Vol. 9 No. 3 (2015)

Published September 30, 2015

In this issue of Apstract we proudly present research on various topical
AGRIMBA subjects relating to various countries in the world. We have
a paper on the impact of the internet on Hungarian food consumers and a
satisfaction analysis of visitors to Debrecen. Two papers deal with higher
education education issues: one on relationship between academic and athletic
performance,and another one on leisure sports alternatives provided by higher
education institutes.
The paper on the history of measurement of business performance is of
a theoretical character, just as the paper on the consistency of CAP 2013
program with respect to agricultural challenges and measures.
The three econometric papers in this issue deal with Africa. One paper
consists of an analysis of the long run equilibrium between Ghana’s exports
and imports, whereas the second paper investigates three sorts of efficiency of
maize production in subsistence farming in Ethiopia. The third paper focuses
on the relation between produce certification and income risk management
of cocoa farming households in Nigeria.
As you know, Apstract is a open source refereed journal. This has many
advantages both for readers and authors. Readers have free access to the papers
and contributions in the journal. Authors will reach a greater readership that
is not restricted by access to a library or a sometimes expensive subscription.
The dissemination and speed of scientific knowledge is thereby increased.
And, compared to a traditional refereed journal, authors are expected to
be cited more frequently. Apstract now has a DOI number, that will make
citation easier.



  • Modelling and analysing an innovative cooperation to support operation of a science centre

    A science centre was built in Debrecen with the purpose to extend natural scientific knowledge and increase commitment to science and innovation in an experience-focused way. In addition to science centres’ original role of education and scientific communication, their function has been extended for today with showcasing innovation and innovation findings, thereby “grabbing their slice” of the regional innovation process. However, in order to succeed, it is indispensable to maintain these institutions in the long run and to constantly renew their innovation content. By integrating the process established with using the “Triple Helix” approach, it is possible to assure one of the most important principles of the institution in the long run, which is its constant renewal that provides a wide range of the society with experiencebased “tangible” knowledge. By following the concept we use, it became obvious that a science centre – as an organisation which creates knowledge – calls for the direct collaboration of the government, science and business actors in order to successfully operate in the long run, to attain its goals and, consequently, to develop the innovation potential of the region. However, the accumulated knowledge as a result of strategic partnerships can only contribute to establishing regional knowledge if the user – the organisation of the Science centre in Debrecen – is able to convey it successfully to the members of the fourth and fifth helix.

    JEL code: R11

  • The impact of the internet on Hungarian food consumers’ ways of seeking information from the aspect of health awareness

    One of the main components of healthy lifestyle is proper diet. When putting together one’s diet, lots of information are needed in order to be able to pick from various foods which contribute to converting to a healthier lifestyle and maintaining it. The main purpose of this study is to determine and show examples of the characteristics of online marketing which could help consumers in the conscious conversion to healthy lifestyle. Of the various factors, great emphasis is placed on online health-related information. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that healthy lifestyle-related information has a significant role in online sources. Consequently, Internet can be regarded as a preferred source of information in terms of the conscious converting to healthy lifestyle.


  • The connection between academic and athletic performance among elite university student athletes

    Athletes in higher education are not only expected to produce high level performance but to find the balance between the preparation for post-athletic life and the requirements of the university. The objective of this study is to explore the connections between academic performance and level of sport. Also, to elaborate on the role of relevant policy regulations and institutional support that help elite athletes meet academic requirements. Data collection was conducted by means of online questionnaires involving athletes receiving sport scholarships at the University of Debrecen (N=159). The data from questionnaires were processed by using SPSS 18. Version software. For data analyse four groups were extracted based on level of sport performance and involvement: international elite, division I, division II, division III. The results indicate that the academic performance on the two international elite of sport did not differ from the average, and that these athletes did not experience any difficulties earning course credits at the university while being engaged in doing sport. In most cases, elite athletes did not apply for the various kind of support instruments, thus, they are able to balance athletic preparation and academic requirements without supportive modifications of university policies. The results also shed light on the fact that the academic performance does not only depend on the level of sport and the chosen major at the university, but it is also influenced by the time devoted to study and training, and the sport type (individual or team sport). There are differences observed between athletes participating in individual or team sport concerning the general average of grades, the effectiveness of earning credits, the number of weekly training, as well as the time devoted to training in preparatory and competitive periods. According to the results, the various amount of time devoted to study or sport does not necessarily result in academic performance decline. In addition, results support that athletes do keep academic studies rather important and they are aware that university years are considered to be a significant period in preparation for post-athletic life.

    JEL code: Z20

  • Multi-level analysis of visitors’ satisfaction flying to Debrecen – main aspects of the research

    This paper presents the non-exhaustive description of the main characteristics of visitors based on the filled out questionnaires during five months following the test month. These characteristics will serve the basis of a satisfaction analysis to be described in the future and they provide guidance for later analyses. I performed the testing of my questionnaire in January 2014. It turned out even from the data collected in the test phase that there were services which did not meet the expectations of visitors several times as it was worse than what they expected. This study focuses on the questionnaire research conducted among foreign visitors coming to Debrecen by flight. The main aspects were to determine foreign visitors purpose of travel to Debrecen, how many times they had already been to Debrecen, how many days they spent in the city, what kind of services did they use and whether the quality of used service met their expectations. As a result of the following five months research, I obtained input data which make it possible to examine real problems with background data. It calls for further examination to determine whether there was any difference in the extent of services living up to visitors’ expectation and visitors’ level of satisfaction.

  • Examination of leisure sports alternatives provided by higher education institutions

    It is one of the main duties of sports in higher education to provide health conscious and sports-loving managers to the society. University years are a good opportunity to do sports in an organised framework, as well as lifestyle consultancy and to make use of the preventive function of sports. In this environment, the approach of students can still be shaped within a formal framework and their level of interest towards sports can still be increased. Furthermore, they can be motivated and become committed to sports if they have positive experiences. The aim of my analysis is to explore and describe the characteristics, peculiarities and current situation of higher education leisure sports. In this study, I present the results of the analysis of data collected with the first eight questions of the situation assessment part of the questionnaire survey. More specifically, I examined the evaluation of leisure sports activities, free sports opportunities and the branches of sports in which these are provided. I was also looking to find out where these sports opportunities are available for students inside or outside the institution and who they are organised and managed by. At the same time, I examined sports opportunities whose costs are paid by the student and analysed which branches of sports are available. Based on my results, I concluded that the sports opportunities of students are especially good according to the managers. This statement confronts the research findings which suggest that the sports activity of students is very low.

    JEL code: Z20

  • Historical overview of the literature on business performance measurement from the beginning to the present

    The paper summarizes the concept of business performance and the performance measurement. The concept of business performance has changed a lot over the past decades. The managers have understood that in order to achieve organizational goals, more emphasis should be placed outside the owners, on other market participants, on the stakeholders (eg: customers, clients, employees, suppliers and other partners, local communities, …). The ’90s are also called „The performance measurement revolution”, because a lot of new performance measurement methods, systems appeared. The performance measurements have the prominent role: to collect information about where we are going to achieve the goals, if needed for intervention.

    JEL code: B40

  • CAP 2013 reform: consistency between agricultural challenges and measures

    The latest reform of the Common Agricultural Policy has just been accepted, identifying important challenges for EU agriculture but proposing only limited changes to the previous CAP. Now it is time for the implementation of the new measures. However, from a theoretical point of view, it seems that the CAP can hardly meet the challenges it faces due to the inconsistencies between the predefined challenges and the measures proposed to meet them. The aim of the paper is to analyse the consistency between the challenges of European agriculture and the policy measures aimed at meeting them. It seems that not all measures are consistent with the challenges.

  • An application of the error correction model in analyzing the long run equilibrium between Ghana’s exports and imports

    This study investigates the long-run relationship between Ghana’s exports and imports for the period of 1948 to 2012. Using the Engle Granger two-step procedure we find that Ghana’s exports and imports are cointegrated. However, the slope coefficients from the cointegration equations were not statistically equal to 1. Furthermore, application of the error correction model reveals that 1% increase in the imports will significantly result in 0.56% increase in exports, suggesting that the exports’ responsiveness to imports is low. The estimated error correction coefficient suggests that 32% of the deviation from the long run equilibrium relation is eliminated, leaving 68% to persist into the next period. These results suggest persistence in the trade deficit and an option of curbing the deficit is to re-order the relationship between imports and exports with a view to reducing imports demand. These results imply that though Ghana’s past macroeconomic policies have been effective in bringing its imports and exports into a long run equilibrium, it is yet to satisfy the sufficient condition for sustainability of foreign deficit.

  • Measuring technical, economic and allocative efficiency of maize production in subsistence farming: evidence from the central rift valley of Ethiopia

    This study measured the technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of maize production in the central rift valley of Ethiopia using cross sectional data collected from randomly selected 138 sample households. The estimated result showed that the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were 84.87%, 37.47% and 31.62% respectively. Among factors hypothesized to determine the level of efficiency scores, education was found to determine allocative and economic efficiencies of farmers positively while the frequency of extension contact had a positive relationship with technical efficiency and it was negatively related to both allocative and economic efficiencies. Credit was also found to influence technical and economic efficiencies positively and distance to market affected technical efficiency negatively. The model output also indicated that soil fertility was among significant variables in determining technical efficiency in the study area. The result indicated that there is a room to increase the efficiency of maize producers in the study area.

    JEL Classifications: C67, D24, D61, L23, Q12, Q18

  • Produce certification and income risk management strategies of cocoa farming households in South-West Nigeria

    Agricultural produce certification is synonymous to farm assurance of which cocoa certification is an example; dealing with issues of Good Agricultural, Environmental and Social Practices (GAP, GEP and GSP) in cocoa production. Essentially, GAP, GEP and GSP packages had in-built mechanism that can aid farmers mitigate factors that could lead to farm income risks in cocoa production. Consequently, this study examined the influence of cocoa certification on income risks of cocoa farming households in South-west Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 180 cocoa farming households from whose heads data were obtained with interview schedule in Southwest Nigeria. Data were analyzed with Chi-square Statistic, Income Risk Management Diversification Index (IRD) and Mann-Whitney-U Test Statistic. Chi-square analysis shows that (52.3%) certified cocoa farming households employed more risk management strategies than (94.2%) uncertified cocoa farming households (p<0.01). The Mann-Whitney-U test revealed a significant difference (p>0.05) between the income risk management practices of certified and uncertified cocoa farming households. Therefore, produce certification has been helping cocoa farming households in mitigating farm income risk in cocoa production through the employment of diverse (risk) management strategies. Hence, stakeholders should intensify efforts in encouraging farming households to embrace (cocoa) produce certification.

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