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Differences in travel behaviors of small and large cycling events participants
Published March 31, 2013
77-82

Tourism has been and will continue to be one of the biggest and most profitable industries in the world. Sport is obviously a very important aspect of society in many different ways: culturally, economically and socially. Like in the past, local authorities continue to regard all sporting events as a way of promoting and positioning their desti...nation. Participation in sport events relates to tourism because it also involves travelling to host destinations. Therefore, the aim of our study is to compare participation in small and large sport-for-all events in relation to tourism in Slovenia. We analysed the factors determining differences in the travel behaviours of sport event participants and certain aspects of participation (travel behaviour, frequency of sport event participation, reasons for participation) at the largest cycling event in Slovenia (the Franja cycling marathon) and two smaller cycling events (the “Three hearts Radenci” recreational cycling marathon and the “Around the region of Prlekija” recreational cycling marathon). The study analysed the active participants of different cycling sport events. The sample of respondents consisted of 382 participants. We found that over the third of the participants take on the role of a sport tourist in their travels. They are also very sport-active in their leisure time. The majority of them are engaged in sport activities more than three times a week. The results indicate differences in travel behaviour and sport-active lifestyles among the participants of different types of small and larger sport events.

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95
45
Examination of the sustainability of the sport facilities in the Northern Great Plain Region of Hungary
Published September 1, 2015
111-117

Developing sport into an industry has become a fundamental interest and a noticeable approach in Hungary in recent years. A socalled economic orientation can also be observed in the field of leisure time sports, which was made into law in Hungary in 2011 allowing the support of sport organisations and resulting in a number of infrastructural de...velopments in Hungary. A wide range of development opportunities remain open in sports. This evaluation aims to introduce what significant sport-investment projects have been implemented in the Northern Great Plain region in recent decades and what effects these investments have had. Surveys have been used to reveal whether these facilities originating from years of sport developments are sustainable and to what extent these are exploited for organising sport events. Based on responses provided by a number of sport facilities – including ones built in the past and also ones opened recently – it can be concluded that sport in itself cannot solve the issue of operation and possible economic growth. Considering these aspects, it is important to incorporate, not only in operation but also during planning, the idea that current facilities must „serve” not solely sport events as these in themselves will not make them profitable but they must remain open for all sorts of social events as well.

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81
28
Sport as power of integration among minorities
Published September 1, 2015
57-62

The opportunities and development of skills in the field of sports may open a door to social inclusion that also facilitates social integration. Based on the funding provided by the national sports strategy and integration, the research project can be developed further on and implemented. The efforts of the European Union (EU) and of the Europe...an Council towards the member states are carried out through its directives, and the analyses of these documents provide guidelines for the elaboration of the Hungarian Roma strategies. Funding is one of the key factors for the elaboration of Roma integration strategy and its efficiency. The research highlights upon the way of thinking and mentality of Roma young people about sports currently, and on the importance of sport affairs for them. Also, reflects on the factors which promote motivation to have successful career goals and achieve those based on the program. The sports integration survey suggests conclusions on the role of mentoring in Roma youngsters’ studies, in sports, in building social relations, the role model motivating for them, or on the supportive role of the parents or even the lack of it in their families. The expected result would be a survey on sporting habits of the Roma minority and disadvantaged youth and their positioning in education through which we could develop programs to promote the integration of the Roma minority and to improve their general circumstances. The National Social Inclusion Strategy (Ministry of Human Capacities, National Social Inclusion Strategy 2011–2020) provides the financial background of the integration project whose application also prevails in the field of sports integration. The aspirations of the EU provide guidance to the amount of funding and its allocation manners. The National Roma Self-Government’s (NRSG) sports integration project and best practice has provided the basis for the sports integration research project. The survey is examining the recreational habits, motivational factors, study levels among the Roma minority and the disadvantaged young people. Based on the questionnaire, we can draw some conclusions about the development of sports integration programs. The issues cover the field of sport activities of young people aged between 9-18 and on the significance of sport opportunities for break-out for the Roma youth, and on the effect of role models for them. The sports integration projects treat simultaneously the development of education and sport, furthermore they are significantly linked to each other. The target group of the questionnaire survey are mainly the Roma and disadvantaged people. The sample item number is 1216 completed questionnaires from the whole territory of the country, from 16 schools. As shown in the survey, the sport and the level of education are significantly related to each other. Those who do any sports, obtain higher level of achievement in their studies. It can be revealed by the fact that through mentoring the sportsmen can promote their school performance and sport development together. The research highlights on another observation, namely, it also confirms the legitimacy of sports integration program and points out the direction for development. For accomplishing the goal of social inclusion through sport we have at hand the appropriate concept. It is, furthermore necessary to strengthen and to develop the mentoring program, which ensures the lower drop-out rate among the participants. The effect of Sports integration is motivating for the Roma and for the disadvantaged youth. The use of sport as a tool for social inclusion proves to be of utmost importance.

JEL code: Z23

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104
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Coach education approach in 16 Hungarian sport federations results of the first sport organizational audit
Published September 1, 2015
87-91

Nowadays the Hungarian government finances the sports in many ways; one of these grant forms is the group of 16 prioritized sports (biking, boxing, fencing, gymnastic, judo, track and field, kayak-canoeing, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, skating, swimming, tennis, table tennis, volleyball and wrestling) which are supported notably by the ...Hungarian Olympic Committee (HOC) till 2020. The purpose of the 1st sport vocational audit was to identify the current status of these sports, and also to create a database in many fields as a benchmark of the development. The sport management department of the Semmelweis University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (TF) contracted with the Hungarian Olympic Committee (HOC) in order to carry the sport vocational audit out. A sport develops if the numbers of the athletes grow or the results of the national teams are better. The coaches are the key persons in this development, if they could gather more children into the sport or they work better with the elite athletes the development has already done. It was examined the existence of the coach education programs; all the federations were running coaching programs for adults (OKJ) in both levels (coach assistant, coach). By 14 associations existed the first level of the higher education coaching program (BSc) and in 13 federations operated the MSc coaching program as well. All these coaching courses were common programs with schools, or universities. It was no evidence found that the federations run own coaching program but coaching license system existed in two sports at the time of the investigation.

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86
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The connection between academic and athletic performance among elite university student athletes
Published September 30, 2015
19-26

Athletes in higher education are not only expected to produce high level performance but to find the balance between the preparation for post-athletic life and the requirements of the university. The objective of this study is to explore the connections between academic performance and level of sport. Also, to elaborate on the role of relevant ...policy regulations and institutional support that help elite athletes meet academic requirements. Data collection was conducted by means of online questionnaires involving athletes receiving sport scholarships at the University of Debrecen (N=159). The data from questionnaires were processed by using SPSS 18. Version software. For data analyse four groups were extracted based on level of sport performance and involvement: international elite, division I, division II, division III. The results indicate that the academic performance on the two international elite of sport did not differ from the average, and that these athletes did not experience any difficulties earning course credits at the university while being engaged in doing sport. In most cases, elite athletes did not apply for the various kind of support instruments, thus, they are able to balance athletic preparation and academic requirements without supportive modifications of university policies. The results also shed light on the fact that the academic performance does not only depend on the level of sport and the chosen major at the university, but it is also influenced by the time devoted to study and training, and the sport type (individual or team sport). There are differences observed between athletes participating in individual or team sport concerning the general average of grades, the effectiveness of earning credits, the number of weekly training, as well as the time devoted to training in preparatory and competitive periods. According to the results, the various amount of time devoted to study or sport does not necessarily result in academic performance decline. In addition, results support that athletes do keep academic studies rather important and they are aware that university years are considered to be a significant period in preparation for post-athletic life.

JEL code: Z20

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227
147
Athlete’s life path in the perspective of gender athletes reporting opportunities in their sports after their sport carrier
Published December 31, 2020
59-70

Sport is the highlight of the male-female relationship system. We find that the concept of homogeneity is becoming more and more weakened, sport becomes unisex, which can strongly influence gender judgment in society. The "weaker sex" appearance and spread of the sport indicate that something has changed in the world, so thinking has to change ...also. Nowadays, there is a dual process in the field of sport: 1.) women appear in the traditionally masculine sports, and this plays an important role in the development of gender relations as mixed races arise; 2.) at the same time, men also appear in previously reserved areas for women, which they have not had opportunities so far (BÉKI, 2018). This phenomenon can be observed, though much slower in sports management. Yet in other sports roles, the gates for both sexes have not yet been opened in masculine and feminine sports. The study deals with how the status of an athlete will be transformed after sport if he/she wants to remain his or her sport in other sports roles - concentrating on coaching and judging roles – to represent his or her own sport. Particularly, we have been focusing on sports whose judgment is not socially acceptable to both sexes. The research sample is team and individual women athletes who are more than 14 years old. Research method is in-depth interview research (n = 145) and questionnaire research (n = 240). The results showed that female athletes are becoming more accepted in masculine sports, although more limited in their careers possibilities than men after an athlete’s life. Their athlete’s identity is strong, they want to stay in the sport on the civilian life as well.

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136
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The role of small-scale sports events in developing sustainable sport tourism – a case study of fencing
Published December 29, 2014
17-22

Promoting sports and sport tourism is considered as a strategic development objective at the local, regional and national levels in Hungary. However, sport tourism is present in many different forms, depending on the type of sport activity, the related sport events and its participants, therefore it is challenging to decide on the type of sport...s and sports events that should be supported to ensure long-term social and economic benefits for a local community. The scale of sports events ranges from the small, local competitions to the international mega sports events. Although the economic benefits of mega sports events are generally appreciated, there has been growing critique about their negative social and environmental impacts. Smallscale sports events also have important potential for tourism, and they may have more advantages for the local community than the mega events by providing additional incomes, using the already existing infrastructure, raising local pride and community spirit. Sport tourism related to small-scale events is generally considered to be a more sustainable form of tourism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the tourism development potential of small-scale sports events, particularly focusing on fencing competitions. It highlights the demand side of the sport tourism market, investigating the behavioral profile of the participants of an international fencing tournament. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the Budapest WestEnd Women's Epee Grand Prix 2014. The data revealed that participants of the sporting event spend only a short period of time at the destination, and shopping and eating out are the most preferred free time activities. The paper identifies and discusses issues regarding the role of sports organizations and tourism agencies in cities hosting such events to increase the tourism potential of small-scale sports events in the future.

 

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377
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Information content of a sports undertaking’s statements serving different purposes – particularly with reference to the player rights
Published September 1, 2015
119-133

In the 21st century, sport is not just a fun, social cohesive force but also a business; it has become an independent industry by now and several countries possess developed sport markets. According to estimates, sport accounts for 4% of the EU’s GDP. The actuality of our research is given by the fact that the economic aspect of sports develo...ps continuously which is also due to that more and more amounts already stream into sports in our days. In Hungary, sport is mainly state aided and has mostly financing problems while the sport businesses existing in the more developed Western Europe are principally sponsored by the private sector. The government considers sport as a strategic branch (HERCZEG et al, 2015) and manages as such because they see the international breakthrough potencies in sport as well. Sport companies must also adapt the business-based thinking, which requires the strategic planning and operation (BECSKY, 2011). The research covers the subject of economic approach of the players’ rights. The task of accounting is to give a true and fair image about the property, income and financial situation of an undertaking. Information provided by accounting is essential for both the management decisionmaking and the market operators. In Hungary, the sports undertakings, as each managing entity, have to prepare their statements according to the Act C of 2000 on Accounting (AoA.) (NAGY – BÁCSNÉ BÁBA, 2014). The purpose of this research is to examine how a domestic sports undertaking demonstrates the value of available players in the books and how the incomes and expenditures incurred with the players are accounted for, based on the regulations of the Hungarian, international associations and the Union of European Football Associations (hereinafter: UEFA). In order that the leaders of the businesses can make quick and appropriate economic decisions, it is essential in this intensively changing world that an enterprise should have a well-functioning accounting system based on up-to-date information. International Financial Reporting Standards (hereinafter: IFRS) are intended to provide the comparability across borders. Firstly, we deal with the accounting reporting system, both the Hungarian, international financial reporting standards and, relating to UEFA, the investigation of the intangible assets to a great extent during analysing the balance sheets. Then, we examine the income statements from the viewpoint player transfers. To what extent the rules of a statement laid down by UEFA differ from the ones of a statement prepared according to AoA? What is the difference in domestic and international relations? In this study, we search after the answers for questions mentioned before.

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91
27
Responsible behaviour or business? Social responsibility (CSR) in sport management
Published March 31, 2013
83-90

CSR has become increasingly important in today’s business world and managers must consider not only the economic results of their decisions but also the legal, ethical, moral, and social impact and repercussions of each of their decisions. Some multinational companies’ CSR activities even clearly represent applicability of CSR in sport mana...gement. The aim of this study was to do a critical comparative analysis, present the changes, alterations in the traditional company philosophy, objectsystem; then to define the concept of CSR, its importance in sport, finally to analyze some of the top 20 World Food & Beverage Companies’ (Coca-Cola, Danone, Nestle) CSR activities in sport management. Similarly to the whole economics – beside traditional theoretical tendencies, parallel to them and not developing them – a new kind of company theory concerning the long-term balance problems of the natural environment and society is being formed. Although the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is prominent in some of the current discussions and investigations about the role of business in society, the concept – integrate social and environmental aspects in their business activity – is not new. According to the websites and sustainability reports of the international parent companies and domestic subsidiaries, we can say, that the companies show similarity at several points with regard to social responsibility within the field of sport management. However we must emphasize that we can find in the domestic practice fewer examples. In this case probably the media plays important role, which prefer the news of scandals such as CSR-related initiatives. In the public the companies’ CSR activities are even less known. Finally we can establish, that about the sport sponsorship the parent companies we have more information, their reports and websites are more transparency. In contracts, in the case of subsidiaries we can meet deficiencies.

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300
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The role of sport infrastructure: use, preferences and needs
Published September 1, 2015
47-52

Leisure and mass sports are very significant both socially and economically. Physical activities contribute to forming a healthier society. Skills and abilities developed by sport promote people’s well-being and directly improve their physical, mental and psychological performance this way producing better quality of life. The state of health... of the workforce is a more and more frequent question in developed and developing economies but mostly in the western civilizations. Researches prove that those who are more active phisicly can perform better at their work and are more efficient in their jobs. They claim less sick leave benefit and their health insurance costs are lower, this way preserving the health of the workforce can be an investment in the future. If we want the population to live in a healthier way and do more sports only education and motivation are not enough, it is very important to provide the appropriate infrastructural background as well. People can have a wide range of choice provided by the local sports establishments and companies and the possibilities resulting from sport infrastructure investments. The effects of sport infrastructure investments and developements are many folded and long-therm, but it is worth approaching their benefits from different points of view. Researching this topic can contribute to better understanding of the society from the points of view of health care, economy and sociology. The aim of our work was to examine the sporting habits and sports consumption. In order to get to know the consumers we carried out a survey with 350 particiant with the help of an online questionnaire. When analyzing it I focused on the answers given by those who were active in sports, which was the 75% of total sample. In the analysis of the answers and relations between the questions and the different factors we used the SPSS Statistics program. Providing sport establishments and facilities and initiating such investments are highly important for each region. From the answers of the quesstionned we can learn what facilities are available for the consumers and what they miss most in the living area.

JEL code: L83

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112
94
New approaches to youth in thrill society: sport participation as fuel to boost outlook on future and concepts on self
Published March 31, 2013
97-104

The theory of “thrill-society” (Schulze 1992) conceptualizes that increased economic status that allows the focus of daily life to switch from providing for physical needs to searching for a meaningful life and self-fulfilment. Combined with the expansion of education, it causes a smooth transition from traditionally inherited social positi...ons and class-based hierarchy in society to a higher degree of social mobility, increased individualisation and diversification of life styles. Noting that, the actualization of this concept in Hungarian society came into effect only along societal discrepancies; still, the uncertainties and insecurities that accompany the process of ‘thrill projects’ collection are substantial. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport participation in the lives of young people, how sport may assist young people in coping with the insecurities and uncertainties created in the societal scene that is characterised by the combination of Schulze’s “thrill-society” and the inheritance of political, economic and societal transition of Hungary. Specifically, this study aims to find differences between sport participants and non-participants in their perception of future on micro and macro level, their readiness to take risks and challenges, and their self-concept related to their own health, physical condition, and physical appearance. Stratified random sampling was applied to obtain an accurate representation of Hungarian youth population. Data were analysed by using cross tabulation, non-parametric and multidimensional statistical methods. The results showed that sport participants adopted a more positive image of the future, higher ability to assume risks and a more modern state of mind, as well as a more stable self-concept in comparison to non-participant youth. Also, it seems that the sporting contest may be as strong as sociodemographic positioning in the formulation of these life capabilities. It can be suggested that sport may assist youth with a stable and accountable value environment that reduces the variety of opportunities and provides resources to better deal with societal uncertainties; meanwhile it opens new avenues of personal freedom even in a “thrill society” that filled with deficits in transitioning societies.

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78
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Medals and degrees: factors influencing dual career of elite student athletes at the University of Debrecen
Published September 1, 2015
93-98

Career planning and goal setting play a significant role in the life of elite athletes gaining critical relevance during the overlapping years with university studies. As athletic career contain a necessary end and cannot serve as a profession for life, all athletes shall go through modification period in their professional lives. The athletic ...career shall come to an end and elite athletes need to find another profession for which they need to prepare as well. The specialities of this undertake is that the peak or the progressive cycle of athletic career often times overlap in time with high school and university studies. This definitely challenges those young athletes who made the decision to continue their studies at the university level beside their athletic careers. The objective of this study is to explore the main factors influencing the simultaneous realisation of studies and elite sport careers during university years. Part of a complex research approach on dual career in sport this study is aimed to gain information about methods of athletes for managing their dual tasks, the perceived relationship of student athletes to their peers, teachers and coaches, and their position on the relevant policy regulations provided by the university environment. Following the development of research instruments, data collection was conducted by focus-group interviews at the University of Debrecen among student elite athletes receiving sport scholarships (N=15). Level of success in sport, sport type (individual and team) and gender distribution was taking into account. The results shall contribute to the development of a future research instrument in a form of a questionnaire to assess aspects of dual career of athletes in case of larger samples.

JEL code: Z20

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110
36
The role and function of sport economic studies on higher education
Published September 1, 2015
53-55

Sport economy is a new discipline in domestic and international higher education. In this paper I would like to introduce the present situation and experiencies of sport correlation with economic sciences. I am looking for the answer, for what role and possibilities does sport economic master program in Hungary have.

JEL code: Z...2

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118
34
How Digital Technologies Are Changing Sport?
Published December 13, 2018
89-96

Sports is considered to be an outstanding sector of industry all over the world and can be defined in various fields from business point of view: for example competitive sports, recreation, fitness and entertainment (running commentary). All of these areas have been remarkably transformed by digital technology. Over the past three decades, the ...discipline sport informatics has become a growing discipline. In today’s connected world, the use of wearable technology, big data analytics, social media and sensor technology have revolutionized the way sports are played, analyzed and improved. Through various modern advances and apps, pro athletes can gain greater insight into their performance, improve training methods and elevate their skills. In addition to these, fans looking for mobile-friendly apps to give them the latest stats on the favorite players; real-time, behind the scenes content coupled with the instant reaction, from athletes and fellow fans alike. They want the highs, the lows, the remix replays, seeking a connection beyond the game and looking to share the experience with like-minded fans in the moment (WESTON, 2018). The aim of this present study, on the one hand, is to determine the interlocks of sports and information technology, on the other hand, to show how to increase fan experience with digital technologies under-propping them with practical examples. According to international literatures, there are 4 macro areas which show the linking between sport and informatics: athletic performance, sport club, event management, fan experience. Mobil fan experience, augmented (AR) and virtual reality (VR), big data, social media are those technologies which even popular are these days in order to enhance fan experience in sport.

JEL Classification: L83

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382
270
Differences in the Hungarian households’ sport expenditures
Published March 31, 2013
91-96

The paper searches the differences between the groups of Hungarian households regarding the sport expenditures’ presence in household budget and determining factors. I used the latest Household Budget Survey (HBS) of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office from 2008 which contains data of more than 7000 households. My methods were logit and ...probit models, where the presence of sport expenditures were explained in households’ budget. The increase of the following indicators has a positive effect onto the possibility of the sport expenditures: income status, level of education, number of the children in the household, size of settlement. The region of the household is determining the presence of the sport expenditures too, however sex of the household’s head does not play a significant role.

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87
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Women on ice - gender equalization
Published June 30, 2017
137-145

In the last decades the women started to do sports which were originally masculine (Pfister, 1990). The parity led to the slow transformation of the old-school thinking about the traditional roles of sexes (Hall, 1996). The main questions of our investigation were whether the athletes’ thought of the figure skating and the ice hockey are diff...erent according to their sport or to the existing stereotypes in the Hungarian sport society. We used semi-structured interviews to gather opinions of two different gender type icy sports’ top women athletes (figure skating and ice hockey) to see their viewpoints about the gender equalization. We can verify Metheny (1965) findings, that the social acceptance or refusal of women in sports on the basis of traditional features is changing slightly. Research questions were: Are there differences in the childhood sport socialization processes of the representatives of the two sports? What was the motivation behind their choice of sports? Are there differences in the gender identities of female athletes? What is the athletes’ opinion on one another and the representatives of the other sport? Method was semi-structured in-depth interviews and the samples were the members of the Hungarian women ice hockey and figure skating national team. According to our results family and siblings were decisive in the childhood socialization process. Early age patterns do not seem to have much influence on the selection of sport. Although among water polo/ice hockey girls there were a few tomboys. Among the ice hockey team members there were girlish girls and boyish girls as well, but among the figure skaters there were no one who was boyish. No differences can be observed in their views on gender roles concerning for example employment or housework.

JEL Code: Z29

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133
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Climate change effects on ski tourism
Published December 31, 2017
19-26

Nowadays, climate change poses a common recurring problem in our everyday life. The weather forecasts tend to be inaccurate, the swiftly changing weather often makes fun of the people. The same unpredictability applies for forecasting the amount of precipitation or snowing. The major problem in ski tourism consists in the gradual shift of seaso...ns, namely there is no snow in December yet, while at Easter-time we can count on such an enormous amount of snow. I’d like to present this climate condition and offer a sort of way out of this problem. In my empirical study, I have carried out document-analysis along the data collection phase, and I made half-structured deep-interviews, as well.
My research questions were the following: How is the winter season affected by climate change or by the lack of snow? Due to the unreliable climatic conditions what is the estimated ratio of drop in tourism in the season? How much shorter is a skiing-season and how does it affect the operation of the local ski-school? What are the features of pre, and post peak-season tourists’ emergence? How and for how long can a smaller ski-resort be maintained? What is the biggest challenge, problem at the ski-resorts along the state border?
First of all, I’d like to present and tackle the various solutions emerged facing the challenges of climate change effects related to skiing, on the other hand, I have made some personal interviews with Hungarian ski instructors working abroad and also with managers of Austrian ski schools trying to find out the various answers and reactions they have hammered out coping with the new challenges and difficulties in ski tourism.
Hungary can not be considered a skiing nation, although more and more people tend to take up skiing and get involved in this special field of sport tourism. The number of ski slopes being built and developed is increasing, yet the Hungarians ski-lovers tend to visit rather the foreign sport centers for the time being. The reasons mostly involve the various length and versatile difficulty level of the ski slopes. We should also take into account the challenging conditions imposed by climate change on the smaller winter sport centers and the way they can cope with it and also compete with other sport centers with similar features.
Climate change affects considerably the operation of skiing season, and the service providers must adapt to the new conditions. Many resort venues struggle for survival, though most of the local self-governments are clearly aware of the importance of ski-tourism, particularly in Austria.

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240
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Analysis of the leisure sport activities in University of Debrecen
Published September 1, 2015
75-80

The sports program of the professional higher education focusing on the leisure sports opportunities. New needs, change in taste and new leisure habits of the young generation should be taken into account to design the University’s leisure sports program. In my study I was dealing with a questionnaire survey investigating the attitude of the ...students of the University of Debrecen to leisure sports, and the students’ opinions about their own physical status. Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 213 students completed it. In conclusion I found that the students are satisfied with their physical states although not many of them do sport on a regular basis. I revealed the primary excuses for neglecting sports: lack of time, laziness and timetable discrepancies. These findings make it imperative that by avoiding the existing discrepancies the students be provided the widest range of time in their time tables available for physical activities.

JEL code: Z20

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69
25
The planned development’s effect on the performance in ice hockey
Published March 31, 2013
31-35

The sports are growing everywhere in the world, so there is no other way to maintain or to increase the level of quality just the strategic planned development (GÉCZI, 2012), because thousands of specialist are working hardly on the better results worldwide. The aim of this study was to monitor the ice hockey players’ physical development in... Hungary since 2007, focusing the results after opening the federations’ Methodical Center (MC). One can see a remarkable development during the last years in the domestic ice hockey, which is perceptible following the sport performance and results. The first step of the planned development was the reform of the curriculum in the coaches courses (from 2004 continuously) at every level, the second step was the opening our MC in 2010, where the Hungarian players and experts (coaches and officials) can develop their skills and their knowledge about the ice hockey. We examined the effect of the above mentioned procedures, comparing the national try-out test running events (10 m, 60 m, 6×9 m, 400 m, 1500 m) by the best twenty U18 players (N=80). According to the opening of the Methodical Center, we used the data from 2012, 2009, 2008 and 2007.

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89
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Regional differences in the economical sustainability of sports halls
Published December 31, 2016
85-91

The precondition of a health conscious behaviour in a community is establishing a healthy development of the community, an important part of which is the community’s attitude to sports and health. A basic manifestation of this is whether the leadership of a specific settlement is committed to developing sports facilities and, on the other han...d, to what extent residents make use of these facilities. The aim of our research was to point out the number of sports facilities currently available for catering everyday physical education introduced in 2012, leisure sports and competitive sport events in two different regions of Hungary. We also examined the resources available for maintaining the facilities and the degree to which existing facilities are exploited. Existing sports halls of the Northern Great Plain and Central Transdanubia were included in the research. We wish to emphasise, in regards to the infrastructural developments of the coming few years, that it is essential to consider the fact, even in the planning phase of facilities, that sport events in themselves do not make the facilities economically sustainable.

JEL code: Z20

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93
28
Sports financing in Croatia
Published September 1, 2015
31-34

Sport is a complex social activity that encompasses various areas. Some of these activities come within the category of public needs, which implies that sport is an activity of wider social interest and requires public intervention in its financing. These needs are determined by law and are an integral part of state and local budgets. It is als...o indisputable that the sport is an activity of exceptional significance for the society and it is equally clear that the investment into sport in Croatia is not proportional to that significance and top scores, which are achieved by the Croatian athletes. Sport can be in a partner relationship with the economy and the promoter of social changes and habits, but in order to become and remain that, general public has to be truthfully interested into sports.

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90
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Infrastuctural background of the everyday physical education in Hungarian high schools
Published December 31, 2017
31-36

The Hungarian government is dedicated to supporting a healthy and sporty life-style, thus in the past years the number of initiatives directed to publicizing and promoting sports has increased considerably. The new Law of Public Education has put the emphasis on physical education and on organizing other sport events in schools. This led to the... introduction, in a phasing-out manner, of the every-day physical education (PE).
We were interested to know the infrastructural background of PE including the number and size of sports halls available for the students, how many classes can they accommodate at the same time, and when were they constructed. To this end a survey was conducted through telephone, contacting 200 high schools in 19 counties of Hungary. Do the schools have their own swimming pools, or do they conduct after-hours sports events. Data were analyzed using the EvaSys program.
The time of construction of the schools and their sports halls spans a wide range between the years 1530 and 2005. So do the number of students, between 150-1200. Nineteen of the schools have none, 67% has one, and 18.8% two sports halls. The size of these halls is also very variable, while in some schools it is only 25 m2, in others it can be as large as 2295m2. In most cases the halls can accommodate one or two classes in parallel. Afternoon classes are held in 87% of the schools, and include basketball, fencing, and soccer, among others. However, only eleven of the interviewed high schools have swimming pools. Research has called the attention to the fact that the exercise of Hungarian youth is too little. This puts the emphasis on the promotion of physical activity in schools. While there are large differences in the infrastructural background in the schools involved in the survey, they all strive to conduct after-hours sport events.

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Futsal for the blind: a new opportunity for Hungarian people with visual impairments to get engaged in physical activity
Published March 31, 2013
37-41

The proportion of Hungarian citizens involved in regular physical activity is extremely low and rates are even lower amongst people with disabilities. It is, however, undoubtedly easier to stimulate physical activity if a wide variety of different sports is accessible for them. Blind futsal was introduced by an NGO, Sports and Leisure Associati...on for the Visually Impaired and it has been played in Hungary for only a year.
The present work, by introducing this special sport through document analysis and semi-structured interviews, aims at calling sport professionals’ attention to the unexploited opportunities of adapting sports to blind people’s special needs. The author also wishes to highlight the power of a civil initiative and the inmense effort people with visual impairments themselves make for improving their own sporting opportunities.

 

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“Treasures” of Debrecen selection of and attention to sports talents in the Sport School of Debrecen
Published December 31, 2010
63-66

The article is about a program selecting and attending sports talents in order to select and attend to the conscious sports talents so as to support convenient supply for the sections of the Sport School of Debrecen as well as for the adult sports organizations of Debrecen.

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Economic importance of the Hungarian sports sector in international comparison
Published June 30, 2020
109-114

Sport is one of the most dynamically developing sectors in the world. During my research, I was looking for the answer to why and how the economic aspects of sport have evolved in recent times. I examined and evaluated sports economy indicators for the global (The European Union) and territorial (Hungary) units (for the last twenty years). The ...need for measurability is constantly increasing nowadays. This can also be seen in the markets of the sports sector, so we can find databases that are increasingly expanding in this sector. I have analysed EUROSTAT databases - with indexing – which can provide relevant information. The research field was two economic aspects, the number of employee and trade in sporting goods. The number of employees was analysed separately by the European Union and Hungary. In the examination of trade in sporting goods The Hungarian trade in sporting goods was compared to the neighbouring European Union countries. Based on my results, I can say that the economic importance of the sports sector has increased within the European Union and Hungary as well because the number of employed people in sports and the trade in sporting goods has increased.

JEL Code: L83, Z20

ARTICLE IN PRESS!

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