Vol. 13 No. 3-4 (2019)

Published December 30, 2019

This issue of Apstract consists of eleven papers. Two papers relate to macro-economic issues. One paper is a note on the Dutch disease in which a simple macro-economic trade model is used to analyse the resource curse, whereas the other paper. Investigates the relationship between the global innovation index on the one hand and, on the other hand, GDP per capita, life expectancy and human development index. Two papers discuss general issues with respect to behaviour of suppliers.

The relationship between corporate corporate governance and corporate social responsibility is the topic of a literature study. The other paper investigates, by means of desk research the possibility of using drones to improve the performance of agriculture in Mongolia. Four papers relate to agricultural firms. Credit access of cocoa farmers in the Ahafo region in Ghana is the topic of the first paper whereas an agriculturaltechnical analysis of the production of maize in Hungary is performed in the second paper. The two other papers to other issues. One paper pays attention to the water requirements for some selected crops in southern Italy, and the one to the employee turnover and business performance in the Zyimba district in Zimbabwe. Three papers focus on consumer behaviour. One paper is a segmentation study of the Hungarian population based on healthy eating. The topic of the second paper is the impact of consumer innovativeness on shopping styles among students in Pakistan. The third paper analyses the characteristics and motivations of luxury wine buyers (over 50$ per bottle) in the USA.



  • Economic analysis of some agrotechnical factors in maize production - a Hungarian case study

    This paper focuses on the economic and statistical evaluation of the production technology findings of the polyfactorial maize production experiments carried out between 2015-2017 at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management. The examined agrotechnical factors included irrigation, previous crop, tillage, crop density, hybrid and N nutrient supply, while the effect of different crop years was taken into consideration. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, we used multivariate regression analysis during the statistical evaluation. In the course of the evaluation, we examined three models that differed in terms of tillage methods and the consideration of crop year. In our best fit model, the factors were 71% responsible for the change in yield value. We carried out efficiency and comparative analyses in the course of the economic evaluation.
    Averaged over the three examined years, it can be stated that nutrient supply and crop year had an outstanding effect on yield, while irrigation had a minimal effect. However, global warming may justify irrigation in the future, not only from a biological point of view, but also from an economic aspect.
    Ideal tillage is also greatly affected by crop year, too. Altogether, of the examined tillage systems, subsoiling proved to be the best from an economic point of view.
    Our investigations confirm that it is better to perform intensive farming under more favourable market conditions. The optimum of N fertilisation is probably outside of the range we examined, if the extreme changes in maize and fertiliser prices are ignored.

    JEL Classification: Q16, Q12, Q13, O32

  • The influence of employment modes on employee turnover and agri-business performance: a case for Hunyani farm in the Zvimba district, Zimbabwe

    The labour intensive nature of Zimbabwean agriculture demands that farmers meet excessive labour requirements, at the same time keeping labour costs as low as possible to guarantee profits and achieve maximum business performance. This study, carried through a questionnaire survey, at the Hunyani Matura Farm, in the Zvimba district of Zimbabwe between from October 2017 to March 2018, investigated the effect of employment mode on turnover and agri-business performance. Data collected from the participants, was compared with the information from secondary source documents. From the results temporary workers performed better than permanent workers and they cited problems of low wages, poor working conditions, high work targets, inequality in work allocation, job insecurity and constant shuffling. Temporary workers had higher turnover and turnover intentions than permanent workers. Temporary employment mode had a positive
    effect on agri-business performance. This study recommends the use of permanent employment mode on key positions like forepersons, stores persons and supervisors, and temporary employment mode on general farm tasks, while seasonal contracts were seen good for skill demanding operations such as tobacco seedbed establishment, tobacco reaping and curing and grading. A ccareful selection of employment modes reduces inequalities and unhealthy attitudes at work and improves on farm business performance.

    JEL Classification: Q12

  • The relationship between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility

    Corporate governance (CG) is a corporate governance system for large companies which includes policies and procedures for corporate social responsibility (CSR). The present study examines the relationships between CG and CSR, and analyzes the studies that separate or combine the explanation of the two concepts.CG can be interpreted as the relationship between governors and stakeholders. Angyal (2009) and Auer (2017) agree that the two phenomena coexist and are connected at several points. The goals of the two phenomena are intertwined, compliance with other important requirements (environmental, labor law) besides the primary corporate goal. CG is a system based on the sharing of power and roles between owners, management and boards (board, supervisory board). The roles of ownership, supervision, and control are separated. The division of power means that the boards keep the management under strict control and the owners can account for the boards (Tasi, 2012). According to Tasi (2012), responsible CG involves careful management; financial planning and implementation; control mechanisms for the operation of the company; company transparency and business ethics
    issues; publicizing corporate information and corporate social responsibility policies and practices. Angyal (2009) sees that CG and CSR are intertwined “neither intersection, nor intersection, nor parallelism, but coexistence”. (Angel,
    2009: 14). It does not agree with the incompatibility of corporate governance or corporate governance and social responsibility, in practice the former two are more common. Corporate governance encompasses corporate social responsibility policies, procedures, and can be interpreted as the relationship between governors and stakeholders. The authors of the studies analyzed agree that the two phenomena coexist and are connected at several points. The goals of the two phenomena are intertwined with compliance with other important requirements (environmental, labor law) besides the primary corporate goal.

    JEL Classification: G30; G39, M14

  • A note on the Dutch disease

    Many resource rich countries are poor, where many resource poor countries are rich. One of the possible explanations of this paradox called the ‘resource curse’ is the Dutch Disease. This paper aims to analyse this phenomenon with the help of a simple macroeconomic trade model. It presents a number of Dutch Disease Cases of which the ‘Norwegian Case’ provides an example containing an effective policy against the negative impact of Dutch Disease on the national economy.

    JEL Classification: O11, O24, Q33

  • Evaluation of crop and irrigation water requirements for some selected crops in Apulia region -Southern Italy

    Nowadays, nearly 90% of global water consumption is caused by irrigation activities, and more than 40% of the crops are produced under irrigated conditions. This study is an endeavour to estimate the irrigation water requirement (IWR) and crop water requirement (CWR) for some selected crops (Pepper, Eggplant, Potato, Soybean, Maize, Wheat Melon, Lettuce, Sunflower, Broadbean, Citrus, Cherry, Olive tree, Sugarbeet, Artichoke, Wine Grapes, Carrot...etc.) in Sothern Italy. The selected districts (Sant’ Arcangelo) have been taken as a case study area. Demanded meteorologically (rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours) and crop data (crop coefficient and crop calendar) have been collected for 30 years period from 1981 to 2011. FAO CROPWATv8.0 software has been applied for requisite calculation of CWR and IWR along with the developing of cropping patterns. The FAO Penman-Monteith equation is used for estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) by using meteorological data in the framework of CROPWAT model as it regarded as a good evaluator for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The analysis indicates that FAO Penman-Monteith suits very well for the study area and can be successfully used for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration. The important results in this study indicate that the IWR is very low from November to April (wintertime) due to higher rainfall intensity in these months and from month May to October a considerable amount of water is required for irrigation.

    JEL Classification: Q25, Q24,Q10

  • Luxury wine: analyzing motivations of luxury wine buyers in the US market

    The purpose of this research study was to describe motivations and demographics of luxury wine buyers in the US market. An online survey was completed by 1081 US wine consumers, of which 473 were designated to be luxury buyers based on price spent on wine. Standard demographic and wine consumer scales were utilized for profiling. Results show that the luxury wine buyer is more likely to be male, aged 30 to 50, with a higher income and education level. Motivations of the luxury wine buyer are different than the non-luxury wine buyer, and reasons for purchasing luxury wine go beyond mere collecting. This research is one of the first to analyze the luxury wine consumer in the US market, and provides useful information for wine marketers and researchers on the profile of the luxury wine buyer in America.

    JEL Classification: M31

  • How to improve the performance of agriculture in Mongolia by ICT

    Agriculture is one of the most important sectors for the Mongolian economy. Also, self-sufficient food is a significant target that has a vital role in the food safety of people in Mongolia. But due to climate change, not proper management, and lack of technology, the Mongolian agricultural sector is facing several issues. So this article aims to find some potential solutions to improve this situation, especially for the crop production sector in Mongolia. To define the current situation of Mongolian agriculture, we used statistical data and reports and recent scientific articles as well as online sources. The current situation of Mongolian agriculture is defined using SWOT analysis reported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Light Industry of Mongolia. Based on this research, we discuss the possibility of using a drone to improve the performance of agriculture in Mongolia. As a result, a drone is effective in enhancing the performance of agriculture performed by householders. Also, two effective models that are based on ICTs to address soil erosion and harvest losses issues in Mongolia are defined in this article.

    JEL Classification: Q16

  • Segmenting Hungarian people based on healthy eating

    Relying on customer trends healthy eating, which is one aspect of healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular. The aim of this study was to understand the healthy eating style of Hungarian adult consumers. An online empirical research with a sample of 1563 respondents (58.7% females and 41.3% males) was conducted in November 2018. Considering healthy eating two factors, namely the choice of healthy foods and the avoidance of unhealthy foods could be distinguished. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to segment consumers. Four groups of consumers were identified: unhealthy food avoiders (20.3%), rejecters (11.8%), neutrals (26.2%) and healthy food choosers (14.7%). Unhealthy food avoiders are seniors. Rejecters are blue collar workers and have financial problems. Healthy food choosers live in families with children over 10 and do not have weight problems. This study is useful for the health sector and the government since targeted marketing programs can be planned to change eating behavior. To decrease overweight and obesity is the goal of all society, especially in developed countries. To increase the well-being of people and their quality of life educating social marketing campaigns are necessary with the aim of raising their awareness and explaining the basic principles of a healthy diet.

    JEL Classification: 112, M30, M39

  • Determinants of credit access of cocoa farmers

    Access to credit is one of the critical areas that are of prime interest to development practitioners, agribusiness entrepreneurs and agricultural economists, mainly access to credit by farmers in order to increase their production and also reduce poverty. This study sought to analyze the determinants of credit access among cocoa farmers in the Asunafo North of the Ahafo Region of Ghana. The multistage sampling procedure was used to collect data from 100 cocoa farmers with the aid of a questionnaire. Sources of credit, factors influencing access to credit, and constraints to credit were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression, and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance respectively. The results of multiple linear regression revealed that, age, marital status, education, experience, and family size were significant factors that influenced access to credit. The constraints analysis with the aid of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance showed that, high interest rate was highly ranked with a mean score of 1.93 whilst the need for a guarantor was least ranked with a mean score of 7.40. Based on the results, the study recommended that a policy aimed at expanding formal and semi-formal financial institutions credit portfolio to embrace cocoa farmers by finding alternative to collaterals and also reducing the interest rate will improve credit access with a positive externality effect of poverty reduction among cocoa farmers in the study area.

    JEL Classification: Q14

  • Impact of consumer innovativeness on shopping styles: a case study of university students from Pakistan

    This study examines the effects of various types of consumers’ innovativeness on the consumer shopping styles. The results highlight that social, hedonic and cognitive innovativeness have an impact on consumer shopping styles, but functional innovativeness doesn’t influence consumer shopping styles. The study is based on sample of university students from Rawalpindi and Islamabad and its outcomes pave grounds for marketers to develop a better understanding for marketing new products and services. New product and services can be designed to magnetize innovative consumers. Integrated marketing communications should be planned according to the shopping styles of innovative consumers. Youngsters being a sizeable market segment in Pakistan, therefore, this study will guide the marketers to understand this segment better. This study discovers the association between different kinds of innovative consumer and consumer shopping styles.

  • The connenction between global innovation index and economic well-being indexes

    We study the connection of innovation in 126 countries by different well-being indicators and whether there are differences among geographical regions with respect to innovation index score. We approach and define innovation based on Global Innovation Index (GII). The following well-being indicators were emphasized in the research: GDP per capita measured at purchasing power parity, unemployment rate, life expectancy, crude mortality rate, human development index (HDI). Innovation index score was downloaded from the joint publication of 2018 of Cornell University, INSEAD and WIPO, HDI from the website of the UN while we obtained other well-being indicators from the database of the World Bank. Non-parametric hypothesis testing, post-hoc tests and linear regression were used in the study.
    We concluded that there are differences among regions/continents based on GII. It is scarcely surprising that North America is the best performer followed by Europe (with significant differences among countries). Central and South Asia scored the next places with high standard deviation. The following regions with significant backwardness include North Africa, West Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean Area, Central and South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Regions lagging behind have lower standard deviation, that is, they are more homogeneous therefore there are no significant differences among countries in the particular region.
    In the regression modelling of the Global Innovation Index, it was concluded that GDP per capita, life expectancy and human development index are significant explanatory indicators. In the multivariable regression analysis, HDI remained the only explanatory variable in the final model. It is due to the fact that there was significant multicollinearity among the explanatory variables and the HDI aggregates several non-economic indicators like GII.

    JEL Classification: B41, I31, O31, Q55

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