Vol 14, No 1-2 (2020)

Published June 30, 2020



Urban consumers’ attitude towards organic food in Sri Lanka

This research investigation aims to examine the urban consumers’ attitude towards organic food, and the factors affecting for their attitude. A consumer survey consisting of a sample of 600 consumers was conducted, using a pre-tested questionnaire, in major cities of six main districts of Sri Lanka during November 2016 - May 2018. Data were a...nalyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results revealed that majority of the consumers were married females. Most of them were of 18-40 years of age category and were educated up to the GCE advanced level. The sample’s monthly income ranged from Sri Lankan Rupees 58000 – 85000.  Although the majority of the consumers (75.2%) were aware of organic food, only 11.5% possessed a good knowledge about them. As per the mean analysis, the consumers had a positive attitude towards most aspects of organic food. According to factor analysis, four factors (environmental factors, quality factors, health factors, and marketing factors) were extracted as they are influenced to the consumer attitude for purchasing of organic foods. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed a positive relationship between consumers’ attitude and the extracted four factors which were based on the consumers’ attitude on purchasing of organic foods. Main problems faced by consumers in buying organic food were the high price, unavailability of organic food, lack of trust, and lack of market information on organic food. It can be concluded that by providing the necessary conditions such as arranging better marketing facilities with useful market information, a continuous supply of organic foods with reasonable price levels, and enhancing consumer knowledge, will motivate the consumers to purchase more organic food. As relatively low is known about consumers’ purchasing pattern of organic foods in Sri Lanka, findings of this study would be beneficial to the traders and policy makers to formulate effective strategies designed to marketing of organic foods in the country.



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Willingness to pay for locally produced organic foods by urban consumers in Sri Lanka

Organic food consumption is gradually increasing among Sri Lankan consumers due to an increased awareness on healthy food. Some consumers ready to pay more for organic food, but it varies according to many factors. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the urban consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for organically produce...d food in Sri Lanka. The specific objectives of the research were to investigate the socio-economic factors, the level of awareness on organic food, the present situation of buying, and the level of additional price ready to pay and analyze the impact of socio-economic factors on consumers’ willingness to pay. The research was conducted in urban Sri Lanka, covering capital cities of six urban districts of the country; Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Kandy, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura. Data were collected from November 2016 to May 2018, from 600 consumers, by selecting 100 consumers per city. Data analyses employed were a descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression. Results revealed that, the most of the consumers were females, married, and with a comparatively higher level of education and monthly income. Most consumers had a significant level of awareness about organic food. A lesser proportion of consumers (24%) buys organic food at present, while the majority (52.4%) was willing to pay an extra price. Out of these consumers, the highest percentage (29.3%) prefers to pay 26% to 50% premium prices. As per the results of logistic regression, age, gender, monthly income, and education were the deciding factors for consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for organic food. Results of this research are helpful for the development of production and marketing strategies and awareness programs for urban consumers on local organic food products.



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Emerging trends in strategic planning

In today’s rapidly changing world, there is an increased need for excellent strategic planning. A firm’s survival may indeed hinge on the firm’s planning process being exemplary. Various aspects of the strategic planning process are under review today as organizations wrestle to compete more effectively. This paper reveals and describes f...ive emerging trends or tools being utilized today by firms to more effectively engage in strategic planning. Specifically, the emerging trends and tools to be discussed in this paper are as follows:

1) Assure vision and mission statements include desired characteristics

2) Perform SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis using AQCD (Actionable, Quantitative, Comparative, and Divisional) factors

3) Utilize varied sources to obtain AQCD information

4) Utilize QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix) analysis to determine the relative attractiveness of alternative strategies

5) Use excel-based software to facilitate and enhance the strategic planning process.

The purpose of this paper is to familiarize readers with basic new tools and techniques being used by organizations to effectively develop an improved strategic plan for the firm.

JEL Code: M21, O21


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Gender dynamics in Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for edible mushrooms in Ghana

This study uses choice experiment to investigate men and women consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay for edible mushrooms in Ghana. We used a mixed logit model to examine preference heterogeneity. The econometric modelling revealed that men consumers have a negative utility for oyster mushrooms compared to straw mushrooms. They also h...ave preference for cheap and locally cultivated mushrooms compared to expensive and imported mushrooms. However, women consumers have preferences for the shiitake mushroom variety compared to the straw mushroom variety. They also prefer cheap mushrooms irrespective of their location and such mushrooms must be frozen and not fresh. The findings highlight variation between men and women in preferences for mushroom variety, however, both have preferences for low prices, suggesting that both genders are economically rational and obey the law of demand.

JEL codes: B21, D12

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Marketing opportunities of local products in the catchment area of Csíkszereda town

Agriculture plays an outstanding role in Romania, since there are nearly three and a half million small farms operating in the country, accounting for almost 90% of the total number of farms, and scarcely more than 32% of the available farm land is cultivated by 35% of the population. In the settlements found in the catchment area of Csíkszere...da, the majority of farms consist of family farms smaller than 5 hectares. The marketing of good quality products made from local raw material by traditional methods contributes to the sustenance of the family farms. Researches show that as a result of the education of the farmers on a local level more and more processed products appear in the markets of Csíkszereda town. Farmers involved in the local market intend to expand their farms on the long run. The respondents consider that “a piece of land can be sold only once”, that is why the sustenance of the farm became the main goal of multi-generational effort. Younger farmers are usually more educated and more open to innovation. The vast majority of farmers under 45 find it important to market their products through rural tourism and they are also more eager to join producer groups. Young farmers need to merge traditional methods and knowledge inherited from previous generations with modern opportunities and methods that facilitate production and marketing. Knowledge gained this way makes it possible for small farms to market their products through short supply chains.

JEL code: Q12,Q13


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The status of agricultural financing by commercial banks in Zimbabwe

Agricultural finance is indispensable for enhancing productive capacity in both small-scale and commercial farming. This study sought to establish the current status of agricultural financing by 12 registered and operational commercial banks in Zimbabwe in the year 2019. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. SPSS and NV...ivo were used for data analysis. All the commercial banks participated in agricultural financing with an average agricultural loan portfolio of 30%. However, their participation in agricultural lending is yet to reach the pre-land reform maximum of 91.3% attained in 1999. Land tenure and weather risks, as well as lack of collateral among farmers reduced the banks’ appetite for lending to the agricultural sector. The majority of the commercial banks offered value chain finance, invoice finance, overdraft facilities, and term loans to agricultural sector clients that mainly included; suppliers, medium-scale, and large-scale commercial farmers. The study established a mismatch in the demand and supply of loans in the medium to long term tenure range of 1 to more than 3 years. There was low demand for 1-3-year tenure loans according to the commercial banks, and a corresponding deficit in the supply of highly demanded longer-term loans of more than 3 years for capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, government should aim to; stabilize currency; arrest hyperinflation; restore economic stability; address land tenure to ensure the bankability of the 99-year Lease; and create an environment that is conducive for investment in climate and weather resilience infrastructure. Local farmers should also invest in human and physical capital to improve their access to bank credit.

JEL Code: Q14

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Analysis of the chain of the banana industry of Ecuador and the European market

Bananas are among the four main crops in the world, including wheat, rice, and corn. It is the most exported fresh fruit in the world in terms of volume and value. The European Union (EU) is the largest banana importer globally with an estimated volume share of 33%.  Ecuador is the top exporter since it is responsible for one-quarter of th...e world banana exportation. It represents 22% of total world exports, 27% of total agricultural exports in the country and 8% of the value of all exports (including oil). The present work analyzed the chain of the banana industry of Ecuador and its position in the EU market. A non-experimental empirical method with a quantitative and qualitative approach was used supported by scholarly literature and secondary research data collection. Results obtained show that the main countries destination shipped 87.8 % of total bananas exported from Ecuador in the period of 2007 – 2017. The largest importer of Ecuadorian banana is the European Union (28.9%). In Ecuador, approximately 78% of the banana producers are small companies, by adding the medium ones 95.6% is reached. Thus, the production of bananas in the country is mainly based on the family economy. In 2019, the official banana box price for producers in Ecuador is USD 6.30. In the EU market, it can reach over USD 18.00. It suggested an unfair payment to small and medium producers.

JEL CODE: Q13, M16, M21

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Profitability of cassava production in the Ashanti region of Ghana

Cassava is a crop that is massively produced and consumed in Ghana even though it is produced by subsistence farmers. The aim of this study is to analyse the cost and returns of cassava farmers.  Farmers profitability was accessed using the gross margin, net present value and the benefit cost ratio. SWOT analysis was conducted to access ch...allenges faced by cassava farmers. Data was collected by personal interview from fifty (50) cassava growing farmers in the Sekyere East District of the Ashanti Region, Ghana. The Costs and returns analysis show gross margin of USD 22.75 per acre. It was concluded that cassava is cultivated for both consumption and revenue. Even though there is low investment of capital in cassava production, it helps farmers to make use of available resources (personal savings, land and labour) which would have been idle. Further should compare profitability of crops that compete for use of famers land. 

JEL. CODE: Q13, Q19


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Determinants of consumers’ purchase intention for local organic food in Urban Sri Lanka

Organic food marketing has currently become one of the most developing markets around the world, including Sri Lanka. Thus, the main aim of this study was to recognize the determinants of the purchase intention for local organic food among urban Sri Lankans. A consumer survey was conducted covering capital cities of six urban districts in Sri L...anka; Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Kandy, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura using a sample of 600 consumers, from December 2016 to May 2018. Out of the 600 consumers, only 114 were purchasing organic food by that time, and those 114 consumers were chosen as the sample for this study.  Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and multiple linear regressions were used as data analysis techniques. According to the results, majority of the respondents belongs to the 31-45 year age category. While most respondents had an education up to GCE Advanced Level, significant percentages of respondents were educated up to graduate and post-graduate levels.  Also, most of the respondents received a monthly total income in between Sri Lankan Rupees 85,001 and 162,000 (approximately US dollars 473 – 900). Although one-fourth of the consumers are purchasing organic food at that time, a higher number is willing to buy them in future. As per the principal component analysis, health and environment consciousness, certification of organic food, marketing aspects of organic food, common parameters of organic food, awareness on the value of organic food, and market availability of organic food were the extracted determinants. The results of multiple linear regressions revealed that market availability, common parameters of organic food, and health and environment consciousness are the dominating variables of the purchase intention of organic food consumers. Thus, expanding the market conditions for organic food, establishing a better marketing system, conducting effective food awareness programs, and value addition for organic food are the identified timely essential recommendations.

JEL CODE: Q13, Q19

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Analyzing the organizational questions of the elite youth academies by the case study of football academy of Debrecen

Thanks to the effect of the resources flown in to the youth football, the previous, and more simpler structural scheme of the clubs went under a transformation. I will analyse the operation of the youth sport enterprises as economic companies, and the organizational scheme with the most important managerial questions faced in the firm. This wil...l be based on the case study of the Football Academy of Debrecen. In the first part of my publication, I will investigate the evolution and the importance of the sport enterprises, with the relevant scientific literature. In the second part I will discuss the structural scheme of the Football Academy of Debrecen with the analysis of the separate departments. I will search for the differences between the youth sport enterprises and the organisations who are operating as a professional football club.

JEL code: Z2

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Analysis of Vision and Mission Statements Characteristics and their Association with Organizational Performance: A Guide to Writing Effective Vision and Mission Statements

This paper empirically examines vision and mission statements of Fortune 500 firms for the purpose of identifying and examining specific characteristics and associating these attributes with organizational performance. Additionally, this paper provides a theoretical foundation for the inclusion of various characteristics of vision and ...mission documents, and thus provides guidance for organizations to develop and revise these important strategic planning documents.

JEL CODE: M21, O21

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Examination of the Hungarian esport ecosystem throgh international examples

Esport was very close to be medal awarded competition at the 2022 Asian Games, finally esport excluded from the Asian Games but all is not lost that is delayed. We have come a long way since the first real esport tournament, for which the first-place prize was a year-long Rolling stone magazine subscription. Nowadays in the digitalized world es...port develops faster than any other sport, and plays an important role in the entertainment industry as well. Stadiums are crowded, streams are watched by millions worldwide, and the pace doesn’t seem to ease up in the future either. As Hungary is trying to step onto international waters, our main goal was to make a comprehensive review of the Hungarian esport ecosystem analyzing the national picture of electronic sport. Although there is not much domestic literature regarding the topic, as a secondary research we choose to use available Hungarian papers to piece together a comprehensive picture. We move on step by step through the biggest stakeholders: the publishers, the biggest domestic competitions, the most successful players, platforms, brands and of course the fans in domestic circles.

JEL code: Z29


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Relationships between coping strategies and psychoactive substance use

The study examines the relationship between coping strategies and smoking and alcohol consumption among athletes, recreational athletes and non-athlete individuals.

The factors examined were measured by a validated questionnaire version of Folkman-Lazarus (1980) (Ways of coping) (16 items) and asked about the smoking and alcohol consump...tion patterns of the respondents. The total sample number was 813 people, of whom 341 were athletes, 292 were recreational and 180 were non-athletes. 54.4% of the sample is female and 45.6% is male. In my research, I focused on mapping intrapersonal coping strategies among athletes, recreational athletes, and the non-athlete individuals, and explored gender differences. Furthermore, how smoking and alcohol consumption appear as a negative coping strategy in the measured sample.

As a method besides descriptive statistics the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify normality, and the hypotheses were tested with non-parameterized test (Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney).

For coping strategies I found a significant difference among the non-, recreational and competitive athletes, and there is a significant difference between genders as well.

In the case of cognitive restructurings, there was a significant difference in favor of sports and recreational athletes versus non-athletes, while in problem analysis and passive coping I found a significant difference in favor of women compared to men.

Significant differences were also found in the case of psychoactive substance use. Among the three groups, as the intensity of sport increases, the number of smokers decreases. In the case of smoking, a significant difference was found in the coping strategies referring to reduction of the stress in the whole sample. In the case of alcohol consumption, in coping strategies were found significant differences between stress reduction, problem analysis and passive coping.

JEL CODE: M21, O21


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Economic importance of the Hungarian sports sector in international comparison

Sport is one of the most dynamically developing sectors in the world. During my research, I was looking for the answer to why and how the economic aspects of sport have evolved in recent times. I examined and evaluated sports economy indicators for the global (The European Union) and territorial (Hungary) units (for the last twenty years). The ...need for measurability is constantly increasing nowadays. This can also be seen in the markets of the sports sector, so we can find databases that are increasingly expanding in this sector. I have analysed EUROSTAT databases - with indexing – which can provide relevant information. The research field was two economic aspects, the number of employee and trade in sporting goods. The number of employees was analysed separately by the European Union and Hungary. In the examination of trade in sporting goods The Hungarian trade in sporting goods was compared to the neighbouring European Union countries. Based on my results, I can say that the economic importance of the sports sector has increased within the European Union and Hungary as well because the number of employed people in sports and the trade in sporting goods has increased.

JEL Code: L83, Z20


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Characteristics of physical activity at the university of Debrecen

The assessment of physical activity is a much-researched field. Physical inactivity has negative consequences. In the development of diseases, a key risk factor is insufficient exercise. Emphasizing the relation between physical activity and health is a constantly discussed matter. UD-FCSNE students will play a key role in educating children fo...r a healthy lifestyle. They will become teachers and specialists. Mapping students’ motives concerning physical activity, we can see the order of motive factors and the factors influencing the different age groups. The majority of students exercise less than 30 minutes per day. Most of them do leisure sporting. To increase physical activity we must provide leisure sporting facilities, based on the population’s needs. Maintaining and increasing fitness are chief motivational factors, unlike expectations and competition. The order of motives is significantly different. These differences occurred in five categories. There is a difference in physical activity between full and part-time students.

JEL code: Z2


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Pork production and consumption issues from the perspective of the religion and the World's growing population

In this article we would like to present the production and consumption issues of pork meat in the world. We intend to examine the production and consumption of pork meat from the point of view of the population. The growing population of the world requires an increasing amount of food, especially animal source of protein, ie meat. We want to e...xamine how the world can supply the growing population with food, including (pork) meat. The growing population generates ever-increasing consumption from year to year, and may not be able to satisfy it, adequately supplying the population with food, especially (pork) meat. Livestock farming, especially extensive animal husbandry, will be less able to produce sufficient quantities of meat for the growing needs.

During the analysis of food (meat) data we would like to present the difference between each continent on both the production and the consumption side. Examining the pork consumption, it should be mentioned the differences in the cultural habits, because the pork meat is the most affected in religious restrictions, regulations. The religious affiliation/identity is basically determined by the food and consumer habits, too. Due to the differences in dietary habits and religious culture, we think that the consumption of pork can be highly variable in the world and from country to country as well.

In general, we would like to answer questions about how the world (pork) meat production is going, is the meat consumed in the countries where it is produced (export – import issues), what are the factors that influence (pork) meat consumption (culture and religion impact on pork consumption, animal health issues), and is there enough (pork) meat for the world's growing population.

JEL code: P46, Q18, Q56


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Research and education in agrobusiness in Mosonmagyaróvár – the 200-year history

In 2018, the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University celebrated the bicentenary of its predecessor’s foundation. Agrobusiness courses played an important role in the university’s agricultural engineering program throughout this major time period. The aim of this study is to examine how the titles, the cont...ent, and the significance of the courses changed during the institution’s important periods. Institutional history publications and the academic textbooks of great professors provided the basis of this research. Business administration, accounting, and agricultural estimation studies courses were already dominant in the first curricula. Later, courses concerning business and agricultural economics gained more ground and were accompanied by other fields of study: agricultural statistics, agricultural politics, agricultural history, and agricultural economics. During this 200-year period, the education of economics and other social science courses was done within the departments of agricultural economics and marketing, work organization and factory management, and social science and business operations, with the contribution of internationally renowned professors: Pál Sporzon, Richárd Suschka, Árpád Hensch, Károly Világhy. The Hungarian Royal Economics Academy (1874-1942) can be considered as the first prime of the agricultural economics education. From the 1900s onwards, the courses became more specialized, their numbers continuously grew, the disciplines expanded, and the number of departments increased. The second prime is the first decade of the 2000s, when besides the traditional agricultural programs, the institution started teaching economic agricultural engineers in its undivided 5-year training. They were the most popular agricultural engineers in the labor market due to their well-balanced knowledge in agriculture and economics, as well as their excellent leadership skills.

Having abandoned the economic agricultural engineering program, the institution currently educates, besides other agricultural majors, rural development agricultural engineers, whose skills the labor market does not know very well. The proportion of business related courses show a significant decline in the curriculum of traditional agricultural programs as well.

JEL code: N30


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