, we can say, that the companies show similarity at several points with regard to social responsibility within the field of sport management. However we must emphasize that we can find in the domestic practice fewer examples. In this case probably the media plays important role, which prefer the news of scandals such as CSR-related initiatives. In the public the companies’ CSR activities are even less known. Finally we can establish, that about the sport sponsorship the parent companies we have more information, their reports and websites are more transparency. In contracts, in the case of subsidiaries we can meet deficiencies.

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Differences in the Hungarian households’ sport expenditures
91-96

The paper searches the differences between the groups of Hungarian households regarding the sport expenditures’ presence in household budget and determining factors. I used the latest Household Budget Survey (HBS) of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office from 2008 which contains data of more than 7000 households. My methods were logit and ...probit models, where the presence of sport expenditures were explained in households’ budget. The increase of the following indicators has a positive effect onto the possibility of the sport expenditures: income status, level of education, number of the children in the household, size of settlement. The region of the household is determining the presence of the sport expenditures too, however sex of the household’s head does not play a significant role.

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New approaches to youth in thrill society: sport participation as fuel to boost outlook on future and concepts on self
97-104

The theory of “thrill-society” (Schulze 1992) conceptualizes that increased economic status that allows the focus of daily life to switch from providing for physical needs to searching for a meaningful life and self-fulfilment. Combined with the expansion of education, it causes a smooth transition from traditionally inherited social positi...ons and class-based hierarchy in society to a higher degree of social mobility, increased individualisation and diversification of life styles. Noting that, the actualization of this concept in Hungarian society came into effect only along societal discrepancies; still, the uncertainties and insecurities that accompany the process of ‘thrill projects’ collection are substantial. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport participation in the lives of young people, how sport may assist young people in coping with the insecurities and uncertainties created in the societal scene that is characterised by the combination of Schulze’s “thrill-society” and the inheritance of political, economic and societal transition of Hungary. Specifically, this study aims to find differences between sport participants and non-participants in their perception of future on micro and macro level, their readiness to take risks and challenges, and their self-concept related to their own health, physical condition, and physical appearance. Stratified random sampling was applied to obtain an accurate representation of Hungarian youth population. Data were analysed by using cross tabulation, non-parametric and multidimensional statistical methods. The results showed that sport participants adopted a more positive image of the future, higher ability to assume risks and a more modern state of mind, as well as a more stable self-concept in comparison to non-participant youth. Also, it seems that the sporting contest may be as strong as sociodemographic positioning in the formulation of these life capabilities. It can be suggested that sport may assist youth with a stable and accountable value environment that reduces the variety of opportunities and provides resources to better deal with societal uncertainties; meanwhile it opens new avenues of personal freedom even in a “thrill society” that filled with deficits in transitioning societies.

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Influence of social media on tourism – especially among students of the University of Debrecen
105-112

Derive from the characteristic, decisions connected with travelling have high risk for the travellers therefore they try to collect more detailed information and thoroughly map decision alternatives in order to decrease uncertainty. Wide spread of the Internet and rapid technological evolution have revolutionized all industries in the World esp...ecially tourism. Platform of tourism increasingly get to the Internet nowadays which is vitally important because tourism is an informationbased and information-intensive industry. Thanks to development of the internet tourists have an opportunity to access such information and purchasing opportunities which were available with the help of intermediaries earlier. Providing wide range of possibilities, Web 2.0 fundamentally changed the way of tourists’ information search behaviour and travelling decision making. This article collects some of the most significant new applications (social networking sites, blogs) in tourism – examine them from the two sides of tourism (demand, supply) – which principally based on active participation of users. Furthermore an offline questionnaire was made in order to survey the social media usage of the student (University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences) during their leisure travel planning process. Although findings of the study reveal that vast majority of students use social networking sites every day, they don’t really use these platforms during their trip planning process. Among students, friends and relatives are the most important and the most trustworthy source of information due to characteristics of sample.

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Factors of success. Attitude differences of one Hungarian and one Serbian team’s youth handball players
113-116

Results of the Hungarian and the Serbian handball teams are similar on the international level (IHF rankings: Serbia 4. Hungary 5. IHF-10.03.2012.), however the general supposition is that the Serbian handball players are more successful and more acknowledged. This is confirmed by numerous Serbian internationals that play at high level in Hunga...ry and other European countries and the results of the youth national teams. In this article we were searching for the influential factors behind the success of the Serbian team. While there are no considerable differences in physical performance and anthropometric parameters so we assume the main differences are in their relation and stance to coach and to training. In our study we support an explanation for the reasons of the differences in the results between two nations youth handball players with an analysis of the attitude to the head coach and players relation to work and physical training. Our sample was chosen from one Serbian (Crvenka) and one Hungarian (Komló) youth team. The measurement was completed with a standard survey according to Hagger et al. (2007) Passes questionnaire. The results show that the Serbian youth players have better relations with their head coach and have better stance for work and training, which might be an explanation for their better success.

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Somatic development and some motor performances of young girls based on age and birth season
117-123

There are numerous publications in the literature reporting physical development and motor performances of children of different ages based on sex and various environmental factors. However, there are not many publications on the birth season effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences among children in physical development and... motor performances based on age and birth season. Physical development described by body height and body weight, in addition to motor performance indicators including the twenty-metre dash, standing broad jump, six minutes of continuous running, throwing with a stuffed ball, and obstacle race-tests were studied. The survey included the participation of 426 girls. From the group the seven-, eight-, and nine-year olds numbered 148, 191, and 87 respectively. The group of girls who were born in winter, spring, summer and autumn numbered 114, 110, 89 and119 respectively. The tested data were evaluated with unitrate analyses of variance using SPSS statistical package. Mean value, standard error, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated. The significance of differences between mean values was evaluated using “t” test. Differences with an error below 5% were considered to be significant. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between season of birth, body development and motor-related performance data. Age, body height, body weight, throwing a stuffed ball in one hand, twenty-metre dash, six minutes of continuous running, and obstacle race-test are interdependent variables of development and motor performances of young girls of this age. Data from the study results show that the children group included in the tests was quite homogenous in body height, but heterogeneous in body weight and motor performances. Physical development and four of the five evaluated sport skills were affected by the birth season. Development and motor performances of the summer- and autumn-born girls are generally better than those born in winter or spring. Differences are significant except for the obstacle race-test. Age, body height, body weight, throwing with a stuffed ball in one hand, twentymetre dash, six minutes of continuous running, and the obstacle race-test seem to be interdependent variables of development and motor performances of young girls of this age.

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Studying satisfaction and spending willingness of guests visiting spas and thermal baths in the Northern Hungarian Region
125-133

In my study I will show the opinion of the guests familiar with seven thermal baths of the Northern-Hungarian Region (such as Eger Thermal Bath, Eger Turkish Bath, Egerszalók Salt Hill Thermal Spa, Demjén Thermal Bath, Bogács Thermal Bath and the Cave-Bath of Miskolc-tapolca) about the medical supply elements, about the price-value rate of s...upply elements in the thermal bath, and also the spending willingness of the guests in relation to age and earns. From the data I calculated mean, SD and spectrum and examined the crosstab correlations as well, and the Cramer’s V associate coefficient. The results of the correlation tests could be summarised as the following: Guests regardless financial state and age give grade 4 to price/value ratio, but despite their positive judgement spending is not characteristic (most guests spend nothing additional besides admission fee, if so, they do not exceed the 5000 forint amount) even among those who belong to the ’upmarket’ category. Both younger and elderly guests can be characterised with the economical approach, i.e. “Make both ends meet” although seemingly they could extend these “ends”.

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Sport sponsorship in Finland: the case study of FC JJK Jyväskylä
135-140

This paper seeks to analyse sport sponsorship in Finland via using the case study of Football Club JJK Jyväskylä from the Finnish Premier League. The results of a master’s thesis conducted on FC JJK fans’ sponsor awareness and sponsor orientation is presented. This research has provided implications to the management of the club, such as ...how to increase sponsorship efficiency, how to benefit from applying sponsorship alignment as well as relationship marketing. In order to successfully implement the study, an on­line survey, interviews, and participant observation was utilised. In addition, statistical data were obtained from the club.
It has been concluded that JJK fans’ sponsor awareness and attitude stood at a low level, therefore JJK’s sponsorship strategy was advised to be reorganised. Conclusions from this paper might be beneficial for clubs from peripheral football countries, including those from Hungary as well. The size and level of Finnish and Hungarian football clubs are fairly similar and both countries can be considered as peripheral football countries at present.

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What kind of effects had the global economic crisis on the attendance of the NBA games?
141-145

The global economic crisis of 2008 had effects on the world at all levels of life. It caused serious problems and difficulties in professional sports as well. In my paper I will try to show what kind of effects the global economic crisis had on one of the best organised championships of the world. What effects it had on attendance? How this inf...luenced the prices of the tickets to the matches?I am going to show those marketing and financial steps, which were made by the championship’s leader corp and the teams participating in it. I think the teams could moderate their losses by making different special offers, drafting new players and being opened for the foreign countries, I think this will lead to an increase in attendance in the next few years. Finally, I will try to make a future forecast of attendance.

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