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  • Integrating environment economy to project management
    39-43
    Views:
    276

    Environmental sustainability is a horizontal issue that appears at all level of economic activities and private life. Due to the increasing complexity of regulations, particularly in case of EU funded developments, all the projects need to meet a lot of criteria on environment protection issues. These activities include the conduction of environmental studies, data collection, future emission estimations, improving social attitude, acquiring necessary permissions and environment friendly equipment and finally all the administrative activities to monitor everything mentioned previousThe project management organization increasingly needs a special expertise to meet all the requirements no matter what is the original scope of the project. The study collects different type of knowledge and expertise to manage environment economic issues during project management on four different categories, such as legal, technical, financial or human. The summary of the different type of knowledge provides logical conclusion on how the project management organization should meet the challenges of climate change in terms of daily work and organizational operations.

    JEL classification: O22

  • The climate change and agriculture – dimensions and correlations
    33-38
    Views:
    136

    Global climate changes are taking place and its impacts on economy are already occurring in fields like tourism, agriculture, forestry, infrastructure, insurance industry or capital market. Specialists draw attention that climate change has negative effects and positive effects. For example, in some parts of Europe, especially in north, the agricultural may benefit from temperature rise increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. The most important part of these changes is due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activity. Between greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest contributor with a weight around of 80% of total GHG emissions. The agriculture is the most affected sector by the climate change, but agricultural activities have many negative implications on environment through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide that result from changes in land use. Besides the negative impact, the agriculture may play a positive role to environment protection through the production of bio fuels. Because of the huge implications of climate change on human activities, the public authorities have made important steps in order to control this phenomenon, to reduce and prevent the negative impact.

  • Survey of job satisfaction and organizational climate at the University Computing Centre (Srce), Zagreb
    91-92
    Views:
    119

    Organizational environment determines behavior of the organization’s members. Therefore, in order to efficiently manage human resources in an organization, it is crucial to know and understand this environment. Being used to describe organizational environment, organizational climate and culture are one of the most important psychosocial constructs influencing successful organization functioning and deve lop ment. During recent thirty years these constructs are attracting the interest for both – organizational behavior researchers as well as practitioners working in the field of the organizational effectiveness improvement and optimal human resources use. All of them are trying to find answers to questions related to the climate and culture nature, their ways of measurement and modification, and their causes and consequences.

  • Adaptations to potential impacts of climate change in the “New Hungary” Rural Development Programme
    133-137
    Views:
    125

    There are evidences that the climate is changing and the effects on agriculture and wildlife are discernible. Spring is occurring earlier and autumn later, all of which have impacts on agriculture and forestry. Climate change is also predicted to result in more frequent droughts, increased flooding in Hungary, but the relationship between agriculture and climate change is more complex. Climate change has physical effects on farming and farm based wildlife. Agriculture needs to adapt to climate change by exploring, which crops and farming systems are best adapted to the changed conditions. Land management also needs to adapt to preserve biodiversity by protecting valuable habitats and species and helping them in the changing environment. With better management, agriculture and forestry can also mitigate climate change by reducing direct greenhouse gas emissions from land use, land use change and forestry, by producing crops as a source of renewable energy and by protecting carbon stored in soils and in manure. The HRDP comprises of a series of funding based on the following overarching priorities: (i) enhance the environment and countryside, (ii) making agriculture and forestry more competitive and sustainable, (iii) enhancing opportunity in rural areas, whether in the farming sector or the broader rural economy. Actions discussed in this paper are based on the New Hungary Rural Development Programme (2007–2013) and focused on reducing the effects of climate change in rural area. Establishment of agro-forestry systems and integrated pest management help mitigation goals and increase climate change adaptation potential. Minimizing unwanted side effects of agriculture by reducing the use of fertilizer and increasing the safety for environment (soil, water, and air) and human health have positive effects on adaptation potential. Restoration of agricultural production though diversification of agriculture and pastures management, improvement in drain age and irrigation equipment are good examples of adaptation for climate change. Integrated production, which is oriented to controlled cultivation of crops, vine, fruits and vegetables, and improvement of animal rearing conditions to increase production standards and overall welfare are preferred and ecologically sound methods of adaptation.

  • Responsible Behavior and Environmental Protection – in Case of Football Clubs
    64-74
    Views:
    517

    There has been a hotspot in sports industry these days that is becoming more and more wide-spread in sports organizations and among managers, namely CSR, that is corporate social responsibility. In the life of geographical regions, towns or villages, professional football clubs play a crucial role. Consequently, clubs tend to take responsibility for these communities in return for their support: whether it is the local population or the authorities, other businesses or the environment, they are ready to stand up for good causes. Nowadays sports centres with their regular events have a significant effect on the environment either regionally or globally. That is the reason why it has become vital in the management of sports facilities to respect environmental principles when designing and using sports facilities and to avoid producing pollution that could harm and deteriorate the environment. The aim of our study was on the one hand, to present the definitional and theoretical evolution of CSR, than the CSR concept in sport, special regard to environmental protection. On the other hand, to analyze what kind of CSR related issues do football clubs (Real Madrid C. F. – RM, Borussia Dortmund – BVB) and how they are addressing issues of environmental sustainability in the context of CSR. According to RM and BVB, we can say that they really try to do efforts to responsible behavior and environmental protection. They have special respect for the society and took big step to use different environmental management tools. It was easy to find information, reports and case studies about these activities.

    JEL Classification: M14

  • Agricultural policy and rural development
    105-112
    Views:
    124

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a cornerstone of EU policy relating to rural areas. Initially, it aimed to provide a harmonised framework for maintaining adequate supplies, increasing productivity and ensuring that both consumers and producers received a fair deal in the market. These priorities have shifted to environmental and animal welfare concerns, as well as food safety and security aspects. As a consequence, the CAP has gradually moved from a production-based structure of subsidies to a market-oriented system, integrating standards for food, environment and biodiversity, as well as animal welfare. In 2010, the EU launched an extensive debate on the future of the CAP, as the European Union needs a better tailored, reformed Common Agricultural Policy to answer the challenges of food, growth and jobs in rural areas. The European agriculture must address the expectations of rural society and demands of the market concerning public goods, the environment and climate change. This raises questions of whether the CAP payments in the past have been effective in achieving their objectives and whether direct payments should be continued for supporting agricultural environmental issues.

  • The role of agribusiness in stimulating on-farm investments – case-study of the armenian dairy sector
    85-91
    Views:
    121

    This paper analyses the impact on investments of contractual arrangements between farms and agribusiness in the Armenian dairy sector. Our empirical evidence is based on a unique survey of 300 Armenian dairy farms. The dairy sector is of particular importance as it provides vital employment and income, in an environment of weak social security and scarce job opportunities. Furthermore, milk production is predominantly organized in small-scale farms, which are most likely to be affected by adversarial financial conditions and limited in their opportunities to raise resources to invest. The results show that a large share of milk producers in Armenia is actively investing to upgrade their farm business. Furthermore, investment activity is not limited to large dairy farmers as over 30% of respondents with less than eight cows have made dairy-specific investments. We find that the linkages between farms and agribusiness – and more specifically the support programs that agribusiness firms offer to their suppliers – have been crucial in stimulating this restructuring process at the farm level. Interestingly, farmers with a more exclusive relationship to the buyer and farmers that deliver to more internationally oriented buyers are more likely to receive support. On the other hand, buyers that operate in a more competitive market are less likely to provide support to their suppliers. These findings have interesting policy implications. On the one hand, our results point to the gains that can be made from openness to international firms. On the other hand, the negative competition effect indicates that buyers are unable to enforce repayment of the provided farm services in an environment where a lot of buyers are competing for the same supply. Policy makers should look at ways of improving the enforcement capability of dairy companies under these circumstances.

  • Is it the right direction? The audit of business strategy
    121-124
    Views:
    110

    In the audit the process of strategic planning the management focuses the social expectations, threats and opportunities of the environment as well as the expectations of the owners. The main question is how much are the strategic tasks is matching with the environmental and corporate resources and capabilities. The answer which raised in strategy audit evaluates the ability to break the implementation barriers. A strategy is worth to realize only if we get satisfying answers to the questions related to the audit. A complex strategy audit method helps to appraise how the planning process is integrated.

  • Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) in Polish food sector enterprises from Częstochowa region – empirical analysis
    101-105
    Views:
    106

    The purpose of the paper is the assessment of implementation of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) concept in Polish food industry in Czestochowa region. ECSR is an important part of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The food industry has many impacts on the environment and strongly depends on natural resources, that is why companies’ environmental consequences of their functioning are important part of corporate management. The most popular activities in the area of the CSR in Polish enterprises relate to the environmental protection. The analysis of the research results indicates, that 38% of the surveyed enterprises follow the ECSR rules, including mostly large manufacturing enterprises. The ECSR is seen as a tool for creating positive image and reputation of a company on the market and for enhancing the organizational culture of an enterprise. Unfortunately, surveyed enterprises have not perceived the ECSR concept as a tool for creating a competitive advantage on the market yet.

  • Analysing sporting goods manufacturers’ environmental management tools
    23-29
    Views:
    215

    Organizations around the developed world are facing pressure from governments, international agreements, society and various stakeholders, to improve their behavior towards the natural environment. The application of environmental management tools may be an important step towards sustainability and the preservation of environmental values, however marketing could be the key – with the help of information and communication technologies (ICT) – in publicizing and spreading these ideas thus forming customers’, stakeholders’ attitude in this respect.The aim of this study was to define the concept of environmental consciousness and environmentally conscious behaviour, then to present the shift the traditional marketing philosophy towards the sustainable marketing approach, finally to analyse two top sporting goods manufacturers’ (Nike, Adidas) environmental management tools with the help of data gained from their web sites, reports, case studies. Interpreting environmental consciousness is difficult without knowing the attitude to it. In spite of that it is important to distinguish between environmental consciousness and environmentally conscious attitude, because consciousness often appears in attitude influenced by other, outer effects.The environmental conscious attitude of companies in itself is not enough for making use of the advantages deriving from a positive environmental concern. They need to pursue more active communication, to „green” the whole of marketing activities. Thus marketing seems a possible means to naturalize and expand environmental protection both among customers and in company practice. According to the analysed companies, we need to say, that they are commitment with the environmental protection. They are used state-of-theart technologies to make their activity greener and introduce these with full particulars, examples e.g. ColorDry technologies, Better Cotton, The Framaprene ECO heel. Either Nike, Inc., or Adidas Group realised that ICT have the ability to improve efficiency and cut the use of material goods, thus reducing energy demands and the burden upon the environment.

    JEL code: Q01

  • Determinants of consumers’ purchase intention for local organic food in Urban Sri Lanka
    70-78
    Views:
    306

    Organic food marketing has currently become one of the most developing markets around the world, including Sri Lanka. Thus, the main aim of this study was to recognize the determinants of the purchase intention for local organic food among urban Sri Lankans. A consumer survey was conducted covering capital cities of six urban districts in Sri Lanka; Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Kandy, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura using a sample of 600 consumers, from December 2016 to May 2018. Out of the 600 consumers, only 114 were purchasing organic food by that time, and those 114 consumers were chosen as the sample for this study.  Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and multiple linear regressions were used as data analysis techniques. According to the results, majority of the respondents belongs to the 31-45 year age category. While most respondents had an education up to GCE Advanced Level, significant percentages of respondents were educated up to graduate and post-graduate levels.  Also, most of the respondents received a monthly total income in between Sri Lankan Rupees 85,001 and 162,000 (approximately US dollars 473 – 900). Although one-fourth of the consumers are purchasing organic food at that time, a higher number is willing to buy them in future. As per the principal component analysis, health and environment consciousness, certification of organic food, marketing aspects of organic food, common parameters of organic food, awareness on the value of organic food, and market availability of organic food were the extracted determinants. The results of multiple linear regressions revealed that market availability, common parameters of organic food, and health and environment consciousness are the dominating variables of the purchase intention of organic food consumers. Thus, expanding the market conditions for organic food, establishing a better marketing system, conducting effective food awareness programs, and value addition for organic food are the identified timely essential recommendations.

    JEL CODE: Q13, Q19

  • Specialities of the corporate tax in connection with the sports organizations
    15-18
    Views:
    152

    In 2004 Hungary joined the EU, therefore its tax system is harmonized with EU directives and its trade with the EU is liberalized and exempt from customs restrictions. In the past few years Hungarian government introduced significant corporate tax advances in order to increase Hungary’s competitiveness for foreign capital. With the flat 10% corporate tax rate, Hungary has one of the the lowest corporate income tax rate in the European Union. Since 2011 new corporate tax incentive was adopted in order to create a tax advantageous economic environment for supporting the five most popular team sports in Hungary, namely, football, handball, basketball, water polo and ice hockey. The following article provides a rough guide on the corporate taxation – in particular of sport organizations in Hungary. 

    JEL code: H25

  • The status of agricultural financing by commercial banks in Zimbabwe
    45-56
    Views:
    398

    Agricultural finance is indispensable for enhancing productive capacity in both small-scale and commercial farming. This study sought to establish the current status of agricultural financing by 12 registered and operational commercial banks in Zimbabwe in the year 2019. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. SPSS and NVivo were used for data analysis. All the commercial banks participated in agricultural financing with an average agricultural loan portfolio of 30%. However, their participation in agricultural lending is yet to reach the pre-land reform maximum of 91.3% attained in 1999. Land tenure and weather risks, as well as lack of collateral among farmers reduced the banks’ appetite for lending to the agricultural sector. The majority of the commercial banks offered value chain finance, invoice finance, overdraft facilities, and term loans to agricultural sector clients that mainly included; suppliers, medium-scale, and large-scale commercial farmers. The study established a mismatch in the demand and supply of loans in the medium to long term tenure range of 1 to more than 3 years. There was low demand for 1-3-year tenure loans according to the commercial banks, and a corresponding deficit in the supply of highly demanded longer-term loans of more than 3 years for capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, government should aim to; stabilize currency; arrest hyperinflation; restore economic stability; address land tenure to ensure the bankability of the 99-year Lease; and create an environment that is conducive for investment in climate and weather resilience infrastructure. Local farmers should also invest in human and physical capital to improve their access to bank credit.

    JEL Code: Q14

  • Analysis of the producer price of Hungarian raw milk in international comparison
    27-32
    Views:
    153

    Although the dairy market crisis eased in 2011, Hungarian dairy farmers still find it difficult to produce milk profitably. As a result of the crisis, many dairy farmers abandoned milk production or reduced the size of their dairy herds in 2009 and 2010. Today, many of farmers are also considering ceasing production, in spite of the fact that the global dairy industry is facing an upturn. A dairy farm can operate profitablyy in three ways: 1) if it can reach a relatively high level of producer price 2) if it can increase milk production per cow 3) if it can achieve a relatively low cost of production. In the present study, I primarily analyse the development of the Hungarian producer price of raw milk in international comparison. Next, I list those factors which directly or indirectly influence the producer price of raw milk. Finally, I examine the relationship among disposable income, milk consumption and milk price. Since the start of 2009, the dairy market has been confronted with a period of extraordinary law prices. After bottoming out, prices had begun to slowly stabilise during the second half of 2009. By the end of that summer, international prices had started to strengthen and the last quarter of 2009 was characterized by a steady rise in prices. The strong recovery in prices experienced after 2009 was triggered by increased demand, mainly from oil exporting countries, but also from China.
    The price increase, however, reflected a significant increase in input costs in Hungary; the high level of feed prices and the unfavourable change in the macroeconomic environment must be stressed. The rising excise duty on diesel fuel and the VAT increase had a direct impact on Hungarian dairy farmers. These negative factors have increased the costs of the sector, narrowing the ability of those active in it to operate efficiently.

  • On corporate risk management practices in Romanian companies
    85-89
    Views:
    120

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of corporate risk management practices in Romanian companies, by investigating the risk management approaches Romanian companies take. Our main findings are that Romanian managers are not aware of the magnitude of exposure their companies have to various types of risk – hazard, operational, financial and strategic risks, while they are able to manage rather well all these risks, even the ones that have the lowest impact on the business. At the same time, risk management systems employed by Romanian companies are rather inarticulate and based on traditional approaches towards risk management, which might represent by itself a major source of risk, given the complexity of the business environment they face.

  • The conditions of security in sustainable rural economics
    51-57
    Views:
    111

    This work aims to map the potentials of safe rural economy. This topic cannot be separated from the processes of globalization and localization, affecting each other, whose positive and negative effects have been focussed on, especially in terms of the protection of security and sustainability or their damaging. In Hungary, sustainable rural economy cannot be achieved only by the rural economy’s systematic stabilization but its present structure and the security system, accompanying the process, also needs to undergo some drastic changes. Sustainable rural economy means a modern economy that aims to keep the rural inhabitants while increases the wealth of the whole society. The legal security of the sustainable local economy is guaranteed by the state in Hungary. The security of the rural areas is provided by the police as an armed force, the auxiliary police, the public place supervision, the local agricultural rangers, the environment wardens, and by the fish- and game-keepers. The Police Act allows cooperation with the further organizations of the society to preserve public order, and to protect property and prevent and detect crimes. The purpose of my thesis is to present security as one of the most important factors to improve the rural areas. I also aim to map the possibilities of improving security (such as cooperation, naming the resources assisting strategic tenders and participation in rural development programs).

  • Development of the European Union’s environmental policy and its measures for climate protection – a review
    Views:
    306

    The negative impacts of human activities on the environment and nature can be felt worldwide. Thus there is a growing focus on measurements that keep sustainability in mind. As one of the main pioneers of environmental protection and sustainability efforts, these aspects are more and more prevalent in the current environmental policy of the European Union (EU). In this review article, the development of the environmental policy of the EU is presented. After listing the main milestones, the role of the EU in the area of environmental protection, the frameworks built around the goals and the roles of the institutions are discussed. Then – with an international detour – the details of the Paris Agreement about climate change and the state of the 20/20/20 commitments are summarised. In the remaining parts of the article, the focus is on the climate protection goals of the EU for the next three decades, the expected future directions, and the agenda of the von der Leyen Commission concerning climate protection. An important step and tool for achieving the goals set until 2050 is to incorporate climate and environmental protection elements to the 2021-2027 budget of the EU. In order to achieve the expected effects, it is crucial to develop the right tools of the environmental policy, to form a widespread cooperation, to raise awareness, and incentivise and support the innovative solutions in the sustainability area.

  • Networking on the utilization of local natural resources
    49-52
    Views:
    114

    Together with its partners, Szolnok College is planning to evaluate a new project for networking on the utilization of local natural resources. This project is based on a research work (using the findings of the surveys completed by the representatives of hosts living in the eastern part of Hungary). The project itself is based on the adaptation of the theory of tourism into practice by presenting existing natural values in the supply portfolio of tourist service providers. A unique natural environment can be found alongside a 120 km-long stretch of River Tisza. These natural values interlink and complete each other with respect to Lake Tisza and River Tisza. Regions and settlements situated further from the specified settlements are also rich in natural values which guests will definitely be pleased to get acquainted with. The six landscape centres (including LHH regions) alongside river Tisza (in the two regions) symbolise the interdependent system of the sample area of the project while a single landscape centre in the Pásztó Minor Region embodies a unique character. A register will be prepared for each landscape centre containing unique natural values that can be involved in the tourist supply and handicraft/economic activities (e.g. basket weaving, floodplain economy) that are or can be built on these natural values. A pictorial English/German-Hungarian professional dictionary summarises the distinctive nature of landscape centres. The education material demonstrating the registers is going to be developed both in conventional and electronic form; its spatial IT appearance on the Internet is considered a special feature. The education material will be supplemented with other information currently missing such as those related to environmentally friendly economy, and the legal context. The methodology allows the adaptation of the method in other regions, even in the whole country. The new qualifying and benchmarking system and the trademark managed by a profession-specific cluster that strengthens network co-operation and controls the development guarantee the achievement of high quality tourism.

  • The role of social media in gastronomy industry
    95-103
    Views:
    956

    Considering the rapidly changing business environment, staying competitive is a key issue and challenge for companies in the 21st century. The criteria of a company’s success and competitiveness is the changing behavior of the different economic actors and its influence. Through the information society came to the fore, the use of diverse information technology tools and methods has become a significant influence factor in terms of the entrepreneurs or company management and also the customers or other partners. Due to the rapid expansion of new technology developments, the role and importance of social media is continuously increasing. Also statistics show that one of the most regularly used IT tool is the social media and the different web 2.0 applications. The current study is intended to provide a better understanding how social media can emphasize the competitiveness of companies and format the consumer behavior in a special sector – the rapidly developing gastronomy industry. This paper presents an empirical research about the role of social media in the above mentioned industry based on the primary data which are gathered through a survey performed in Hungary. Beyond the empirical results presented, the paper also aims to provide some recommendations for research methodology – based on the international literature review and the Authors’ own experiences – both in gastronomy industry’s and customers’ point of view. Through the analysis the research hypotheses were examined and the most important correlations were identified between the survey results and the Authors’ initial supposition.

    JEL Code: D83, L83, M31, Z33

  • The elements of strategic and marketing planning applied in the case of Avital company
    111-112
    Views:
    125

    Presently, the environment that is characterized by rapid changesinallsocialspheres,thechallengesofrapidadaptation and survival in the market, the ability of thinking and acting in front of ‘’time’’is one of the key factors of success. Every day we have witnessed a large decline of the number of companies, poor implementation of many projects, poor implementation of governmentreforms, and life challenges of people to find work. On the other hand, there are individuals, organizations and companies that face challenges and changes very fast in all world markets and societies. Question that could be asked based on this is ‘’Why and how some companies manage it and the other not?"

  • Research on the natural features of karst water, on the example of some water intakes
    63-67
    Views:
    110

    The existence of safe and abundant raw water sources is a priceless treasure for any country. Water resources are of particular importance for Montenegro, especially for the development of tourism and agriculture which represent the backbone of its economic development. With respect to water potential, Montenegro is at the top of Europe. However, it is not a sufficient factor, but the very way it is used and protected, as well as the improvement of its valorization. Economic development which is not based on the conservation and good governance of natural resources may have negative consequences for the overall development. The aim of the paper is the study of natural properties of karst ground waters and their changes through interrelation of some ions, as indicators, on the example of five intakes in use. The paper presents the results of the research on the said waters and the values of indicators which point to their exceptional benefits for the water supply. However, the effects of the anthropogenic factor are evident, which are reflected in the range of the mole ratio of Ca /Mg ions ranging from 5.4 to 9.6, and the values (eqv.SO4/Cl) ranging from 0.3 to 2.0. Protection of the environment, especially preservation of the quality of water resources of Montenegro, imposes the urgency of implementation of the objectives of the Water Framework Directive.

  • ASSESSMENT OF THE CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN NORTH COTABATO: Using Comparative Analysis
    Views:
    107

    This study was conducted to assess the conditions of the farming households in North Cotabato as basis to reform the development of agri-preneurs in line with the country’s thrust of transforming farmers as entrepreneurs. The research analyzed the conditions of the farming households in North Cotabato in relation to the crops they produce. Stratified random sampling was employed in the collection of data from four hundred (400) farming households using a self-constructed questionnaire validated by the panel. Data generated were analyzed descriptively and by inferential statistics using analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The research revealed that the primary commodity produced is rice, followed by rubber and coconut. On the other hand, study revealed that respondents in the study are engaged in single farming, without Farming, and multiple farming.

    Among the perceived conditions of the farming households the study also revealed that conditions in terms of infrastructure facility, market information, managerial skills and entrepreneurial competencies are ready and available for the farmers but neither agree nor disagree on the availability of the conditions in terms of market opportunity, access to credit facility, enabling environment, and government policies on entrepreneurial development. The result affirmed the hypotheses that significant differences in the conditions of the farming household when analyzed according to the crops produced.

  • Future role of agriculture in multifunctional development of rural areas
    135-143
    Views:
    113

    In the paper the changes in agriculture in terms of falling share of agriculture in gross domestic product and decrease in the share of persons employed in agriculture in total employment in Poland and selected countries are discussed.The main driver of these changes is a faster pace of development of non-agricultural activities and continually deteriorating relations between the costs of production factors and prices of agricultural products. The rate of growth in labor costs and prices of the means of production for agriculture is much faster than the rate of increase in prices of agricultural products. This causes the decline in profitability of agricultural production which in creases the size of farms. The pace is dependent on the level of economic development of the country. The study also identified trends in the structure of farms, functions and systems of agriculture in the generational perspective.The polarization of the farms will deepen.A strong group of commodity farms and a group of so-called self – subsistence social farms will emerge. Agriculture in Poland will have a dual nature. In addition to the production function and social services agriculture will expand the scope of service functions for the environment and society.

  • Examination of leisure sports alternatives provided by higher education institutions
    33-37
    Views:
    157

    It is one of the main duties of sports in higher education to provide health conscious and sports-loving managers to the society. University years are a good opportunity to do sports in an organised framework, as well as lifestyle consultancy and to make use of the preventive function of sports. In this environment, the approach of students can still be shaped within a formal framework and their level of interest towards sports can still be increased. Furthermore, they can be motivated and become committed to sports if they have positive experiences. The aim of my analysis is to explore and describe the characteristics, peculiarities and current situation of higher education leisure sports. In this study, I present the results of the analysis of data collected with the first eight questions of the situation assessment part of the questionnaire survey. More specifically, I examined the evaluation of leisure sports activities, free sports opportunities and the branches of sports in which these are provided. I was also looking to find out where these sports opportunities are available for students inside or outside the institution and who they are organised and managed by. At the same time, I examined sports opportunities whose costs are paid by the student and analysed which branches of sports are available. Based on my results, I concluded that the sports opportunities of students are especially good according to the managers. This statement confronts the research findings which suggest that the sports activity of students is very low.

    JEL code: Z20

  • „Green” Public Relations (Public relations in the sector of products and services for Polish agriculture)
    67-74
    Views:
    113

    The field of Public Relations has undoubtedly been assuming growing importance in Poland. Understood as an element of marketing communication or a function of company management, it has a significant impact on company’s external and internal environment. According to Puls Biznesu3 the value of the Polish PR market amounted to 250m PLN in 2005, which is a 20% increase as compared to 2004. According to the author Urszula S ´wiatl⁄owska, “the turnover of PR agencies is growing and even smaller companies demonstrate their interest in the services”. Considering this, it can be assumed that PR activities will soon be initiated by many smaller Polish companies, often connected with the agricultural sector. The change discussed by the authors of the article reflects the phenomenon of PR’s growing importance among other communication channels in Poland.

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