Vol. 5 No. 3-4 (2011)

Published December 31, 2011

Welcome to numbers 3 and 4 of the 5th volume of
Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce
(APSTRAC). This Official Periodical of the
International MBA Network in Agribusiness and
Commerce (AGRIMBA) has been established to provide
an opportunity for publication of reviewed papers
presenting original research findings, techniques and
comments dealing with all aspects of the agribusiness
and commerce. Subjects considered appropriate for
publication in the APSTRAC include scientific papers,
PhD and MBA dissertation summaries, MBA
international news, interim reports of AGRIMBA and
reviews. The APSTRAC provides timely communication
of results of basic and applied research, as well as
reviews and syntheses of information, principles,
conclusions, and interpretations on key issues of
agribusiness and commerce. It encourages publication
of reports and summaries on the findings and
conclusions of PHD and MBA studies conducted by
students of International MBA Network.
In this number selected papers the International Tourismand
Sport Management Conference are also presented.
Conference was organized by the University of Debrecen
Faculty for Applied Economics and Rural Development
joined by other educational institutions, businesses and
institutions with touristic and sport services. The
conference was held on 27–28th May, 2010 in Debrecen.
Experts from Hungary, other EU countries, but even from
South-Africa, Thailand were representing themselves.
Themain reason for the event was the fact that new trends
are emerging in the field of Sport and –Tourism service
sectors. Environmental awareness and behaviour of
tourists is getting more significant considering decision
making on travel. With parallel of that, health and sport
tourism sectors are in focus.
One of the major topic at the conference was the
economic aspects of sport services, which provides 23
thousand jobs, 350 billion HUF total income in Hungary.



  • Economics of GM crop cultivation

    Asynchronous approval of new GM crops across international jurisdictions is of growing concern due to its potential impact on global trade. Different countries have different authorisation procedures and, even if regulatory dossiers are submitted at the same time, approval is not given simultaneously (in some cases, delays can even amount to years). For instance, by mid-2009 over 40 transgenic events were approved or close to approval elsewhere but not yet approved – or not even submitted – in the EU.Yet, like some other jurisdictions,the EU also operates a zero-tolerance policy to even the smallest traces of nationally unapproved GM crops (so-called low-level presence). The resultant rejection of agricultural imports has already caused high economic losses and threatens to disrupt global agri-food supply chains. The risk that feed supplies could be affected by a low-level presence of non-EU approved GM material could be resolved if the EU allowed a tolerance for this, rather than operating a strict zero tolerance as now. The Commission has undertaken to come forward with a nonlegislative technical solution to address the difficulties created by a strict zero tolerance policy. To what extent this would be helpful will depend on the nature of the proposed solution.

  • Globalisation of commercial theme parks case: The Walt Disney Company

    In this contribution we focus on the globalisation of commercial theme parks with Walt Disney Company as the best known case study. After definitions and historical background of theme parks, we analyse the visitors key factors. For the Walt Disney Cie we start with some historical facts, we set up a SWOT-analysis and focus then on Euro Disneyland Paris, the biggest theme park of Europe.

  • The application of Balanced Scorecard in team sports

    The present article discusses the application possibilities of the Balanced Scorecard strategic planning and controlling device for businesses managing team sports with the goal of professional efficiency and its long term sustainability.

  • New types of tourism and tourism marketing in the post-industrial world

    At the end of the 20th century in the most developed countries economy and society went through profound transformation. The emerging post-industrial society can be characterised by the dominance of service industry, more leisure time of the population, higher disposable income and more conscious consumers. These conscious consumers are more and more quality orientated and reject undifferentiated mass products. New customers of tourism and hospitality industry are not only more affluent – so less price conscious – and more quality orientated but they are also seeking activity, participation, fantasy, and experience. These new types of tourists are interested rather in aesthetic aspects of life and are seeking highly differentiated, personalised experience. In the following article the authors, professors of the French ESSCA business school overview theoretical aspects of new, post-Fordist tourism demand and present examples of the new tourism and hospitality products having emerged in the developed countries during the last years.

  • Effect of climate therapy and rehabilitation in Mátra Medical Institute

    Our research we organised at the Mátra Medical Institute in Mátraháza and Kékestetô among sick of asthma, COPD and hayfever. Our aim was to prove the effect of climate therapy in the Mátra Medical Institute. The subalpine climate to plays a very important role in the cure of the Respiratory diseases, because to improve the life quality of the sick and reduce the medicine uses afther the therapy. Our researche took part more than 100 respiratory diseased. We analyse the data with SPSS.version16. We measure average, standard deviation, Chi²probe, t-probe.You can see our results in the article.


  • Changing patterns in hotel room demand – case study of the Aquaticum Debrecen Thermal and Wellness Hotel

    Aquaticum Debrecen Thermal and Wellness Hotel is a very successful lodging property not only in Debrecen but also in the Northern Great Plain Region and in the Eastern part of Hungary and in point of fact in Hungary. In the past years Aquaticum Thermal and Wellness Hotel has been the leader in the region by revenue per available rooms (RevPAR). RevPAR indicates the overall performance of properties, accordingly it is the most commonly used statistical indicator in comparison to competitors in Hotel industry. In the past years, demand for Hotel rooms has changed. This changing has several signs. For instance the occupancy rate, the rate of domestic and foreign guests, the nationality of foreign guests, the time between booking and travelling, and many other demand patterns have changed. During the last year, the changing has been accelerated by the global economic crisis. Guests are waiting with their bookings hoping for better rates and last minute offers. The forecast of demand became much harder than ever before. These forecasts are basic ingredients of the revenue management systems, which systems are in use or will be in use by Hungarian Hotels. These systems are necessary to keep RevPAR at a higher level and to help Hotels to achieve better performance.

  • Networking on the utilization of local natural resources

    Together with its partners, Szolnok College is planning to evaluate a new project for networking on the utilization of local natural resources. This project is based on a research work (using the findings of the surveys completed by the representatives of hosts living in the eastern part of Hungary). The project itself is based on the adaptation of the theory of tourism into practice by presenting existing natural values in the supply portfolio of tourist service providers. A unique natural environment can be found alongside a 120 km-long stretch of River Tisza. These natural values interlink and complete each other with respect to Lake Tisza and River Tisza. Regions and settlements situated further from the specified settlements are also rich in natural values which guests will definitely be pleased to get acquainted with. The six landscape centres (including LHH regions) alongside river Tisza (in the two regions) symbolise the interdependent system of the sample area of the project while a single landscape centre in the Pásztó Minor Region embodies a unique character. A register will be prepared for each landscape centre containing unique natural values that can be involved in the tourist supply and handicraft/economic activities (e.g. basket weaving, floodplain economy) that are or can be built on these natural values. A pictorial English/German-Hungarian professional dictionary summarises the distinctive nature of landscape centres. The education material demonstrating the registers is going to be developed both in conventional and electronic form; its spatial IT appearance on the Internet is considered a special feature. The education material will be supplemented with other information currently missing such as those related to environmentally friendly economy, and the legal context. The methodology allows the adaptation of the method in other regions, even in the whole country. The new qualifying and benchmarking system and the trademark managed by a profession-specific cluster that strengthens network co-operation and controls the development guarantee the achievement of high quality tourism.

  • The understanding of international tourism development

    Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations (Unwto, 2010).Working and serving in this pumping industry means to understand and react to the needs of all these people moving around this “small” planet! Success is defined by those who understand these needs and fulfill them to the satisfaction. Unfortunately, our industry is rather slow and we can be characterized as reactive instead of innovative.We adapt too slow compared to other industries that define the needs of their costumers before the costumers actually calls for it!

  • “Treasures” of Debrecen selection of and attention to sports talents in the Sport School of Debrecen

    The article is about a program selecting and attending sports talents in order to select and attend to the conscious sports talents so as to support convenient supply for the sections of the Sport School of Debrecen as well as for the adult sports organizations of Debrecen.

  • Safety and security in the age of global tourism

    Safety and security have always been indispensable condition for travel and tourism. Research and education also has to face the issues of security and safety in tourism in order to prepare future specialists of the industry by incorporating new results of research to academic curricula.

  • Comparative analysis of menus in the Northern and Southern Great Plain touristic regions

    The background of the study is based on previous studies dealing with the areas of Transdanubia and Central Hungary. Those works have proved the hypothesis of author that local ingredients and dishes represent minimum role on menus. The question is how similar or different the choice of menus of Northern and Southern Great Plain is from the previously examined areas of Hungary.Additional questions may also arise in terms of the usage of local ingredients available near catering units. This piece of work has studied several menus of Northern and Southern Great Plain, Hungary. The material was collected from different types of restaurants, ‘csárda’-s and inns. The methodology was two-tier: data collecting on the one hand, and the detailed examination of differences between the catering units on the other hand: the number of dishes, the right order of dishes, the appearance of local ingredients and dishes, the consideration of seasonality, the usage of different cooking methods and group of dishes. The study reflects the main problems of countryside restaurants in Hungary. Only a minimum number of dishes could be connected to local dishes out of more thousands.All in all, dishes are not as precise and perfect as the ‘old ones’used to be; that is why it is important for every expert to keep traditions alive in daily routines and by way of strategic means too.

  • Knowledge needs in rural tourism in Czech Republic

    Rural tourism has gone through an important development, but in the Czech Republic has only been possible to run a private business only in last 18 years. In Czech Republic that form of tourism is not very widespread, although there is great potential in it and the neighboring countries such as Austria or Germany are on a much higher level. For more intensive development and better competitiveness on the marker a proper education is necessary especially on the secondary level. An inquiry investigation has been provided. The responders were owners and operators of small businesses in rural tourism. The first part of the questionnaire was focused on the matters of ownership, running the business, promotion, internet services, etc. The subsequent part of the questionnaire gathered the information about the capacity of the places, the types and prices of accommodation, and the facilities. It also surveys the surroundings of the place – both natural and cultural sights.The survey has brought interesting facts about the level of the rural tourism of selected regions.The inquiry investigation was made by trained persons who gathered much information above the framework of the questionnaire. Many demands and complains were concerned with lack of specialized education, needs of new study programs and branches. There are many specifics of this branches, the most important is that there are more than 90% of micro firms. If we want to keep the special features of the rural tourism we have to prepare future entrepreneurs and employees in completely different way than those for big hotels, spas or congress centers. The contribution deals with the present status of rural tourism in Czech Republic and the educational need of the people involved.

  • Tourist considerations in hosting a mega sport event: 2010 FIFA World Cup

    Tourism enterprises can create public viewing areas where shared enjoyment and heightened emotive experiences could arise, as well as sentiments of patriotism, and ownership of the event itself. But, they must keep their base business happy; to ensure long term loyalty of existing customers.

  • Reducing consumption of food with high level of fat, sugar and/or salt among young generation

    The young generation is the most influenced and vulnerable segment of the market. Food with high level of fat, sugar and/or salt are popularised for this segment.At the same time nearly 7 people die of obesity or from complications of obesity in Hungary each hour – one every 9 minutes. Less than 10% of youth are of the belief of eating healthy and more then one third of youth don’t take care about healthy eating. The young generation can be especially influenced by use of well-known persons, prize games and free gifts. The idea of fat tax’s introduction could be an obvious proposal.

  • The potential economic impact of the Western corn rootworm resistant GM variety on maize production in Hungary

    The paper examines that how the application of the MON88017 GM maize variety could influence the profitability of maize production in Hungary. The most important benefit of this biotech crop lies in its reduced need for chemical use and the additional yield comparing to conventional varieties. Among the economical disadvantages there is the uncertain market of GM products in the EU. After weighing all these factors the results conclude that the farmers could reach an income surplus by growing this GM variety. Although, this surplus is significant only if a similar positive yield impact is achieved under the Hungarian conditions as in the USA.

  • On tests for long memory process behavior of international tourism market: Thailand and India

    In our research we examine the behaviour of both Thailand’s and India’s international tourism market by using long-memory analysis. The international tourism market of Thailand combined with seven groups such as East Asia, Europe, The Americas, South Asia, Oceania, Middle East and Africa. Similarly, the international tourism market of India combined with nine countries: USA, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Malaysia, Australia and Sri Lanka. Moreover, three statistical tests for long-memory process such as R/S test, Modified R/S test and GPH-test are employed to study these markets. The empirical findings in general provide more support for long memory process in international tourism market of Thailand and evidence for short-term dependence in international tourism market of India. Therefore, the policy makers of each country should understand the behaviour of long memory process in international tourism market before launching any stimulating campaign to this industry.

  • The cost formation mechanism of milk and animal yield in dairy cattle-breeding in conditions of costs grouping by physiological classification

    This articles crutinizes the cost formation mechanism of milk and animal yield in dairy cattle-breeding in costs grouping conditions by physiological classification, it’s analysis allows to reveal "weak points " in production process of the enterprise and to direct point efforts to overcome negative consequences, and also enables to optimize and more exact prognosis of the company’s financial results.

  • The use of models in optimizing the field crop production in agricultural enterprise

    The full use of resource capacities of agricultural enterprises favorably affects the general increase in economic efficiency and rational production making them more competitive in the market. This creates the need for constant improvement of business strategies that uses all available resources to create the most profitable production. The main objective of this study was to find the ideal structure of production in agricultural enterprise and to enable the realization of maximum profit using the available production resources (land, mechanization, labor forces). As the basic method of planning, this study used the simplex method of linear programming which gives the most profitable sowing structure after detailed analysis of resources and achieved results, based on the limitations and gross margin. This work showed that the use of modern methods in production planning is one of the cheapest and safest methods for development of agricultural enterprises.

  • Opportunities and obstacles of areabased partnerships in rural Hungary – main features of the operations of leader local action groups based on a nationwide survey

    Based on the results of our questionnaire survey, our study presents the major operational features of LEADER LAGs established in Hungary in the second half of 2007. Our national survey indicated that most of the partnerships established do not have experience in the implementation of community-based rural development programmes and there are no traditions and practices for development cooperation, which may cause problems as the success of programme implementation highly depends on the preparedness of local society, on the cooperation of local people. The survey indicates that the development of areas covered by LAGs is hindered by so-called soft factors characterizing human resources (rural people and communities). Therefore human resources are not only factors of the rural economy but areas for development as well. Having examined the tasks of LAGs,it can be established that they deem it to be their principal task to grant support funds.Inouropinion, performance of this task is obviously necessary but far from sufficient to fulfil their catalyst role expected in local developments. For this purpose, it is essential for action groups to play a proactive role in organizing and thereby increase the capacity of local communities, a prerequisite for implementing a LEADER programme. In accordance with the basic principle of subsidiarity, rural development should be implemented locally, managed by local communities, and decisions should be made at local levels in a decentralized manner. At the same time, the survey points out that LAGs operate under strong government influence and control, leading to the conclusion that the Hungarian practice of the LEADER programme is characterized by decentralization without subsidiarity. In the present structure, the activities of LAGs are predominantly financed from central resources.Administration is the primary goal of their financing, which restricts their effective and efficient operations, thereby the successful implementation of the LEADER programme. It is unquestionable that LAGs need to be centrally financed since their operation is fundamental for programme implementation, but this requires more than acting in their present role of distributing resources. In order for action groups to fulfil their real roles to boost local developments, they need to recognize their mission; and from the financing and regulatory side, they must be enabled to complete the tasks expected from them and their function.

  • World importance and present tendencies of dairy sector

    The general objective of this paper is to present the world importance of dairy sector and to illustrate present tendency of milk production, consumption, trade and prices mainly based on FAO data base. World milk production was 711 million tonnes in 2010 and it is expected to increase in the future. The most significant milk producers are the EU(27), the United States and from the Asian countries, India and China. Developed countries give one-third of world milk production, while more than two-third of world dairy herd can be found in developing countries. Milk production growth is a future tendency mainly in China, India, Pakistan, Argentina and Brazil. The average level of consumption of milk and milk products is 103,6 kg/capita/year and it will increase in developing and developed countries as well. The ratio of international trade of milk and milk products to production is 6 percent and itmay expand in the future. New Zealand, the EU(27), theUnited States andAustralia are themajor exporters. There is a strong demand formilk andmilk products among others from the Asian countries, the Russian Federation,Algeria,Mexico, Saudi Arabia and the United States.Analysis of world market price of the most important dairy products it represents a strong recovery from last year, but it still remains 20 percent below its peak value in early 2008. However prices have doubled compared with prices of period of 2002–2004.

  • Organizational consequences of emotional labour in mangenent

    Emotional labour, as a self-contained field of research, is only three decades old. This study aims to summarize key findings from investigations of the last ten years in an attempt to provide a reference for interpretation of organizational emotions and the organizational aspects of emotional labour. It makes no secret of its aim being to call the attention of anybody dealing with people as workforce that work no longer has only physical or mental aspects, but an emotional dimension as well. Most often this latter dimension lives an independent life. Normally, it is not regulated, tracked, appreciated or rewarded properly, which might send a message to employees that it is not really important. However, emotional labour is a concomitant of most professions and jobs. Where it is not given any conscious consideration by either the employer nor its employees, numerous opportunities of making it easier or improving it may be lost.

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