Vol 15, No 1-2 (2021)

Published February 8, 2022

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Articles

Political risk effects and entry mode strategies of multinational corporations (MNCS) in Nigeria

Research on the political risk and entry mode of multinational companies (MNCs) has been one of the major subjects of interest in international business terrain, and the political risk factor has constitute a major basis for explaining whether exporting, licensing, franchising, or joint venture agreement (JVA) and Foreign direct investment seem...s to be appropriate. As such, the study examined the effect of political risk as it affects the entry mode strategies of selected multinational corporations in Nigeria as the economy of most developing economies has been characterized as being exposed to political instability and risk. The research adopted the survey technique with inference to the expo facto method and adopted questionnaire as an instrument through content and test re-test appraisal before data were analyzed through the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The results from the analysis indicated that franchising remains a viable option of multinationals in Nigeria and the second hypothesis indicated that licensing significantly reduces the risk exposure of multinational corporations as the licensor have lesser liability in an unstable political economy of the licensee. Based on these findings companies are recommended to adopt appropriate entry strategies in line with governmental policies and economic situation before entering foreign markets.

JEL CODES: M1, M10
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131
Optimal crop plan of cooperative farmers in Osun state, Nigeria: a linear programming approach

Optimal level of production requires better use of existing resources at the lowest possible cost. Despite the inherent advantage of cooperatives to the agricultural sector, the question of how farmers under cooperative umbrella use farm resource for optimal outcome remains unanswered. This study investigates optimal crop mix for cooperative fa...rmers in rural communities in Southwest Nigeria. Primary data were collected for the study through structured questionnaire. The data were fitted to Linear Programming Model. Three different cropping patterns are identified among the cooperative farmers. Based on the results from linear programming model, only maize, cassava and yam are admitted in the final plan and this combination is to be produced at 2.23 hectares. The gross margin value associated with the plan is 156, 235.781 (1$ = N365). Input resources such as land, labour, fertilizer, and chemicals are not fully utilized. The slack values for these inputs are 0.31, 651.20, 1929.6 and 140.76 respectively. The sensitivity analysis shows that seed/seedling is the only binding resource in the final plan with a shadow price which suggests that proper allocation of seed and seedlings would improve returns to cooperative farmers. There is need for appropriate farm management strategies to ensure optimal return for farmers. More education and training is suggested to boost cooperative farmers understanding of optimum strategy that is needed to improve production and earnings.

JEL code: Q10, Q13

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76
Profit efficiency among catfish marketers in Lagos state, Nigeria: a Stochastic Profit Frontier Analysis (SPFA) approach

The study analyzed the determinants of profit efficiency among catfish marketers in Lagos state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 catfish marketers, data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, enterprise budgetary technique,... Shephered-Futrell method and stochastic profit frontier analysis (SPFA) model. The result of the gross ratio and net return on investment reveals that catfish marketing was a profitable and bankable enterprise. About 76.72% of sales revenue was taken up by the costs. The SPFA reveals that cost of catfish purchased and depreciation cost had positive (p<0.01) effects on profit while transportation cost (p<0.01) and labour cost (p<0.05) had negative effects. Furthermore, marital status and credit use (p<0.01) had negative effects on profit inefficiency, the mean profit efficiency of the catfish marketers was 74%. The study concluded that catfish marketers were inefficient, however, to improve the efficiency of the marketers and create more job opportunities; the study recommends that credit facilities that will enable the marketers increase their scale of operation, acquire better marketing resources and employ capable hands in catfish marketing should be made available and accessible. Policies that will help to provide good road networks and reduce the pump price of premium motor spirit (PMS) should be given adequate consideration.      

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102
Factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest among graduate youth in Southwestern Nigeria

The paper examined factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest of graduate youth in Southwestern Nigeria. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; identified their agripreneurship activities of interest and identified factors associated with their interest. A multi-stage sampling pr...ocedure was used to select 185 respondents from the selected the Local Government Areas in Southwestern States, quantitative and qualitative data were collected using semi structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tool such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation while factor analysis was used to isolate crucial factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest of serving graduate youth in the study areas. Results showed that respondents had a mean age of 26.18 ± 2.74 years and majority (75.7%) were not graduates of agriculture. The agricultural enterprises of interest to the respondents were poultry farming (67.6%)’ fish farming (56.5%) and snail farming (50.9%). Crucial factors found to influence sustainability of graduate youth’s interest in agripreneurship were motivational, parental influence, community asset and institutional factors among other. The study concluded that these identified factors were germane to the sustainability of graduate youth’s interest in agripreneurship in Southwestern Nigeria.

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86
Estimation of Armington elasticities: case of vegetables in Mongolia

Mongolian people often consume meat more than vegetable in diet due to traditional nomadic culture. Nowadays, the Mongolian people’s diet has been changing who consume more vegetables with associated urbanization (half of the population live in urban areas, mostly in the capital city). Even though vegetable consumption has been increased rece...ntly, the vegetable market is still a high reliance on imports and threatening national food security. Since 2016, the Mongolian government has especially paid attention to increasing vegetable's domestic production and substitution to import vegetables (Ministry of food and Agriculture, 2017). Therefore, this paper provided to substitution elasticity (the Armington elasticity) between import vegetables and domestic vegetables in Mongolia. Additionally, we estimated the home bias value of vegetables. The so-called Armington elasticities are widely used for computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis, which determines a degree of substitution between import goods and domestically produced goods. Several of the authors studied Armington elasticities at the product level. We choose six vegetables (such as potato, garlic and onion, tomato, carrot and turnips, cabbage, and cucumber) related to lack of information. The empirical result shows that the Armington elasticities in the long-run higher than the short-run with exception of potato which means that products are similar in the long-run. However, our estimated Armington elasticities are quite lower than the previous studies result which means that Mongolian people indicated more prefer home growing vegetables than import vegetables. Moreover, we found that the home bias value is high in the short-run even long -run, this appears to be a higher relative weight on home vegetables.

JEL code: F13, Q17, Q18

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76
Carbon dioxide emission trends and environmental problems in Central Europe

In this research, the effect of CO2 emission was measured in two different land-use types (Crop and Grassland) in Central European and V4 countries. The primary aim of this study is to identify the significant output of CO2 emissions from cropland and grassland. Secondary data collected from FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...Nations) between 2010 and 2017. Mann-Whitney U test and odds ratio used to study the differences between the two country groups, and Principal Component Analysis was applied to create a performance map regarding the emission. A General Additive Panel model has analyzed the influence of area sizes and the regional differences on emissions. Results showed that the effect of grassland size is the primary factor in CO2 emission. A significant difference can only be found between CEU and V4 countries regarding grassland size effect on CO2 emission under grassland, which was rather small in the case of the V4 group but explained a larger part of the variance the of CEU countries. The odds of having higher CO2 from cropland to grassland was 2.43 times in the case of V4 compared to CEU countries.

 

 

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133
Board diversity and firm value; mediating effect of CSR of listed oil firms in Nigeria

In this empirical study, the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the nexus between corporate value and board diversity is investigated. However, hypotheses developed for this study were tested with annualized panel dataset of eight (8) Nigerian listed oil and gas firms in the upstream sector spanning 2012 to 2019. Stake...holder theory was used to underpin the study. The study employed three indicators for board diversity (board professionalism, board nationality and board gender), Tobin’s Q and amount spent on CSR. The panel regression results show that looking at the indirect effect in Model One; board diversity has no significant effect on firm value. However, empirical findings indicated that CSR exerts a significant and positive relationship with corporate value. Considering Model Two, the results show that CSR plays a pertinent role in establishing the nexus between corporate value and board diversity, this finding is congruent with stakeholder theory. The study recommends that environmental sensitive firms should maintain an appropriate and balance diverse board as it plays a pertinent and significant role in establishing the nexus between stakeholder relationship and the firms, which can also serve as a mechanism to mitigate manager's opportunistic tendencies behind CSR investment.

JEL code: L95, M14, M41

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85
Development of the European Union’s environmental policy and its measures for climate protection – a review

The negative impacts of human activities on the environment and nature can be felt worldwide. Thus there is a growing focus on measurements that keep sustainability in mind. As one of the main pioneers of environmental protection and sustainability efforts, these aspects are more and more prevalent in the current environmental policy of the Eur...opean Union (EU). In this review article, the development of the environmental policy of the EU is presented. After listing the main milestones, the role of the EU in the area of environmental protection, the frameworks built around the goals and the roles of the institutions are discussed. Then – with an international detour – the details of the Paris Agreement about climate change and the state of the 20/20/20 commitments are summarised. In the remaining parts of the article, the focus is on the climate protection goals of the EU for the next three decades, the expected future directions, and the agenda of the von der Leyen Commission concerning climate protection. An important step and tool for achieving the goals set until 2050 is to incorporate climate and environmental protection elements to the 2021-2027 budget of the EU. In order to achieve the expected effects, it is crucial to develop the right tools of the environmental policy, to form a widespread cooperation, to raise awareness, and incentivise and support the innovative solutions in the sustainability area.

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99
Development of leisure and sports consumption and sports motivation among children with disabilities

The number of studies on the leisure and sporting habits of people with disabilities as well as the background of sports motivation is far from the focus of research on intact research. Thus, the assessment of physical habits and sports motivation factors determining the quality of life of persons with disabilities can b...e considered as a less researched deficit area in Hungary and internationally.

In our research, we examine the recreational and sporting habits of the 8-18 year-olds, as well as the motivational background, and the results of this research are presented in this paper. The importance of this issue is confirmed by the fact that, according to a UN survey, 650 million people have some kind of disability, 50 million of them in Europe and nearly half a million in Hungary, 5% of the population. The questionnaire (N = 639) was filled by children with disabilities living in the North Great Plain region with the help of a teacher. We used both closed and open questions in the questionnaire, and we helped and orient children with response categories for some questions.

 Data were processed using SPSS software, averaged, standard deviation, median, mode, and Chi2 probe was used to examine relationships in addition to basic statistics.

Our results showed that it is a problem for young people with disabilities that they prefer passive leisure activities, which is similar to the results of studies on intact research. Boys and girls have different sports, boys are more active than girls.

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80
An Agro-Food Waste Commercial Utilisation Behaviour Lens among Urban Agro-producer Households in a Developing Economy

Small-urban farm businesses utilise agro-food waste emanating from own production and other levels of food supply chain activities to supplement conventional inputs. Out of these, the food produce surplus from agro-producer households is offloaded to the urban market. As such, the aim of the study was to assess the determinants of agro-food was...te commercial utilisation behaviour among urban agro-producer households. An electronically-designed research tool was administered to 456 agro-producer households to collect self-reported estimates of their agro-food waste utilisation behaviour. Results indicated higher budget share towards conventional inputs (0.73) compared to agro-food waste (0.27) but the observed suboptimal production intensification could be rectified with increased use of agro-food waste. Structural equation modelling results indicated that attitude, environmental awareness and concern, motivation and perceived moral obligation had positive significant influence on commercial utilisation intention. The adopted constructs for the model could explain 79.1% of the commercial utilisation behaviour variance. Furthermore, commercial utilisation intention, risk perceptions and perceived behavioural control had significant influence on the commercial utilisation behaviour. Findings are an indicator that agro-food waste commercial utilisation intentions among small-urban farm businesses would likely transition to commercial utilisation behaviour. Since behaviour can be learnt and developed, aspects that contribute to commercial utilisation intentions and behaviour would need to be stimulated. As a strategy of reducing the collectible waste, urban authorities may introduce tailor-made programs meant to stimulate commercial utilisation intention and behaviour in small-urban farm businesses. In valuation of agro-food waste, methodologies that could factor in utility would provide more precise insights in its commercial utilisation.   

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69
The economic situation of Hungarian crop production enterprises, especially in Hajdú-Bihar county

Increasing the competitiveness of Hungarian crop production plays a key role in moving forward at the international level. However, improving efficiency and profitability is essential in this regard. The natural resources in Hungary provide an excellent opportunity for crop production. About 8% of the arable land in Hungary (a total of 4.3 mill...ion hectares) belongs to farmers in Hajdú-Bihar County. This research is based on secondary data that can be found in the HCSO and EMIS databases. HCSO data was used for the comparison of national and county data characterising crop production, while the EMIS database was used to process the financial data of enterprises dealing with field crop production. The Hungarian sample size is 853, of which 69 enterprises are from Hajdú-Bihar County. The aim of this study is to assess the profitability, assets and financial situation of arable crop production enterprises operating in Hajdú-Bihar County as a function of national average data. Based on the examined profitability indicators (operating ROS and ROA), it was established that the enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County are profitable, even in a national context. In terms of operating ROS, the farms in the examined county were able to achieve a 3.6 percentage point higher value due to their more efficient cost management, despite having a similar level of technology compared to businesses spanning across the entire country. The proportion of farms with the lowest leverage ratio (<20%) is 16 percentage points higher at the county level than at the national level. In addition, almost 70% of the enterprises operating in Hajdú-Bihar County have excellent liquidity. This rate is 50% at the national level.

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