Vol. 13 No. 1-2 (2019)

Published June 30, 2019

Three papers relate to agricultural issues. One paper gives a balanced review
the status quo and future perspective of goat keeping and goat milk products,
particularly emphasising the role of goat milk products in human nutrition. Across
the globe, goats can be kept almost anywhere, even in poor surroundings. In a
second paper the member states of The EU can be divided into specific groups
with respect to agri-food agricultural trade according to three examined aspects
in the cluster analysis (food trade features, exports of commodities, imports of
commodities). The third paper the case study of L’Antica Pizzeria da Michele as
a best practice of traditional speciality guaranteed and international franchising
Two papers relate to the application of ideas and methods from business
management to sports clubs. One, discusses the application of the balance score
card to a football club in Hungary. whereas the other one investigates of Corporate
Social Responsibility to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Borussia Dortmund.
Two papers discuss consumer behaviour. One paper is an analysis of bathing
habits among spa visitors in Hungary. Another one is an exploratory study of
touristic motivations and lifestyles of Hungarian domestic tourists.

Full Issue



  • Establishment of the Customer Perspective of the Balanced Scorecard System at Sports Enterprises Through the Example of a Hungarian Football Club

    In our present world, more and more attention is being paid to the evaluation and monitoring of different sports organizations, which is because the support of spectator sports has become an important issue. Our fundamental assumption is that football clubs of our time should operate just like large companies in the business sectors. Obviously, it is an essential prerequisite that controlling, a controlling system or a performance measurement system be applied at the business entities operating the clubs. According to our experience, conscious financing of organizations is often neglected in the course of the management processes of sports companies. It is necessary to create the conditions at these organizations that enable managerial decision support and the establishment of a controlling system. It is essential to find controlling methods and tools that can be successfully applied in the life of a sports organization and that ensure the harmonization and coordination of different processes. Consequently, controlling provides a higher level of transparency and information supply for decision makers. The aim of present study is to introduce the Balanced Scorecard (The Balanced Scorecard is a balanced strategic system of indexes, which measures the performance of companies for the sake of implementing the strategy), one of the tools of strategic controlling and its application to sports companies through an example of a Hungarian football club.

    JEL Classification: Z23

  • L’Antica Pizzeria da Michele as a Case Study of Traditional Speciality Guaranteed and International Franchising

    This work explores the case study of L’Antica Pizzeria da Michele as a best practice of traditional speciality guaranteed and international franchising. Besides being one of the most ancient and successful pizzerias in Naples, da Michele is renowned all over the world for the quality of its raw products, dough processing, and output. In the last years, da Michele also started pioneering the pizza production and commerce industry with an innovative franchising model and a new company appointed to managing this latter business. This work makes use of in-depth interviews and data collected on the field. For such scope, top managers and employees of both the local and the international companies were interviewed. The study finds that da Michele managed to become a benchmark for territorial food products and, more recently, for high-standard franchising, jumpstarting a successful brand-new company and food business project.

    JEL Classification: O13, Q13, Q16, Q1

  • Goat Keeping and Goat Milk Products in Human Nutrition - Review

    The aim of this paper is to review the status quo and future perspective of goat keeping and goat milk products, particularly emphasising the role of goat milk products in human nutrition. Across the globe, goats can be kept almost anywhere, even in poor surroundings. Considering the deteriorating geographical conditions due e.g. to global warming, the importance of goat and goat products will probably further increase. Goats can play an important role in the nutrition of the continuously increasing human population. The wool, meat and milk of goats are all valuable products. Goats are able to provide high quality products under diverse climate conditions and in extreme environments. Globally, more people drink jmilk from goats than from any other animal. Due to the components and profile of goat milk, it can be processed and a wide range of high quality and healthy value added products can be produced from it. Goat milk plays a decisive role in feeding starving and malnourished people in developing countries. In developed countries, a significant segment of many populations suffers from gastro-intestinal disorders and cow milk allergy. Goat milk plays an important role in the treatment of certain health problems. Moreover, due to its favourable effects on human health, goat milk has found a niche for itself in the trend towards healthy nutrition in developed countries, where connoisseur consumers are ensuring goat milk products a growing market share. In these countries, goat milk products, e. g. cheeses are also recognised as gastronomic and festive products.

    JEL Classification: Q13

  • Interrelation of Large-Scale Property Development Project and the Local Real Estate Market. Evidence from Hungary

    The Hungarian real estate market has gone through a widely fluctuating phase in the new millennium, which has not missed periods of surge, crisis-driven gloom and recovery. Amidst these conditions, an international developer engaged in a large-scale, long-timeframe residential property building project (Sasad Liget Residential Complex) in District XI of the Hungarian capital. The article examines the exposures and impacts of the development project to the external factors. The deployed quantitative statistical methods reveal that despite the considerable weight of the project, the in-market performance of SLRC has been the function of the general swings of the sector. Further, although the project generated higher demand than the bulk of other properties in the vicinity, its weight has not been enough to impact the property market of District XI at a statistically significant degree.

    JEL Classification: E31, R31

  • Touristic Motivation and Lifestyles of Hungarian Domestic Tourists Correlation Study

    Motivations are closely interwoven with personality theories. According to researchers the object of motivation theory is primarily to describe what is common in people, whereas lifestyle theories highlight the individual differences among people. Tourism travel decisions constitute a special type of consumer decisions in which case the tourist has to make a choice among the personal tourism services on offer according to his/ her individual needs, but still as a segment specific product corresponding to common motivations. Consequently, certain elements of lifestyle and motivation theory appear in touristic decisions as well. Having perused the relevant trade literature, I came to the realisation that there have been very little research done in the area of travel motives in recent years. The examination of the correlation between motivation and lifestyle complemented with model application is a field belonging to applied marketing science which can be regarded as uncharted territory in tourism research. Domestic tourism accounts for a significant portion among the national income sectors. That is why it is of key importance to be aware of the correlation between the habits and needs of the local population and the factors influencing travel decisions. Applying the results of my research I endeavoured to define and model the lifestyle, needs and motivations of domestic tourists as the factors influencing their decisions. With the results of the investigation, I also wished to provide some guidelines for the creation of tourism supply in view of product development and communication.

    JEL Classification: Z32 tourism and development

  • Clasters and Correlations among the Eu Member States Regarding Agri-Food Foreign Trade

    The European Union has a significant role in international trade but this is largely in the area of industrial goods. However, in the case of some agricultural commodities the EU applies tariffs, bans, or different restrictive measures; it manages foreign trade in agricultural goods with many countries all over the world. On the other hand the member states do not contribute to the total trade of the EU to the same extent. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed in relation to the member states by means of data of Eurostat and Faostat. First, a multivariable correlation analysis was carried out in order to find the interrelation between the trade features of each country. In the second part of the study, a cluster analysis was carried out with almost the same component as in the foregoing, also in terms of the EU member states. It can be ascertained that the date of EU accession of a Member State as well as getting EU agricultural subsidies do not affect the agricultural foreign trade of the member states. Countries with significant agricultural production also export food commodities in larger quantities. Countries that have significant exports extra-EU also have larger imports in the case of both basic commodities and prepared food as well. As a result of the cluster analysis, it can be stated that the member states can be divided into specific groups according to the three examined aspects (food trade features, exports of commodities, imports of commodities). The following typical country groups can be divided as follows: non-trade countries, countries with larger trade extra-EU, agri-food exporter and importer countries, non-agri-food exporter and importer countries, primary commodity exporters and importers, and last but not least processed food exporters and importers as well.

    JEL Classification: F10

  • Responsible Behavior and Environmental Protection – in Case of Football Clubs

    There has been a hotspot in sports industry these days that is becoming more and more wide-spread in sports organizations and among managers, namely CSR, that is corporate social responsibility. In the life of geographical regions, towns or villages, professional football clubs play a crucial role. Consequently, clubs tend to take responsibility for these communities in return for their support: whether it is the local population or the authorities, other businesses or the environment, they are ready to stand up for good causes. Nowadays sports centres with their regular events have a significant effect on the environment either regionally or globally. That is the reason why it has become vital in the management of sports facilities to respect environmental principles when designing and using sports facilities and to avoid producing pollution that could harm and deteriorate the environment. The aim of our study was on the one hand, to present the definitional and theoretical evolution of CSR, than the CSR concept in sport, special regard to environmental protection. On the other hand, to analyze what kind of CSR related issues do football clubs (Real Madrid C. F. – RM, Borussia Dortmund – BVB) and how they are addressing issues of environmental sustainability in the context of CSR. According to RM and BVB, we can say that they really try to do efforts to responsible behavior and environmental protection. They have special respect for the society and took big step to use different environmental management tools. It was easy to find information, reports and case studies about these activities.

    JEL Classification: M14

  • The Attitudes of Pete Program Applicants Towards Information and Communication Technologies

    As information and communication technology has permeated all aspects of life education cannot be considered an exception either. The schools of the 21st century require the use of the latest digital devices whose effectiveness is greatly determined by the motivation, ICT-related attitude, and the respective competences of teachers managing and directing the given teaching and learning process. Since P.E. also requires the use of information and communication devices it would be crucial that prospective teachers develop a positive attitude toward such equipment. The present research aims at exploring the attitudes of students applying to P.E. teacher programs at the Eszterházy Károly University toward such instruments and approaches. Additional research objectives include the exploration of potential correlation between the sex of the applicants and the respective attitudes. Our inquiry utilized the questionnaire method and the computer-based attitude scale was completed by a sample of 130 applicants in the 2016/2017 and the 2017/2018 academic years.  Our research concluded that both men and women maintain a positive attitude toward the use of digital devices, or the tools of information and communication technology. Students representing both sexes consider the computer as a valuable learning device promoting the efficiency of the knowledge acquisition process. Furthermore, a significantly greater proportion of male respondents stated that they were capable of repairing computer problems emerging during use than that of their female counterparts. At the same time men are less apprehensive to use computers during instruction and this attitude appears to be an indispensable requirement for the application of ICT devices in class. The research can contribute to a deeper exploration of the given field along with performing a gap filling function as such examination has not yet been conducted among applicants to P.E. programs provided by higher education institutions in Hungary.

    JEL Classification: Z2, I23

  • Analysis of Bathing Habits among Spa Visitors

    The valorisation of healthy lifestyle has indicated the dynamic increase of healthcare sector. The consumer behaviour has been forming deterministically in health tourism. Visitors of spa towns can select various combinations of services either to sustain their health, to rest, to relax or to recover. It has a great importance for spas offering complex health tourism services to know the demands of guests and to reach the target groups with special, personalized service packages. After considering the statistical indicators of tourists visiting the spas of Northern Great Plain Region and the competitors of a selected spa, this paper aims to investigate the coherence among bathing habits, influencing factors of service demands, age and non-motivating coherences. The survey was taken place in a selected spa in Hajdú-Bihar County in August 2018 with random sampling questionnaire involving 256 visitors. During data analysis the coherence among indicators was examined with variant analysis (Levene’s test), in case of significant result with Welch’s t-test. Variances in age groups were analysed with Tamhane’s and LSD tests (post hoc analyses). We concluded that the primary information source of spas is still the suggestion of friends, acquaintances independently of the age of the respondent. Knowing this is relevant for further marketing communication. The most important features among the respondents are the condition of the spa and cleanness which are the basics of quality services. Motivations with coherence to age are social life and gaining experience, recovery and disease prevention. Visitors have the largest interest for family and kid programs. Recognition of bathing habits helps in marketing communication, reaching target markets effectively, pricing and service developments as well.

    JEL Classification: Z32

  • Changes in the Relationship Between ICT Use and Economic Development in EU Member States 2010-2016

    In this study, we examined some ICT indicators of the EU Member States between 2010 and 2016 based on data of the World Bank and Eurostat. We wanted to know, how can the EU Member States be grouped according to these indicators, and which group can Hungary belong to. With the help of international literature reviews, three indicators were chosen. According to these we created three groups (underdeveloped, developing, developed) with the K-Mean cluster method that is classified by their level of development. Interesting changes took place during the period under review. By the end of the analyzed period, six countries lost their “developed” rating among others some founding members. There were also interesting changes in the clusters. The value of some indicators increased more than 40% in some cases, surprisingly, only in one case measured reduction. The proportion of ICT specialists decreased in developing countries (by 1%). The highest growth rate was observed in the developed countries in e-commerce. Because of the high proportion of ICT professionals and the share of e-commerce in the developed cluster we assumed that service would be the dominant sector. The two-sample t-test did not confirm our hypothesis. We supposed the focus in developing countries will be on the industry, due we think the developed countries started to outsource their SSCs (shared service centers) to less developed countries. With the help of a statistical indicator, we confirmed our assumption, but the result not so convincing since the significant level is only 11%. Although we thought that the underdeveloped group of countries was based on agriculture, statistical studies did not support our hypothesis.

    JEL Classification: O13, O14, O52

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