Vol. 8 No. 1 (2014)

Published August 31, 2014

In this volume you will find valuable and interesting articles on the main themes covered by our journal: Agribusiness and Rural Development. Let me take the opportunity to thank everybody who contributed to the success of it: the authors, the reviewers and especially the Associate Editor, Krisztián Kovács, without whom the quality of the journal would be much lower than it is now.
I am convinced that Apstract plays an ever more important role in the scientific development of senior and junior staff members engaged in research of the areas concerned, which will certainly enhance the quality of the research output of the related institutions. Agrimba and its journal Apstract is to become an open platform of scientific cooperation between West- and East-European academics, professionals and students, active in agribusiness and rural development.
This was clearly shown at our annual meeting in Nitra on June 16–18, 2014. Apart from the meeting Professor Peter Bielik, rector of the university, and his staff received us with an impressive program. On behalf of the Agrimba General Board I would like to thank him for that. Next year, 2015, Agrimba will organize its 4th bi-annual conference and annual meeting in Poreč Hrvatska, Croatia. Mario Njavro, chairman of the organizing committee, will send out the first call for papers soon.
I hope that the 4th conference will be even more successful than its predecessors.

Full Issue



  • The motivations for the diversification of the Nigerian economy focusing on sustainable agriculture

    Agriculture is one of the major branches of the economy in Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa. It employs around 70% of the population and its contribution to the national GDP ranges around 45% (2012). In spite of the fact that most of the area is arable the majority of food, the Nigerian population consumes, comes from imports. The paper attempts to provide in insight to the reasons, why Nigeria could still not achievew self sufficiency from major food crops and livestock. Beyond the rapid growth of the population, one of the major reasons is the rich oil and natural gas reserves, the exploitation and export of which has been providing with the country with “easy cash” for the recent few decades. Another reason is that the agricultural holdings are small and scattered, and farming is carried out with simple tools and techniques. Modern and large-scale farms are not common. The political leadership and economic decision makers of the country already recognized the necessity of the development of the food and agricultural sector, which – contrary to the oil industry – would exercise a deep and positive impact on the rural society as well. Nigerian agriculture is being transformed towards commercialization at small, medium and large-scale enterprise levels.

  • Human rationality, environmental challenges and evolutionary game theory

    In recent years, game theory is more often applied to analyse several sustainable development issues such as climate change and biological diversity, but the explanations generally remain within a non-cooperative setting. In this paper, after reviewing important studies in this field, I will show that these methods and the assumptions upon which these explanations rest lack both descriptive accuracy and analytical power. I also argue that the problem may be better investigated within a framework of the evolutionary game theory that focuses more on the dynamics of strategy change influenced by the effect of the frequency of various competing strategies. Building on this approach, the paper demonstrates that evolutionary games can better reflect the complexity of sustainable development issues. It presents models of human – nature and human – human conflicts represented by two-player and multi-player games (with a very large population of competitors). The benefit in these games played several times (continuously) will be the ability of the human race to survive. Finally, the paper attempts to identify and classify the main problems of sustainable development on which the game theory could be applied and demonstrates that this powerful analytical tool has many further possibilities for analysing global ecological issues.

  • Agricultural development and government expenditures in the new EU countries

    The main ambition of this paper is to analyse agricultural developments in selected new EU member states with particular emphasis on government expenditures in agriculture. The main objective is to identify the relationship between government expenditures development on one side, and agrarian sector performance (the value of production) in selected member states on the other. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are that the agricultural sector has changed its structure and position within the national economy of selected new EU member states significantly in the 20 years since the early 1990s. Member states included in the analysis reduced both the size of their agricultural sector (number of people working in agriculture, total arable areas, number of animals, etc.), and the value of agricultural output. Despite the significant reduction of the agricultural output, member states became more efficient – and in particular their productivity per farmer increased significantly. Selected country’s agricultural sector, its structure and production value development are closely related to government expenditures. Significant correlation is apparent between agricultural government expenditures and the change in the number of economically active persons in agriculture, development of agricultural production, agricultural area, agricultural GDP and agricultural capital stock. Regarding the elasticity of new EU member states’ agricultural sector in relation to changes in government expenditures, significant elasticity is apparent in the case of the number of economically active persons in agriculture, agricultural production (especially livestock production), area of arable land, agricultural GDP and capital stock.

  • Automated valuation model for livestock appraisal in loaning practice

    Actualization of loan security (mortgage) value is of major importance in Hungarian loaning practice. Due to the recession in economics, the value of agricultural portfolio of banks has decreased a great deal, though not to such a great extent as other branches of the economy. Depreciation of estate stock is compensated with additional collateral security. Besides other stock, often temporarily and out of necessity, livestock is presented as additional collateral security. From the loaners’ point of view, however, the registered inventory value does not guarantee security. The authors have set up an appraisal method giving professional guidance through automated valuation as to how dairy stock can be used as mortgage for loan security. Hereby we are to present the details of both the theory and the methodology of a model that is appropriate for the valuation of dairy livestock on an MS Excel basis. Thus, the process is fast and has more prospects for all parties in the loaning or leasing business. The method involves the features of livestock technology, the expected realized profit, and breed stock value. By the implementation of this method, the loaners can calculate the value of loan recovery (loan to value) with acceptable security.

  • An examination of the organizational culture at the policing

    The subject of this thesis is presentation of the examination related to the organizational culture of the Police, the special law enforcement body which guarantees internal order and public security. The police, at the same time, as armed law enforcement body ensure the order of the economy and its legal security. Security is not only important for the citizens and social organizations, but also for the profit and non-profit organizations. The Police carry out official work, but also provide services that presuppose two types of contact system and modes of management. There were a number of changes in the body of the Police over the past two decades (e.g. accession to the EU, accession to the Schengen area, integration of the Police and the Border Guards, outsourcing certain activities, regionalization of sponsorship activities), in which I have taken part as a manager of the developmental programs. These changes have not only affected the police organization and the approach of the employees, but also the organizational culture. The changes cannot be considered as closed: the Ministry of Interior, governing the Police, takes decisions on organizational changes, but also the managers at the Police play an important role in this process. Under „change” I do not necessarily understand a change in the structure, but also a change in the organizational culture to create support for the reform process, and the option to co-ordinate the diverse structures. The changes have obviously affected the thinking of the managers and the employees, as well as their relationship to the organization. The official duties, including the detection of the crimes (including agricultural and economic crimes), cannot be performed without the day-today cooperation with the bodies of the civil law enforcement, through which the Police may increase the effectiveness of detection of such crimes and thus the citizens’ subjective feeling of security. Therefore, the present thesis aims at the examination of the Police’s organizational culture and its management methods.

  • The conditions of security in sustainable rural economics

    This work aims to map the potentials of safe rural economy. This topic cannot be separated from the processes of globalization and localization, affecting each other, whose positive and negative effects have been focussed on, especially in terms of the protection of security and sustainability or their damaging. In Hungary, sustainable rural economy cannot be achieved only by the rural economy’s systematic stabilization but its present structure and the security system, accompanying the process, also needs to undergo some drastic changes. Sustainable rural economy means a modern economy that aims to keep the rural inhabitants while increases the wealth of the whole society. The legal security of the sustainable local economy is guaranteed by the state in Hungary. The security of the rural areas is provided by the police as an armed force, the auxiliary police, the public place supervision, the local agricultural rangers, the environment wardens, and by the fish- and game-keepers. The Police Act allows cooperation with the further organizations of the society to preserve public order, and to protect property and prevent and detect crimes. The purpose of my thesis is to present security as one of the most important factors to improve the rural areas. I also aim to map the possibilities of improving security (such as cooperation, naming the resources assisting strategic tenders and participation in rural development programs).

  • Tests of differential diesel fuels in engine testing room

    The portion of oil could be estimated 33 % of global primary energy consumption in 2012 (BP, 2012) and its average price – beside the products produced from it as well - significantly increased, unlike the demand for transport which has been reduced. This tendency is expected to remain unchanged in the long run, therefore, there is a great importance for the variety of diesel fuel distributors, in comparison of the ratio value for each of them, and replacing them with biodiesel can be used in the comparison. We executed 3 dynamometer measurements performed to determine three different dealers purchased diesel oil, some economical examinations of the diesel oil retail price, and the use of biodiesel all based on the expected economic studies in the literature studies of extra fuel consumption values. The results of these tests indicate that the differences of consumption between diesel oils can be up to 5 %, the conclusion is that distinctions of diesel oil consumptions are almost the same when we tested the differences between diesel oil and biodiesel. This means we can reach the same result with a high quality biodiesel as with poor quality diesel oil. This also means that– below 20% of mixing ratio we can easily choose by prices alone. Between these prices and products ( D1, D2, D3), we can save 4.8% diesel oil by using D2, 6.2% diesel oil by using D3 compared to D1. There could be a little revolution variance (D2: 2.9-6%, D3: 4.9- 7.1%), but this variance is under 1% so it is negligible.

  • Sensitivity of technical efficiency estimates to estimation methods: an empirical comparison of parametric and non-parametric approaches

    This paper highlights the sensitivity of technical efficiency estimates to estimation approaches using empirical data. Firm specific technical efficiency and mean technical efficiency are estimated using the non parametric Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) and the parametric Corrected Ordinary Least Squares (COLS) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) approaches. Mean technical efficiency is found to be sensitive to the choice of estimation technique. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test suggests significant differences in means between efficiency scores from different methods. In general the DEA and SFA frontiers resulted in higher mean technical efficiency estimates than the COLS production frontier. The efficiency estimates of the DEA have the smallest variability when compared with the SFA and COLS. There exists a strong positive correlation between the efficiency estimates based on the three methods.


  • Analyzing soundness of nationalized banks in India: a camel approach

    Performance of the economy of any country is largely dependent on the performance of its banking sector. Since, banking sector constitutes a major component of the financial service sector. Soundness of the banking sector is essential for a healthy and vibrant economy. The efficiency, productivity, profitability, stability and a shock free economy is possible only when a country is having a sound and healthy banking sector. The present research work has been undertaken to analyze the soundness of five nationalized banks in India. In order to measure the performances of these banks CAMEL MODEL Approach has been applied, incorporating important parameters like Capital Adequacy, Assets Quality, Management Efficiency, Earnings Quality and Liquidity. The finding of the study shows that Bank of Baroda has been ranked at the top position, the Union Bank of India and Dena Bank secured the 2nd position, the next was the State Bank of India which secured the 4th position and in the last position was the UCO Bank which secured the 5th position.

    JEL Code: G2, G12, G21, G32& G33.

  • Planning practices of local governments based on the results of an empirical research

    The purpose of this study is to explore the most important findings of the empirical research conducted amongst local governments of settlements in Hungary, in order to perform a comprehensive analysis on their practices and methods regarding planning. The primary research was conducted in the spring of 2013, with respondent local governments answering relevant questions by submitting a selfadministered questionnaire. The main purpose of the questionnaire survey was to find out whether the involved parties perform actual formal strategic and operative planning activities, and what kind of management planning methods – solutions already working and widespread in the business sector – they apply within the process of planning. In this study, we attempt to conduct a comprehensive analysis on modern planning systems and to appoint the fields that need to be improved, through the results of the questionnaire survey and our own experiences.


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