Vol 12, No 3-4 (2018)

Published December 13, 2018

Issue Description

This issue of Apstract contains interesting paper on various topics and from
various places in the world. Four papers are written by colleagues from Africa., two from Nigeria and
one from Ghana, respectively Egypt All five papers relate to agriculture. . One
deals with the impact of terrorism on agricultural production in Nigeria, whereas
the second one makes an analysis of quality assurance for export commodities.
A third paper from Nigeria is on the effect of training on entrepreneurial
performance. The Ghana paper relates to the effect of training on small scale
rice production in Northern Ghana, whereas topic of the paper from Egypt is
on the profitability of sweet pepper production under different irrigation levels.
Four papers from different countries tackle issues in the field of recreation
and tourism. The impact of an ageing society on the tourist development if
a Japanese island is the topic of one paper in this field.. Corporate social
responsibility in Jordanese football is discussed in another paper, whereas one
paper from Hungary is answering the question whether digital technologies are
changing sport, . . .

This issue of Apstract contains interesting paper on various topics and from
various places in the world. Four papers are written by colleagues from Africa., two from Nigeria and
one from Ghana, respectively Egypt All five papers relate to agriculture. . One
deals with the impact of terrorism on agricultural production in Nigeria, whereas
the second one makes an analysis of quality assurance for export commodities.
A third paper from Nigeria is on the effect of training on entrepreneurial
performance. The Ghana paper relates to the effect of training on small scale
rice production in Northern Ghana, whereas topic of the paper from Egypt is
on the profitability of sweet pepper production under different irrigation levels.
Four papers from different countries tackle issues in the field of recreation
and tourism. The impact of an ageing society on the tourist development if
a Japanese island is the topic of one paper in this field.. Corporate social
responsibility in Jordanese football is discussed in another paper, whereas one
paper from Hungary is answering the question whether digital technologies are
changing sport, and in another one the author presents an analysis of the opinion
of visitors of Esterhazy castle. Two other papers from Hungarian scholars discuss the success of high school
IT education and another one pays attention to trends on demand and supply
of fertilizers in Hungary. Three papers discuss societal issues at the macro level. A quantitative
assessment of the rurality and an efficiency analysis of emigration in Romania
is the topic of one paper, whereas in another one risk of several commodity
indices is compared to the LIBOR. An extension of existing discourses on the
economic performance of the German agri-food businesses is the subject of a
third paper in this field.

More

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Articles

Trends on the Artificial Fertilizer Market and in Fertilizers Use in Hungary
5-12

The fertilizer market in Hungary is rather concentrated, which has a strong influence on the price of the fertilizer. Our domestic fertilizer use is primarily determined by that of nitrogen. The use of phosphorus is also significant but the trends in the use of potassium do not match the total quantities applied in individual years. Consequentl...y, it can be concluded that the majority of farmers still focus on the application of nitrogen and also apply phosphorus but either neglect or do not pay enough attention to potassium fertilization. The changes in fertilizer prices between 2006 and 2017 can be broken down into two periods. Until 2012 a very important and dynamic increase was observed as a result of which the prices of N, P and K fertilizers increased by 80-120%, 160% and about 120%, respectively. This was followed by a downturn in the market and in relation to 2012 prices there were 20-30/ decreases experienced until 2017 but the rate of this lagged behind the prices in other European countries. Owing to this trend the prices of N, P and K have increased by 60%, 100% and 80%, respectively, over the past ten years. The correlation between fertilizer application and the prices of fertilizers in any given year is low but there is a positive one observed between fertilizer application and the fertilizer prices in the preceding year. This means supposedly that farmers mostly buy the fertilizers they wish to apply not in the current but in the preceding year and store them until these are applied. There is a strong correlation seen between fertilizer prices and the prices of corn and wheat, which means that fertilizer traders also keep tabs on economic results and also increase fertilizer prices under the influence of higher prices. Furthermore, it can be claimed that there is no correlation between crude oil prices on the world market and domestic N fertilizer prices. This is an important factor since the primary base material of N fertilizers is natural gas and their production involves considerable energy costs as well. It can be seen, however, that this is not what determines our domestic fertilizer prices, which can be explained by the fact that the price calculations by the determining actors on the Hungarian fertilizer market is not based on costs but on the demand.

JEL Classification: Q13

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14
Effect of Training on Small-Scale Rice Production in Northern Ghana
13-20

Training in modern farming methods enables farm households in developing countries to improve agricultural productivity. Notwithstanding the efforts of governmental and non-governmental organisations to provide farmers with agricultural training, productivity remains low. The existing literature provides little empirical evidence of the effect ...of training on agricultural productivity in Ghana. This study therefore seeks to bridge this gap by investigating small scale rice farmers’ participation in agricultural training programmes and its effect on productivity in northern Ghana. A treatment effect model was used to account for sample selection bias. The results indicated that participation in training increased with the number of extension visits, group membership, access to credit and the degree of specialisation in rice production. Furthermore, total output and labour productivity both increased with participation in training but the relationship with land productivity (yield) was insignificant. On average, participation in training was associated with 797kg increase in rice output, while labour productivity increased by 7.3kg/man-day. With the exception of farm capital, all the production inputs had a positively significant relationship with output suggesting sub-optimal use of capital in production. The study concludes that farmers’ training needs are not adequately being met while inadequate capital is constraining farm output. Increasing access to extension service and involving farmer-based organisations in the design and implementation of training programmes will enhance participation and farm performance.

JEL Classification: C21, D24, Q12

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19
The Current State of CSR in the Football Clubs of the Professional Football League in Jordan
21-30

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a common practice all over the world, however, social responsibility in the field of sport is still a new concept and received a little attention. This study aims to reveal the current state of social responsibility practices among the football clubs of the professional football league in Jordan.... A descriptive survey method was used and a questionnaire was designed to collect the required data on three aspects (administrative, financial and CSR programs). The study found that there is a medium degree of availability of the administrative and financial aspects that activate the implementation of the CSR concept. Moreover, the study also revealed a medium degree of availability of the CSR programs offered by the selected clubs. Furthermore, the study proved that the football clubs in Jordan are aware of their social responsibility and recognize their role in the betterment of the society.

JEL Classification: C21, D24, Q12

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37
39
Tourism Development Challenges of an Island Destination in a Aging Society, Case Study of Ojika Island of Japan
31-38

Japan’s inbound tourism numbers have been steadily rising in the past decade due to active promotion, easing of visa regulations, rapidly developing Asian economies and the depreciation of the Japanese Yen. The government’s goal is welcoming 40 million foreigners yearly by 2020, and leading them to rural destinations. There is a concern whe...ther rural destinations in Japan are prepared for this sudden surge of tourists. The plans to bring masses to rural destinations implies a steady supply of tourism service, but the ageing and shrinking population of Japan together with the migration towards cities, leave some destinations without a key resource: workforce. This paper tries to understand the current situation of such rural, isolated communities, and whether they have the capacity to develop and expand the tourism industry. The case study was carried out on Ojika, an island destination in Nagasaki Prefecture. Several visits to the destination, participant observation and structured as well as unstructured interviews with stakeholders provide the primary data for the research. Through interviews with town officials, businesses and residents, different approaches to the demographic problems are introduced. The results show that the tourism development strategies cannot concentrate only on the strictly tourism industry elements of the destination but have to look at the community and infrastructure too, in this case, the labor market. The demographic change in society can put a limitation on development, thus counter measurements have to be considered and included in the tourism strategy. Further research is needed on less remote destinations, where there is a land-connection with another settlement, and whether a “commute based workforce” can ease the problem or by raising the costs of labour, a different, feasibility problem arises in the accommodations.

JEL Classification: Z32 

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61
53
A Quantitative Assessment of the Rurality and an Efficiency Analysis of Emigration in Romania
39-46

In Romania, as in many other Eastern European countries, the early 1990s were marked by a significant emigration from the countryside as a consequence of the transition from a centralised economy to an open one and due to key changes in the political framework. The permanent emigration has predominantly been concentrated in rural areas where mu...ltiple socio-economic variables such as GDP per capita, unemployment, and public financial subsidies aimed at supporting people at risk of severe deprivation and poverty have all had a direct effect on rural depopulation. The rurality is a complex theoretical construct comprising many items and variables and is, therefore, difficult to define in a concise manner. The aim of this paper is to assess the evolution of emigration in Romania between 2001 and 2016 through a quantitative approach, estimating an index of rurality for the same period composed of a set of socio-economic variables having a direct or indirect nexus to it. In the first phase of research, a matrix of correlation and a multiple regression model has been used in order to estimate the direct links among all investigated variables. Following the quantitative methodology, in the second phase Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) has been used in order to assess the main cause-effect relationships among a few selected endogenous variables and a set of socio-economic items. Furthermore, using a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) output-oriented model, this research has assessed the efficiency in terms of permanent emigration from Romania estimated as an output to minimise and not as an output to maximise, as investigated by traditional efficiency approaches. In terms of efficiency, financial subsidies allocated by national authorities and the level of per capita Gross Domestic Product have acted directly on the level of emigration. The index of rurality in 2016 has been influenced in particular by he pluriactivity in farms in terms of agritourism, the dimension of farms in terms of land capital endowment, and the level of GDP per capita.

JEL Classification: Q10; Q18

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32
13
Moderating Influence of Training and Development on Entrepreneurial Performance
47-54

This study assessed the moderating effect of training and development on entrepreneurial performance of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria considering the Bank of Industry and Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN). Two hypotheses were tested in this study reflecting training and development in N...igeria and Ethical practices of Training and Development impacts on behavioral outcomes of entrepreneurs. The paper puts to test, the preceding assertions with the aid of Kruskal Wallis test. From the test, the study refutes the former assertions on the reasoning that P-values were less than 5% level of significance. This showed that the impact of ethical training and development would be more significant if the young entrepreneurs had earlier exposure from secondary to tertiary education level to make better entrepreneurs in Nigeria. The study observed that the Nigerian educational system has contributed positively to the area of training and development which has enhanced entrepreneurial performance in Nigeria. The study recommends that training and development programme should focus on developing creative or innovative individuals who can help to move the nation forward. A Self-reliant person is a creative individual.

JEL Classification: M53, M1

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30
13
Commodity Indices Risk and Return Analysis Against Libor Benchmark
55-66

This study analyze the risk and return characteristics of commodity index investments against the LIBOR benchmark. Commodity-based asset allocation strategies can be optimized by benchmarking the risk and return characteristics of commodity indices with LIBOR index rate. In this study, we have considered agriculture, energy, and precious metals... commodity indices and LIBOR index to determine the risk and return characteristics using estimation techniques in terms of expected return, standard deviation, and geometric mean. We analyzed the publicly available daily market data from 10/9/2001 to 12/30/2016 for benchmarking commodity indices against LIBOR. S&P GSCI Agriculture Index (SGK), S&P GSCI Energy Index (SGJ), and S&P GSCI Precious Metals Index (SGP) are taken to represent each category of widely traded commodities in the regression analysis. Our study uses time series data based on daily prices. Alternative forecasting methodologies for time series analysis are used to cross-check the results. The forecasting techniques used are Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing and ARIMA. This methodology predicts forecasts using smoothening parameters. The empirical research has shown that the risk of each of the commodity index that represents agriculture, energy, and precious metals sector is smaller compared to its return, whereas LIBOR based interest rate benchmark shows higher risk compared to its return in recession, non-recession and overall periods.

JEL Classification: C43, G13, G15

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28
17
Economic Performances of German Agri-Food Businesses: an Extension of Existing Discourses on the Topic
67-80

Considering the circumstance that literature dealing with the economic performance of agri-food businesses in general, or particularly with the German agricultural sector, mainly deals with strictly agricultural-related theory in order to explain the economic success of agri-food businesses, the present paper aims to extend existing discourses ...to further areas of thought. Consequently, the characteristics: a) increased size of agribusiness, b) pull-strategies, c) the development of new markets and d) focus on the processing industry, that all correspond to the current picture of the German agricultural sector and are considered to be significantly responsible for recently managing to outpace the French agri-food sector, will be first explained in their success against the background of mainly non-agricultural-related literature. By doing so helpful and rather unnoted perspectives can be contributed to existing discourses. Second, the paper presents scatter plots which portray correlations between a) the added value of agriculture and the regular labor force, b) the added value of agriculture and the number of agricultural holdings and c) the added value of agriculture and the number of enterprises concerning milk consumption. Corresponding scatter plots which show different developments in Germany and France can be related to the findings of the first part of the paper and allow new perspectives in existing discourses as well.

JEL Classification: Q10

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What is the Success of High School it Education? An Investigation into Higher Education Students’ Knowledge of Spreadsheet Applications
81-88

Teaching Computer Science in higher education is imperative, even though today’s students have been born into a world where technology is an essential part of everyday life. To efficiently master modern, business, technical and scientific knowledge and to proficiently produce quality results in a work environment it is crucial to have high le...vel IT knowledge. In business, Excel is the lingua franca and so knowing how to aptly use spreadsheets is a must for our students. The primary objective of the authors was to examine the perceived and actual knowledge of spreadsheet applications of students entering higher education. Accordingly, a questionnaire and a practical assignment have been developed. In the questionnaire, students were asked to provide information concerning their previous IT studies and rate their knowledge of word processing, spreadsheets and database management. During the practical, students were asked to solve an Excel exercise taken from a high school Computer Science final exam at standard level. Out of the 666 registered students on our electronic education system (Neptun) at the beginning of the year, 557 took part in this survey, and following data cleansing and processing, 513 were considered in the results. Looking at the results of the practical, the most significant proportion of students, 142 of them have performed between 0-10%. A total of 260 students have achieved less than 20% performance and 434 people, which is nearly 85% of students have accomplished less than 40%. Compared to the results from the self-evaluation questionnaire it is very poignant that the actual scores differ quite significantly (in both directions) from the perceived knowledge of the students.

JEL Classification: Q20

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16
How Digital Technologies Are Changing Sport?
89-96

Sports is considered to be an outstanding sector of industry all over the world and can be defined in various fields from business point of view: for example competitive sports, recreation, fitness and entertainment (running commentary). All of these areas have been remarkably transformed by digital technology. Over the past three decades, the ...discipline sport informatics has become a growing discipline. In today’s connected world, the use of wearable technology, big data analytics, social media and sensor technology have revolutionized the way sports are played, analyzed and improved. Through various modern advances and apps, pro athletes can gain greater insight into their performance, improve training methods and elevate their skills. In addition to these, fans looking for mobile-friendly apps to give them the latest stats on the favorite players; real-time, behind the scenes content coupled with the instant reaction, from athletes and fellow fans alike. They want the highs, the lows, the remix replays, seeking a connection beyond the game and looking to share the experience with like-minded fans in the moment (WESTON, 2018). The aim of this present study, on the one hand, is to determine the interlocks of sports and information technology, on the other hand, to show how to increase fan experience with digital technologies under-propping them with practical examples. According to international literatures, there are 4 macro areas which show the linking between sport and informatics: athletic performance, sport club, event management, fan experience. Mobil fan experience, augmented (AR) and virtual reality (VR), big data, social media are those technologies which even popular are these days in order to enhance fan experience in sport.

JEL Classification: L83

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122
87
The Opinion of Visitors on the Touristic Attractions and Services of the Esterhazy Castle of Fertőd
97-102

The lately renovated Esterhazy Palace is one of Europe’s biggest Baroque palaces. This paper examines the visitors’ opinion of this worldwide famous palace. This survey-based study was carried out in 2016/2017. The sample was of 800 people, using paper-based questionnaire. It emerged from the study that the visitors needed to be separated a...nalyzed differently under and above 18 years of age, because the push and pull factors vary significantly. Other words, the adult visitors (persons, families) decided themselves to go and see or not, but the young people were influenced by their teachers. Other important lessons of the study was that the visiting process does not end with the viewing of rooms and tools, but the different souvenirs and providing further information, and services are also part of it. This is evidenced by the fact that the worst rating was given by the related service. Organizing and ensuring this is an important task of the management of the palace.

JEL Classification: M3. O18, Z32

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36
21
Effect of Quality Assurance Deficit on Market Competitiveness for Export Commodities and Household Income in Nigeria
103-108

The Nigerian’s agricultural sub-sector contributes about 37 percent of her Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs about 65 per cent of the adult labour force. It is thus the major source of food and fibre for the nation. However, there are increasing concerns about the quality and level of safety of many of the agricultural export commoditi...es, particularly in the European markets due to the composition of high level of unauthorized pesticides. This is a major challenge to the level of market competitiveness for these commodities in the international markets. This study therefore examined the effect of quality assurance deficit on market competitiveness and household income levels. Trends in Nigeria’s agricultural export trade between 1980 and 2014 were examined and emphasis was placed on cowpea, dried maize, melon seeds and palm oil. Descriptive and qualitative statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Quantitative statistics included the use of econometric models. Results indicated that there was an increase in the general price level of the commodities at the international market over time. The aggregate market demand for each of them dropped sharply in the last one decade even when the market price per unit increased steadily. This negatively affected the households’ average income level as returns on sales of export commodities declined. Huge quantities of the commodities were then forced to be sold at the local markets at cheaper prices. This development negatively affects the consumptions patterns of the exporters as they now have reduced disposable income. Appropriate agencies of government need to be awake to their responsibilities of assessing and certifying the quality of the Nigerian agricultural commodities before exporting them abroad. This will help to further boost the level of consumer confidence in these export commodities especially at the international markets.

JEL Classification: Q13

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29
14
Economic Profitability of Sweet Pepper Production under Different Irrigation Levels and Polyethylene Mulch in a Plastic Greenhouse
109-116

Field experiment was conducted, during two successive seasons of 2014- 2015 and 2015- 2016, at Dokki protected agricultural site, Giza Governorate, Egypt, to study the profitability of different applied irrigation levels and polyethylene (PE) mulch on plant growth and yield of sweet pepper, (Capsicum annum L.) cv. Godion F1, under plastic house... condition. Three irrigation levels (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00) of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), using drip irrigation system and three PE mulch treatments (transparent, black and control) were applied. Data revealed that black PE recorded the highest values of early and total fruit yield per plant during the two seasons. Increasing water level up to 1.00 (ETc) enhanced yield with different PE mulch treatments, while water use efficiency (WUE) decreased with increasing water level. However, Using 0.50 (ETc), with different PE mulches increased WUE compared to using 0.75 (ETc) or 1.00 (ETc). The economic assessment of costs and returns from different treatments were calculated. It was found that the average yield was higher in 1.00 ETc with black mulch. Gross margin per 540 m2 were analysed using yield data, price structures and production costs. The 1.00 (ETc) with black mulch had the highest gross margin which is USD 416.8 and USD 533 (1 USD= 9 Egyptian pound) for the first and second seasons, respectively. The benefit cost ratios (BCRs) per 540 m2 were analysed, and 1.00 (ETc) with black mulch had the highest BCR with 1.36 in the first season and 1.45 in the second season.

JEL Classification: Q 01, Q 12, Q 19

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Impact of Terrorism on Agricultural Business in Borno State, Nigeria
117-124

This study examines the impact of terrorism on agribusiness in Borno state. Terrorist activities in Borno state dates back to 2009 where a group of Islamic extremists popularly known as Boko Haram (meaning western education is a sin) became violent in their activities. The group operates significantly in north-eastern Nigeria where Borno state ...is located and since 2009. The presence of the group has led to collapse of socio-economic activities in Borno state among other states. Millions of people have been displaced fromtheir homes and forced to live in camps in neighbouring states. As a result, this study examines the impact of insurgency related activities on agribusiness in BornoState. Agricbusiness in Borno state can be measured using four different parameters, amount of area cultivated, annual crop production, rearing of livestock and fish farming. These are the major agricultural business residents of Borno state are engaged in. However due to unavailability of data, rearing of livestock and fish farming are dropped, thus focusing on area cultivated and annual crop production. As a result of these two variables, two models are developed. The first model measures the relationship between amounts of crop produced with insurgency related killings, while the second model measuresthe relationship between total areasof farmland cultivated with fatalities resulting from terrorist activity. This study employs Ordinary Least Squares methodology and finds that both relationshipsreveal negative results thus indicating statistically significant negative impact of terrorism on agribusiness in Borno State.

JEL Classification: Q10, Q18, Q12

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32
15
Public Work - an International Outlook
125-132

Labour market policy includes active and passive labour market programmes, aiming to solve different problems. Active labour market programmes assist the unemployed to find jobs and thus return to the labour market. Passive labour market programmes assist the unemployed by providing various kinds of aid, easing social tensions. Public work can ...be considered to be an active labour market programme, assisting people who receive social care with income based on public beneficial work. Consequently, public work is justified by some on the basis that it is purported to have some kind of moral foundation, as well as because it supposedly shows results within a short time. Yet, the rationale behind using public work programmes to fight unemployment is contested. Detractors see them as being rather costly, questioning their success and arguing that their overall results are uncertain, especially in the long run. In short, there are in fact pros and cons to using public work, with opinions being rather divisive. This study summarises these pros and cons, analysing the relevant international and Hungarian literatures in the context of active labour market programmes.

JEL Classification: I38

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