No 26 (2007)

Published July 16, 2007

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Articles

Effect of fish feed containing two Chinese herbal extracts (Ganodema Iucidum and Lonicera japonica) on the non-specific immune system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (preliminary results)
9-14

The effect of two Chinese herbs (Ganoderma lucidum and Lonicera japonica) on non-specific immune response of tilapia was examined. In addition to the control (no herbs), three diet variations were used. These contained 1.0% of Lonicera, 1.0% of Ganoderma and a mixture of Ganoderma (0.5%) and Lonicera (0.5%). The respiratory burst and phagocytic... activity of blood leukocytes were monitored. Three weeks after feeding, the fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results of this study showed that feeding tilapia with Ganoderma and Lonicera alone or in combination enhanced the phagocytosis of blood leukocytes, but not the respiratory burst activity. Both herbs, when used alone or in combination, reduced mortality after challenge with A. hydrophila. The highest mortality was observed in the control fish – 56.66%, and fish fed with Lonicera extract – 43.33% while 30% of fish died in the group fed with Ganoderma and the lowest mortality (20%) was observed when the fish were fed with a combination of the two herbs. It can be concluded that the herb extracts added to this diet act as immuno-stimulants and appear to improve the immune response and disease resistance of tilapia.

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Model Experiment Analysis of the Antioxidant Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid
15-18

Corn milled like flour was crumbled with 5% butter containing a high level of conjugated linoleic acid, then kept exposed to air on an aluminium tray at a layer of 1 cm thickness. Its acid number, peroxide number and fatty acid composition were measured weekly. It was established that during a 24 week long period, there was very little change i...n the composition of fatty acids, but after this, in parallel with the increasing acid number and peroxide number, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids decreased, while those values for saturated fatty acids did not change considerably. With these investigations, the authors proved the antioxidant effect of conjugated linoleic acid.

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Heat treated feeds in turkey feeding
19-22

The main aim of our study was to determine the effect of expanded and pelleted feeds, as well as the only pelleted feed based on wheat and corn, on the production of turkeys. In May 2006,, a fattening experiment on turkeys was started on the starter farm of Habar Ltd in Szarvas, owned by the Gallicoop Corporation. 17 day old male turkeys were i...nvolved in the fattening experiment. The experiment lasted 117 days. At that time, theanimals were 134 days old. After the experiment was completed, they were slaughtered. The following parameters were examined: growth, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits. Turkey feed were produced separately at different times. Similarly to the standard method of turkey fattening, 8 phases feeding was carried out. The fattening experiment was adjusted on male turkeys in 4×12×6 grouping (4 treatments: expanded and pelleted, and only pelleted corn and wheat feed; 12 repeats: number of pens/treatments; 6 birds/pen) 6-6 turkeys from 12 pens per each treatments were measured individually from the 17th day (starter) and at the time of each following feeding changes and mortality. The average of the group was calculated. The average daily weight gain, proportion of the given feed per pen, feeding changes and mortality were determined. The average daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio were calculated.

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Estimation of Inheritabilities from Holstein-Friesian Test Day Data in Hungary
23-25

Recently, test day models (TDM) began to be increasingly used for the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle. The main advantage of the TDM compared with the 305 days lactation yield models is that more effects can be used in the evaluation. Therefore, the TDM is more accurate than the lactation models. The main disadvantage is the increased comput...ational requirement, but this can be offset by improvements in computer capabilities.
The topic of this paper is the use of a fix regression test day model to estimate the inheritabilities of test day data from Hungarian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The inheritability was 0.26 for milk production, 0.2 for fat production, 0.24 for protein production and 0.06 for the somatic cell count.

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Evaluation of deep-frozen ram semen from different sheep breeds with live/dead acrosome staining
26-28

It was found that the Kovács – Foote staining is properly adopted to examine deep-frozen ram’s semen. Data are appropriate for comparison. Examination of one ram’s semen per breed is not enough for drawing any conclusions; therefore, I will continue this research.

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Effect of raised level α-linolenic fatty acid diet on broiler meat quality
29-33

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased α-linolenic content in food on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Birds were fed three-phase diets, contained four different fat sources:... lard, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and soybean oil. According to the experiment, the different oil sources had no effect on growth performance, but the fatty acid composition of diets was reflected in the meat fatty acid profile. We could detect just slight change in colour in the treated meat, which was not caused by the decreased pigment content. The detected change in colour during the storage was not in relation to initial PUFA content. TBA level did not prove the accelerated lipid peroxidation which was expected in case of higher α-linolenic containing the meat. The data obtained in meat storage trial, could not prove clearly the negative effect of the higher α-linolenic content of the meat.

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Comparative analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by molecular microbiology methods
34-39

Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<...br>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.

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Genetic analysis of selected body measurements of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
40-43

The authors made their analysis based on the body measurements of 3080 Hungarian Sport Horse mares listed in the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook. Height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape, heart girth and cannon-bone circumference were measured in Hungarian Sport Horse mare performance tests.
Phenotypic correlations among height a...t the withers and heart girth and cannon-bone circumference varied within a range of 0.45-0.55. There was close genetic correlation (r=0.63-0.82) between the body measurement traits. Heritability values were moderate for height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape and heart girth (h2=0.31-0.49). There were high heritability values (h2=0.51) for cannon-bone circumference.
There were low phenotypic correlations between frame (as conformational trait) and height at the withers (measured by tape and stick) and heart girth.

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Additional data for the evaluation of coat colour varieties in the Hungarian Grey cattle
44-47

When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic herita...ge. In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.

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Studying the reproduction-biological effect of the GPR54 receptor gene in sheep
48-51

One of the main economical problems of sheep breeding is that continual production is not possible due to the seasonality of animals. Today, genes, mutations that may develop aseasonality in sheep are extensively researched in order to make the establishment of populations capable of aseasonal estrus possible.
According to the current knowle...dge, the GPR54 gene participates in the GnRH release from the hypothalamus, and thus in the alteration of the reproduction state of the organism. Our research is aimed to determine whether the GPR54 gene has allele variations that influence the proneness to aseasonal estrus in sheep in a different extent. Therefore, the GPR54 gene sequence of sheep is first examined.

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Examination of feral pigeon populations at animal breeding farms
52-56

In the course of our examination, we assessed biometric data that determine gender, we evaluated sexual activity, measured the nourishment and necropsies of two feral pigeon populations feeding and nesting at animal breeding farms. The changes in the body weight of the different genders were significant on both farms (p<0.05).
The body we...ight and the crop volume of the birds were not significantly different at the examined farms.
On both farms, the elemental food source of the birds was the fodder and corn kernels given to cattle, and was supplemented by that of the pigeons living at the Debrecen farm with food from surrounding farms and with other seeds (pea, millet, rye).
By the examination of the genitals, the birds collected from the Nyírbátor farm showed sexual activity from the beginning of spring, and in the summertime decreasing activity is characteristic, while the pigeons from the Debrecen farm are only active from the summer months. In the course of the examinations in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites and the results of the Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. The bacteriologic analyses showed a different proportion of E.coli, Pasteurella multicoda, haemolysing Staphylococcus bacteria at the two cattle farms. During the examinations for the statement of Salmonellas, this causative agent was stated only in case of birds that spend nights and nested in the town, which allude to human origin. We demonstrated Eimeria oocysts during the parasitological examination of the fecal samples in 5 cases at the Debrecen, and in 1 case at the Nyírbátor farm.

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The possibilities of biomass utilization in the field of spatial development
59-63

By joining the European Union, Hungary made a commitment to increasingly utilize renewable energy sources. Keeping in view the agricultural circumstances of Hungary, we can state that biomass utilization has, overall, the greatest range of possibilities to use its products as ‘energy sources’. Biomass raw materials are useful in meeting emi...ssion control regulations for environment protection and to reduce climate change. The role of biomass production in spatial and rural development and in rural employment, and also in the decrease of Hungary’s energy dependence, supports development in biomass energy use. My aim in studying biomass utilization is the creation of a micro-regional level, decentralised, agro-energetic system-model for the use of plant and animal biomass for energy purposes, whether naturally or by anthropogenic activity, on agro- and sylvicultural areas, and on animal breeding farms. This model simulation method serves as a planning base for policy-makers during the spatial planning processes. The examination is presently in the stage of data collection. The collection of the basic data of the examination area and the purchase of the necessary equipment, materials and maps has already started. Contact has been made with local stakeholders, municipalities, municipality associations and micro-region managers.

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Preparatory studies for modelling production on protected grasslands
64-69

There is a mutual dependence between nature conservation activity and agriculture in Hungary, as the management of the protected areas cannot be achieved without ecological farming methods. Moreover, viable economic activity can be only imagined through the harmonization of agricultural and nature conservation interests. From a nature conservat...ion point of view, grass management systems play the greatest role in domestic agricultural systems. Yet, due to the prohibition of certain management methods and the spatial and temporal restraints on grazing, nature conservation activities have priority on protected grasslands. While nature conservation activity is still of prominent importance, it is not equally suitable for the economical management of protected grasslands per se. With our examinations, we would like to emphasize the common interests of these mutually dependent activities and to promote bilateral cooperation. Our aim is to model the production of grass on the great pastureland of Hajdúbagos. Potential grass production levels are easily calculable with a computer model based on data collected through a series of test harvests, as well as by factoring in changing climatic factors and by simulating the effects of grazing animal species and stocks. This model is not only useful for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and grazing method, and therefore the most suitable management strategy, but it also supports local farmers to be able to plan their activities. In this way, both nature conservation and economic aims can be easily harmonized, which would be an important factor for the sustainable development of rural areas.

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Presentation of winter flower-dub lesions of peach varieties originating from different growing areas
70-73

Although there are many critical points in peach production, in Hungary, winter frost damage is one of the most significant. Serious winter frost damage on the Hungarian Great Plain was the focus of our experiments. The adequate growth and the most adaptable varieties are determining factors in peach production. In our experiments, we compared ...three growing areas (Siófok, Sóskút, Szatymaz) and four different varieties (Suncrest, Redhaven, Meystar, Michellini). Throughout these growing areas and with varieties, we wanted to demonstrate the differences in the frost damage values of the flower buds in 2005 and 2006.
In the course of the statistical trials, we found that the difference between the varieties is significant (table 2). The most tolerant variety as for frost tolerance is the ‘Michellini’ variety, and the worst is the ‘Suncrest’ variety. We also found that these data are significant. When we examined the varieties according to their growth, we got the same results (table 3). We determined that the differences between growth are significant and related to these four varieties and the two years (2005-2006), that frost damage was the highest at Szatymaz, and that it was the lowest in Sóskút.

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The correlation of foreign language proficiency, employment and regional competitiveness in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary
74-82

Employment is one of the basic factors when evaluating a region’s competitiveness. Boosting employment figures will also increase individual income. However, the creation of jobs alone will not solve the problems of unemployment, as labour force with skills matched to labour market demands should also be available. Continuous development of t...he labour force, adjusted to recent needs in the labour market, can contribute to a region’s competitiveness. Mismatches between education and labour market requirements would be too expensive, especially for backward regions like the North Great Plain Region of Hungary. Foreign language education should also be adapted to the changing economy when selecting target languages and language skills. A workforce equipped with contemporary and needed second language skills can be an element in making a region attractive for investors. Although current trends show signs of improvement, Hungary and especially the North Great Plain Region still does not have much to offer in this respect. The paper examines the reasons for the low level of second language acquisition among Hungarians and the population of the North Great Plain Region and explores the ways foreign language knowledge could promote economic development.

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The aggregate stability of the soil in respect to the uniform aggregate stability indicator
83-99

Soil structure and its quality are fundamental properties because they control many processes in soils. Tillage, crop and other factors influence soil structure. Efficient protection of it needs indication of changes in soil structure. A new Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) tries to evaluate these changes, which was comp...ared with some former used indices. The most common method (wet sieving) was modified to reduce the confounding effects of different particle size distribution of different soil types and method used to the investigation. Changes in soil structure caused by tillage and crop management therefore have been made quantitative and comparable. In this paper, we review the new method and Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) and present the results of our investigations.

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Phylogenetic analysis of Phoma species
100-107

The cosmopolitan Phoma genus contains mainly phytopathogenic, opportunistic parasites, and saprophyte fungal species. Up to now, the characterization of Phoma species and other taxa of Phoma has been determined on the basis of morphology on standardized media, and gene sequence analysis was only used as a confirmative or distinctive complement....
In this study, we tried to find molecular markers which can be used as phylogenetics markers in the molecular based classification in the Phoma genus.
We employed a part of the translation elongation factor 1 subunit alpha (EF-1α=tef1) containing both introns and exons and ITS region containing the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rDNA, as potential genetic markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among different Phoma taxa. Twelve different Phoma species sequences were analysed together with the closely related Ascochyta ones. The constructed phylogenetic trees, based on tef1 and ITS sequences, do not support the traditional Phoma sections based on morphological characterization. However, we managed to distinguish between the Phoma strains and Ascochyta species by comparing their tef1 sequences through parsimony analysis. We proved that a tef1 can be a useful phylogenetic marker to resolve phylogenetic relationships at species level in Phoma genus.
Both parsimony sequence analyses confirmed that the Phyllosticta sojicola species is identical to the Phoma exigua var. exigua species as Kövics et al. (1999) claimed. However, the evolutionary distance by ITS sequences within Phoma species is too small to get well based consequences for the phylogenetic relationships of Phoma genus.
Further investigations would be necessary to clarify whether the tef1 and ITS sequences as phylogenetic molecular markers are well suited for the classification of Phoma species.

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Weed control possibilities of „energy willow” (Salix viminalis L.)
108-112

In Spring 2005, the owner of the Szalka-Pig Ltd. of Mateszalka, decided to import the willow species Salix viminalis L. and to create a plantation for energy production purposes on the humid arable lands in his ownership. In 2006, he enlarged this area by 43 hectares. The owner further decided not only to plant this species on the more adherent... (KA 70), but also onto the incoherent structured sand (KA 30-35). His main argument was that the cost of coal tar derivatives as energy sources was rapidly increasing in Hungary, so he needed to find a cheaper energy source for the drying of his products and for the heating of his buildings. He also planned to change his gas and oil heating equipment.
The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the data collected on treatments applied in the pre-emergent stage. The applied herbicide combinations (terbutilazin+S-metolaklór, mezotrion+ S-metolaklór, pendimetalin+S-metolaklór, oxyfluorfen+ S-metolaklór) yielded good results in large scale experiments.

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The examination of poultry feather digestility for biogas production
113-118

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of biological digestion and biogas production from poultry feather produced in large quantities by slaughterhouses. Feather protein was digested by Bacillus licheniformis, keratin desintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influe...ncing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature, feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dinamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extintion level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolisis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. The most extensive digestion were observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion were detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.

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Classification of a diffuse heavy metal polluted mining site using a spectral angle mapper
119-123

Characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is complicated, as the spatial distribution of pollutants often changes dramatically.
In our study, a hyperspectral data analysis of the Gyöngyösoroszi abandoned Pb-Zn mine, located in northern Hungary, where Záray (1991) reported serious heavy metal contamination, was carrie...d out using ENVI 4.3. In this area, galena (PbS), goethite (FeO(OH)), jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6), sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) and pyrite (FeS2) were the predominant minerals in the alteration zones was chosen as the target mineral.
Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and BandMax classification techniques were applied to obtain rule mineral images. Each pixel in these rule images represents the similarity between the corresponding pixels in the hyperspectral image to a reference spectrum.
As a result of hyperspectral imagery the distribution of pyritic minerals (sphalerite, galena) in the area was defined. Both of the mineral formations occur, especially in mine tailings, the area of the ore preparatory, and the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. According to the results, jarosite and goethite have similar distributions to sphalerite and galena. The results showed that hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool for the
characterization of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined polluted sites and for modelling the distribution of heavy metals and minerals in extensive areas.
This classification method is a basis of further detailed investigations, based on field measurements, to map the heavy metal distribution of the studied area and to quantify the environmental risks caused by erosion, which include DEM (digital elevation model) and climatic and hydrological data sources. Furthermore, it can be used primarily to support the potentially applicable phytostabilization technique and to isolate hot spots where only ex-situ remediation techniques can be applied.

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Assay of runoff conditions using a Digital Elevation Model
124-129

We can get information about water conditions of plane areas by analyzing their relief. By using the Digital Elevation Model, we can get proper information about runoff conditions in the terrain surface, which is the basis for ponding analysis. In our study, a Digital Elevation Model of the sample plot in Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge) was... created that makes possible the determination of runoff conditions of the surface. Convergence and divergence of runoff direction showed the rate of ponding and the location of possible inland-water spots. By using this model, concrete location of those areas that tend to be overmoistured could be determined. Knowledge of this phenomenon can be an effective instrument for farmers in optimizing crop growing, and additionally in performing water management interventions in proper time and space.

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Distribution of family farms according to estate size and land usage in Hajdú-Bihar County
130-136

In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.

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Assessment of energy generated by biogas production in the educational industrial unit of the University of Szeged, Faculty of Agriculture, with special regard to biomass originating from agriculture and the food industry
137-140

The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfills lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for waste. For agro-mechanical research, wastes from animal rearing and the food industry, secondary-tertiary biomass, is of deep concern. Available technolog...y is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50-dairy cow, family sized model farm was built in the summer of 1991, as a result of a Dutch – Hungarian cooperation, on the property of the Faculty. The new pig farm, with 30 sows, and the new goat farm, with 100 nannies, was given to the Faculty on 25 April 2001. On the basis of livestock data, the annual dung production and the producible energy were determinate. The energy was calculated by biogas production coefficients in literature.

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Soil analysis as the foundation of precision nutritive supply in the Hajdúszoboszló region
141-148

Larger cultivated plots are heterogeneous from a pedological aspect. Heterogeneity causes problems during fertilization and harvest. The heterogeneity of cultivated areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into the changes of the soil on three soil types, from 1966 to 2006, on the cultiv...ated areas of Hajdúszoboszló.
There were no significant changes in pH on chernozem meadow soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the pH increased in 0-30 cm layer on type meadow solonetz soil. The saline content decreased in every examined soil type. Decrease was the largest on meadow solonetz soil. Decline of humus content was the largest (0.95%) on chernozem meadow soil, and the smallest (0.39%) on meadow chernozem soil. The nitrogen content decreased with 528 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on chernozem meadow soil, and decreased by 186 ppm on meadow solonetz soil. Phosphorus and
potassium content increased in every examined soil types. Rise of phosphorus content was 188.9 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on meadow chernozem soil. The potassium content rose by 153.7 ppm on this soil type. Phosphorus content increased with 70.8 ppm, and potassium content increased by 57.6 ppm from 1966 to 2006.

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Inhibitive factors of the Local Agenda process in Hungary
151-157

The concept of sustainable development is one of the most fashionable concepts in the world nowadays, but Hungary – 15 years after the Rio conference – is still far behind the times: it is the only country in the EU 25 that has not prepared a national sustainable development strategy.
The situation is not encouraging in the field of loca...l sustainability either. Although there are initiatives that can be described as ones that were prepared in the spirit of local sustainable development, no municipalities have working, formulated sustainability strategies.
One of the most important messages of sustainability is that the consultative process between the local government and the community can have far reaching consequences, which can influence the municipality’s life for a long time. In my paper, I explore the inhibitive factors bearing this duality in mind, as the lack of top-down initiatives together with the low number and the low support of bottom-up approaches have led to this image which is not too flattering for Hungary. I also aim to show, through the example of other countries, how these inhibitive factors can be reduced.

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Examination of the sub-regions in the North Great Plain Region
158-163

Before Hungary joined the European Union – in order to gain access to the sources of Structural Funds and to create the expected regional information service – a build up of five-level territorial system was indispensable. Both in the EU and in Hungary, there are significant differences among regions. The aim of regional policy is to reduce... differences regarding development and living standards, in order to guarantee a reasonable living standard and income for every region’s inhabitants in the EU.
In Hungary, during the last decade, the effects of regional difference grew. While the advantage of the leading capital and its agglomeration and the eastern and western parts of Transdanubia was growing, meanwhile the most undeveloped areas' rates of development remained under the mean. The underdeveloped areas are in the northeastern part and in Southern Transdanubia. The developmental differences lead to such great social asymmetries, that these simply beg for remedying.
In this study, I would like to present the sub-regions of the North Great Plain Region and uncover the possible reasons of the developmental differences.

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Comparative analysis of the transformation of Hungarian and East German agriculture
164-170

Agriculture, and within it, the development and later transformation of the cooperative system shows many similarities between Hungary and the Eastern German provinces. A few examples can be mentioned, such as the mistrust against the notion of cooperation, the forced development of the cooperatives and, as an occupied territory, the influence ...of the Soviet Union. Similar issues emerged in both countries’ agriculture and the measures taken were also alike. Similar social, economic processes and changes were started at the end of the 1980s (1989/90) and these had a significant effect on the areas that serve as a basis for this study.

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Evaluation of the factors determining the profit of lamb fattening
171-176

Lamb fattening in the past 8 years was generally a loss-making business and it was worth selling only in two weight categories – at 24-27 kg and at 27-30 kg –, because in this categories a modest profit could be achieved in most of the years. Selling lambs at 20-24 kg-weight provides a proper income for the sheep farmers only if the milking... period is prolonged. If the lambs are weaned at a weight of 16-20 kg, then they are not worth selling them in this weight category. The profit of fattening ram lambs is higher and safer than that of ewe lambs. In Hungary, the profitability of lamb fattening is insecure due to the large variability in purchase prices and the instability of the market. When studying the profitability of the two genders combined, it can be stated that the summer fattening period was the most profitable, while if only the rams are considered then the profitability of the autumn and spring periods was the highest, which is due to Easter and Christmas lambs. Based on our results, we came to the conclusion that ewe lambs and rams should be sold at a lower and higher weight category, respectively.

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Identification of environmental costs for agricultural companies – methodological questions and problems
177-183

It is the consensus in the economic literature that corporate leaders do not know accurately the magnitude of environmental costs in their firms, and this lack of information is often a barrier to making environmentally-friendly decisions. For this reason, an important task of environmental accounting is identification of these costs, and a mor...e realistic distribution of them among the products.
In this paper, we carried out identification of costs and expenditures for Hungarian agricultural companies. 
We have dealt with this theme previously, but without detailing the related methodological questions. Detailed discussion is necessary because of the novelty of the subject (environmental accounting for agricultural firms).
Therefore, we elaborate the following questions: scope of determination of environmental costs and expenditures; methods for quantifying specific items; technique for their accounting. We also attempt to confront different viewpoints in the literature. Differences in accounting found between companies investigated are also presented.
The importance of our investigation is related to the significant increase in the number of environmental statutes that concern agricultural companies (e.g. rules for waste treatment,  environmental taxation, introduction of charges and fees, regulation on liquid manure). Following these regulations puts an increasingly significant burden on the companies; therefore, the quantifications of environmental cost items has a growing
importance.

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Case study based analyses of economic viability of Hungarian beef farms
184-193

Our country has great traditions in the field of beef production. As early as the Middle Ages, Hungary was known as Europe’s beef exporter. In this decade, production of the Hungarian Grey has increased, due to the popular method of keeping these animals extensively. These animals were even exported to the European markets on foot.
After j...oining the European Union, this sector of agriculture has been receiving attention due to the major subsidies which were given. Accordingly, numerous farmers have tried to enter this sector of production. However, the power relations have been changed lately, as have the technology used in production, which has undergone several developments. The integrative connections in the sector had been split and also the size of optimal and sustainable production has arisen.
The economic activities must be judged by their effectiveness and profitability, but in most cases their effectiveness can only be seen through such outstanding facts which are independent from the farmer.
I would like to model the economy of a certain enterprise, and the size and the level of its production, through my research under the actual economic circumstances. In my research, I pay special attention to the circumstances which are important in the Hungarian agricultural sector and rural development.

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Rural tourism in Hungarian development strategies
194-203

Rural tourism was a popular sector of tourism development in the last few years. The importance of this sector means that it can be developed on its own or together with other tourist sectors.
The future of rural tourism depends on the supports of the national plans and strategies and the sales systems to keep on the market. In this study, I... analyze how the Hungarian National Tourism Development Strategy deals with rural tourism and sustainable tourism. I also analyze how the big Hungarian travel agencies’ sales help rural tourism to advertise lodgings, and raise the number of sales. For the future, I analyze the opportunity of using travel agencies to sell rural tourism products.

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53
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Effect of facility location on haulage efficiency
204-209

In the 21st century, every economic sector must use the chances of evolution, technical and technological acquisitions, due to the level of competitiveness on the market. Such a sector as agriculture, where technology and the ideology of production are changing and adapting very slow to global expectations, by taking maximum advantage of opport...unities, is a more central question. The greatest problems of Hungarian agriculture’s competitiveness are that this sector is very weak in capital and production costs make producers uncompetitive on the market. We can remedy this situation by using sources logically, purposefully and system approached. Logistics can provide the most useful assistance in such efforts.
In agricultural logistics, there is a great deal of uncovered territory. The aim is to transplant methods that are working correctly in other sectors into the agricultural sector, while maintaining development. One of the most important areas is transport logistics and material movement. Methods of analyzing and planning transportation and material movement found in professional literature do not take into account the specific needs of agricultural production. My aim is to examine the effect of facility location in the running of an enterprise. Through the results, I make suggestions for modifying the currently used logistic method and suggest further methods of examination. The effect of agro-specific needs must be examined in carrying out innovations and making logistical planning methods reliable.

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Analyzing the Population Retaining Ability and the Ability to Economically Provide for a Population in the Micro Region of Püspökladány
210-219

According to the data of population density, 98% of Hungary’s territory has rural features. Gaining EU supports, in order to focus on developing the most underdeveloped communities, and in order to decrease – not to increase – the differences between communities, the establishment of priorities and determination of the rank of rural commu...nities based on their development potential is necessary. The claim of measurability arises because of comparison and classification. A possibility or a target area of measuring is analysing population retaining and income producing capability of rural areas.
To gain adequate, many-sided information about the development potentials of a given community, micro- or macro region, complex condition survey, as well as secondary information completed with empirical data and subjective value judgment is essential. The aim in every case is to gain experience of the present condition via determining the direction of change.
In this study, I deal with the clarification of the definition of population retaining ability and the ability to economically provide for a population and introduce the most important results of the inquiry with questionnaires completed in the frame of an empirical survey.

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Surveys of residents’ attitudes to tourism development
220-227

Tourism has an important role in the various development plans and strategies around the world. It has also become an important component of rural development programs, as rural communities experiencing serious economic downturns often consider tourism to be a possible way of development. The expected positive economic and social impacts may no...t occur and negative tendencies are reinforced if communities do not support or even oppose tourism development. For this reason, it is highly important for planners and decision-makers to understand how the public perceives the tourism industry.
In the international literature there is a growing number of studies about residents’ attitudes toward tourism development. In the present study I review the social and economic factors that influence the attitudes of residents and communities, as well as demonstrate the typologies that were created on the basis of the results. Finally, I summarize the theoretical models that are used to interpret the results of the investigations.

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17
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Procurement as enterprise function at vegetable and fruit processing companies
228-235

The first main element of the supply chain is procurement; which has a great influence on the quality of products and services. The most important role of the procurement is the purchase of inputs which are necessary for the operation of companies. This includes procurement planning and the development of procurement strategy, so procurement is... a process that is even more than simply buying raw materials. The functions of procurement are the selection of suitable suppliers, contracting, controlling and improvement of suppliers, and coordination of activities with other parts of the company.
Planning of procurement, strategy formulation, supplier selection and evaluation, monitoring of the procurement process, and modification of original plan are important tasks of entrepreneurial procurement. The importance of procurement in a business organization is reflected by its position in the hierarchy of the firm. There are subjective and objective methods to select suppliers accomplishing their tasks on time and with good quality. Efficient purchasing management activity contributes to an increased competitiveness of the enterprise. The aim of this publication is to describe the procurement activities, to examine supplier selection and evaluation methods, to determine the position of procurement in the organization, and to prove the strategic importance of procurement.

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15
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Evaluation of blue and red corn landraces
239-243

Corn breeding can be successful only on a broad base of genetic material. The expansion of breeding aims includes the research of germplasm materials. In our experiments, we examined 11 blue, purple and red exotic corn varieties on two locations in Hungary. We conducted a complex study to obtain more information. We studied several morphologica...l and phenological features and determined the most important qualitative parameters (protein, fat, ash). We applied the Tassel Area Index (TAI) under Hungarian conditions and compared it with the pollen producing ability of different genotypes. Results show that there are great opportunities in exotic corn varieties. Their quality exceeds that of the yellow ones in many cases. There are significant differences in yield and nutritional parameters. The favorable nutritional composition is not coupled with great productivity. Based on their flowering time and their agronomical features, they can be cultivated under Hungarian conditions as well. They match the new breeding aims, so they can be used as functional food or energy plants. With their high pollen producing ability and TAI, they can be utilized as markers in future pollen research.

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Following-up organic pollutants in the course of producing foods
244-248

We analysed the raw materials in various food products, including additives, carrier solvents and end product for several selected organic pollutants. We analysed these food products for the type of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other currently used pesticides.
We analysed three product categories: bakery ...products, canned mushroom and meat products. The analysis of the bakery products and of the canned mushroom did not conclude in positive findings, which means that these products contained the agents given during the production of the product and the environmental pollutants in undetectable low concentration.
However, the results for meat and fish products indicate that polychlorinated compounds are persistent and are of a lipophyl character, as some of these components have been detected in these food products, the concentration of the PCBs were detected in the range of 9.8-24 μg/kg.

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34
Variations in major quality parameters of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in storage
249-254

We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the o...f the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.

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Effect of season and sowing time on the moisture loss dynamics and yield of maize
255-265

The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic chara...cteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.

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Research on rheological characteristics of winter wheat varieties
266-272

The gluten examination test is dominant in Hungary, comparing it to the qualification system of other countries. The determination of alveographic parameters is a basic criterion of winter wheat specifications in some western and southern European countries.
In the Hungarian and foreign winter wheat qualification systems, in the standards, t...here is no limit for extensographical parameters. Customers dictate the limits and make their claims as to the specifications.
We analyzed the alveographic and extensographical parameters of 19 winter wheat varieties grown by the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Hungary, and we made a comparison between the results in the challenges of the European Union expectations.
Examining the information of alveographic and extensographical values, we found that the experimental varieties provide high base to flour types suitable for baking bread and baker’s ware. The GK Élet, GK Petur, GK Memento, GK Csillag, GK Kapos and GK Marcel varieties can meet the market of paste flour needs, too.
In the variety series, the GK Kalász represents the highest values and the GK Garaboly shows the lowest parameters regarding the alveographic W and the resistance to extension.
On the basis of relation, we can establish that we can estimate the following little known and used quality indexes: the extensographical resistance to extension with extensographical energy and the alveographic W value, the extensographical energy with the alveographic W value and the alveographic P and L values with the other alveographic parameters.

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Quality management and traceability in crop production
273-277

Today, food safety and quality is an everyday issue. Scandals in the food industry drew attention to the role and responsibility of food producers in the food chain. The European Union has set up a new integrated approach towards food safety, to which Hungary as an EU member and export-oriented country has also joined. The new “from farm to f...ork” principle states that food and feed production cannot be handled separately, as only feed produced from good quality raw materials can ensure safe food products. Another important issue is the traceability of products, allowing for the localization and recall of the defected item. In Hungary, there have been different documentation systems for tracking and tracing products, such as the land register in crop production, animal register in the livestock sector and hygiene registers in the food industry. In order to meet EU requirements, there is a growing number of initiatives to include primary production in the scope of food safety standards. The study introduces and compares the various management systems used in crop production.

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The importance of selenium in the living world and in the scientific research
278-286

Presently, selenium (Se) is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Directly or indirectly, selenium deficiency can play a role in the development of many diseases. On the other hand, the concentration range in which selenium is essential is narrow; there is a narrow gap between neces...sary and toxic content in dietary intake. In this context, selenium contamination poses a further health risk for people if they live near the industrial areas and mining activity.
In this paper, we comprehensively introduce the very important trace element selenium. We studied the base parameters, deposit, analytic and deficiencies, problem of contamination and also the solution of contamination problems of selenium.

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The effect of bentonite on the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the CO2-production and the activity of saccharase enzyme
287-293

We examined the impact of bentonite – the perspective improving material of sandy soils – and treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite on sandy soils, within the framework of a small-plot experiment.
The adjustment of the experiment was made on the Experiment Site of the Nyíregyháza Research Centre of the University of D...ebrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences (UD CAS). We collected soil samples from parcels treated with increasing bentonite doses (5, 10, 15, 20 t/ha) on the one hand, and from the parcels treated with livestock manure composted with increasing doses of bentonite, on the other.
We performed laboratory research in the soil microbiology laboratory of the Soil Science Faculty of UD CAS DAS, during which we determined the total number of bacteria, the quantity of microscopic fungi, the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the CO2-production of the soil and the activity of saccharase enzyme.
During the evaluation of the examinations, we made a statistical analysis using SPSS 9.0. We determined the average of measurements, the standard deviation of controls, the standard deviation, the significance value and we also performed a correlation analysis.
Concerning the impacts of bentonite treatment and the treatment of livestock manure composted with bentonite on the examined microbiological features of sandy soil, we can summarize the following:
• Our results prove that the microbiologic activity of the soil has increased owing to the impact of bentonite treatments regarding total number of bacteria and the quantity of microscopic fungi. ”Pure bentonite” treatments – although not significantly in every case – increased these values, but larger doses decreased them. The treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite resulted in a larger increase regarding both parameters.
• The number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was increased by the low doses of both series, and was decreased by the higher doses. Higher bentonite doses decreased it in a higher – significant – degree than those of treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite, whose low dose caused salient number of bacteria.
• Regarding the carbon-dioxide formation, we have experienced an increase even in the case of low dose treatments (nevertheless, the increase did not prove to be significant), but – similarly to the quantitative changes in the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria – the large doses of both series of treatment decreased the CO2-production of the soil.
• Bentonite also increased the activity of saccharase enzyme significantly. We learned that”pure bentonite” treatments increased the activity of the enzyme to a higher degree than composted treatments. Moreover, it can be stated that the treatments of larger doses of both bentonite and livestock manure composted with bentonite have decreased the enzyme activity – not significantly, though.
• Based on the correlation analysis, it can be stated that as an impact of the treatments, the microbiological activity of the soil has also increased with the increase of the number of soil microbes, as in both treatment series we have experienced a tight positive correlation (r=0.81-0.82) between the change of total number of bacteria and the CO2-production of soil. In both treatments, there was a medium correlation between the total number of fungi and soil respiration (r=0.63-0.63). Furthermore, it can be stated that the usage of organic manure had a positive effect on the activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, as in this treatment series there was a positive correlation (r=0.65) between this physiological group and CO2-production. Both treatments prosperously impacted the activity of saccharase enzyme, because there was a medium correlation (r=0.62-0.64) between the activity of the enzyme and soil respiration.

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14
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Comparison of the alveographic qualification and the baking quality of winter wheat
294-302

On the basis of the operative French regulations, we qualified the alveographic qualification and the valorigraphic qualification respectively for each of the 10-14 winter wheat varieties grown each year between 2002-2005, and used in a field experiment at the Karcag Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. The field experiment at the ...Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen allowed us to examine the alveographic and valorigraphic values of the samples of GK Öthalom and Fatima 2 winter wheat varieties taken from an 8 year period (1997-1999 and 2001-2005).
Throughout the experiments on samples from the Karcag Research Institute and Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, we tried to find whether the alveographic W value or the P/L value provides the safer method for the qualification of wheat samples, instead of the qualification commonly used in Hungary. We found that in terms of the samples from the Karcag Research Institute, the baking quality and the W value in each of the examined years, while in terms of the Látókép Research Institute, most of the years showed a close positive correlation, contrary to the close negative relationship between the baking quality and the P/L value. The correlation index varied depending on the year, the variety, and fertilizer doses, which require further examinations.

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25
Results of foliar treatments on Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
303-308

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments in both of the two years.

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35
Qualitative detection of genetically modified organisms in plant samples
309-313

We analysed the GMO content of corn samples by polymerase chain reaction following the appropriate optimization of the reaction. The analysis included two main steps: extraction of DNA from the sample, and detection of the GMO content by polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction is an in vitro method to multiply chromosomatic or ...cloned DNA (cDNA) sequences through the enzymatic pathway. The reaction is sensitive enough to produce DNA in sufficient amount for the analysis from a single DNA. We identified the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. When optimizing the reaction, the MgCl2 concentration, reaction time and temperature have to be taken into consideration. The temperature of the anellation has to be increased until the highest specificity and yield is reached. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is linked to non-specific sites as well; in the gel visualization, more lines can be seen at one sample. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is insufficiently linked or is not linked at all (too few lines in the gel visualization). After optimization, the GMO content in the unknown sample can be determined along with the appropriate positive and negative controls.

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