production economics; farm management; agricultural policy; agricultural environmental issues; tourism; regional planning; rural development; methodology; marketing of agricultural and food products; international trade; development; sport management


Significance of wheat production in world economy and position of Hungary in it

This article intends to introduce the significance of wheat production in world economy and role of Hungary in it on the basis of statistic database of FAO. Importance of wheat production in world economy is proven by its share of 15% from 1500 million hectares arable land in the world. This rate is equivalent to 225 million hectares of wheat area based on FAO figures for 2009. From its world economy significance view point, on the basis of some significant features it sets order of ranks among wheat producing countries, accompanied by Hungary too. Setting of rank orders is based on the quantity of wheat produced by countries, cultivated area and exported, imported wheat quantity. As regards wheat export in 2008, Hungary was placed as 11. in the world while on the basis of produced quantity and cultivated area it did not achieve any of top 20 countries. Wheat import of Hungary is negligible since its wheat production is greatly over the self-sufficiency level in one production year. Our logistics disadvantages indicate one of considerable difficulties of market access for primary materials in domestic plant production.

Liquid bio-fuels in Hungary: effects and contradictions

The increase of living standard requires ever more energy, despite energy saving measures. Domestic growth was 100 PJ between 2000 and 2006, and 77% of the total utilization was importe (Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2008).Sustainability was endangered not only in our energy and commerce policy. Our domestic natural conditions are suitable for plant production; however, the stagnation of the domestic population and decreasing livestock numbers restrict in land marketing. Therefore, significant surpluses from year to year had to be stored and sold abroad, and the fact that the interventional purchase of corn and the expected stringent new EU regulation of the sugar beet sector, make the strategic significance of these branches uncertain. The difficult marketing opportunities make the better utilization of our opportunities in producing liquid bio-fuels possible from marketing aspects, while environmental issues and realizing the EU directions enforce to do so in a longer term. Over the short term, agricultural and competitive aspects will determine its spread, which cause different effects in Europe in comparison with the developing countries. According to Nábrádi-Ficzeréné Nagymihály, 2008, one of the breaking points of Hungarian agriculture lies in the utilization of alternative energy sources. During the past period, many contradictory opinions came forward relating to economies, agricultural effects, food risks as well as the energetic and environmental efficiency of bio-fuels. One thing is certain: these fuels are already used today and their significance has been increasing. Although due to technological development, spread of new products and processes (cellulose-based bioethanol, bioethanol, biogas, hydrogen, biomethane) will obviously have to be expected in the future, at present biodiesel and bioethanol are determent among bio-fuels, thus I deal with these as well as their energetic and agricultural effects in my study.

Sports financing in Croatia

Sport is a complex social activity that encompasses various areas. Some of these activities come within the category of public needs, which implies that sport is an activity of wider social interest and requires public intervention in its financing. These needs are determined by law and are an integral part of state and local budgets. It is also indisputable that the sport is an activity of exceptional significance for the society and it is equally clear that the investment into sport in Croatia is not proportional to that significance and top scores, which are achieved by the Croatian athletes. Sport can be in a partner relationship with the economy and the promoter of social changes and habits, but in order to become and remain that, general public has to be truthfully interested into sports.

The effect of logistic controlling on business processes

The increase in the significance of logistics can be attributed to two major reasons: the increasing cost sensitivity of companies and the necessity for the higher fulfilment of customer needs. Logistic controlling is a tool of management used to coordinate logistic activities and to reach logistic managerial decisions by providing information through the analysis of the system. The up-to-date and precise information that can be gained from the logistic controlling system helps the management in the preparation of decisions, and the adaptation to environmental conditions. With these activities, logistic controlling makes the enterprises more efficient and successful. Taking the above into consideration, I carried out a survey on why commercial entities decided on the introduction and application of a logistic controlling system, what conditions are necessary for the introduction of a logistic controlling system, and what experiences the users gained by the application. Positive effects of logistic controlling were proved on operations, and the introduction and application of logistic controlling were analysed.

The economic and social role of private farms in Hungarian agriculture

The situation and importance of private farms in Hungary have significantly changed and are still changing due to the political and economic regime change of 1989-90 and subsequent events. The aim of this study is to provide – unlike the practice of the last two decades – an impartial review of the social and economic role of Hungarian private farms. To demonstrate the changes occurring in private farms, we rely on the data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO-KSH)such as the General Structure Surveys, the Farm Structure Surveys, and tables from the online stADAT database.
From the point of view of methodology, time series analyses (2000–2010) were performed in the framework of this secondary research. Our hypothesis that private farms in Hungary deserve much more attention than previously, from the perspective of the output of Hungarian agriculture, food consumption and, last but not least, employment (the environmental factor was not examined this time) has been clearly confirmed. The role and significance of this group have also been exceedingly important since EU accession, particularly in the fields of horticulture and animal husbandry, and the strengthening of these positions is indisputably a national economic interest.

Comparison of the performance of a trained and an untrained sensory panel on sweetcorn varieties with the panelcheck software

In this paper the results of trained and untrained sensory panels are compared on five Hungarian commercial sweet corn samples. The two evaluations were carried out in a sensory laboratory (ISO 6658:2005), with the same experimental design, with two replicates, and the panels consisted of 10 panelists. In both cases the panels assembled the profiles of the samples according to the vocabulary chosen by the trained panelists. The results show that the untrained panel has higher standard deviation, weaker repeatability and less significant parameters (ISO/DIS 11132). However 10 of the 17 sensory attributes were significant in the case of the untrained panel, the trained panel has 15 significant parameters with lower standard deviation and good repeatability. During the statistical investigation we focused on the panel performance and used the PanelCheck open source software package to achieve this goal. We followed the workflow suggested by the researchers of the Nofima, the developers of the PanelCheck. According to the examined parameters the trained panel has better discrimination ability (F values) for attributes ’yellow color’, ’hue’, roughness’, ’freshness’, ’juiciness’, ’tenderness’. There was not an attribute evaluated by the untrained panel where all the panel members reached the line representing the 5% significance level. Furthermore the trained panel has better agreement between its assessors (Tucker-1 plots) and the repeatability is much better according to the MSE plots. This examination confirms that it is necessary to train the panels in order to get reliable and consistent results.

The analysis of costumer satisfaction in recreational tourism

Due to increased health awareness and the growing amount of assistance to boost it, health tourism research has gained significance in our days. The present study focuses on the analysis of customer needs for recreational tourism and their habits; moreover, it interviews the guests of 15 Hungarian wellness hotels through a questionnaire survey. Next we attempt to explore the rate of guest satisfaction with healthpreservation services. The study presents the findings of this research activity until now, whereas the results of further data processing will be published in the future.

Estimating the economic potential of rural microregions

Experts have been involved in the problems of determining microregions in Hungary since their establishment. In Hungary, the microregions (NUTS17 IV) were established by top-down method. This system cut through existing economic and cultural connections. The villages set up their own bottom-up microregions, which have tighter connections than the official regions. In my article, I estimate the economic potential of two regions, the regions Erdôspuszta (Hungary) and Hohenlohe (Germany), after analyzing the relevant literature on determining economic potential. Projects realized by enterprises and civil organizations have strategic significance in the economies of settlements, and it is true that their developers are not members of the formal management of the settlement. The local governments, however, should conduct realization and topdown of projects, and they have to have an image of the future and strategic plans. The present Hungarian practice, which appears in supply oriented applications, is not expedient over the long-run.The projects of settlements are run parallel to each other; they therefore fail to reach any synergic effect. The aim is harmonizing and building projects onto each other.

Somatic development and some motor performances of young girls based on age and birth season

There are numerous publications in the literature reporting physical development and motor performances of children of different ages based on sex and various environmental factors. However, there are not many publications on the birth season effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences among children in physical development and motor performances based on age and birth season. Physical development described by body height and body weight, in addition to motor performance indicators including the twenty-metre dash, standing broad jump, six minutes of continuous running, throwing with a stuffed ball, and obstacle race-tests were studied. The survey included the participation of 426 girls. From the group the seven-, eight-, and nine-year olds numbered 148, 191, and 87 respectively. The group of girls who were born in winter, spring, summer and autumn numbered 114, 110, 89 and119 respectively. The tested data were evaluated with unitrate analyses of variance using SPSS statistical package. Mean value, standard error, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated. The significance of differences between mean values was evaluated using “t” test. Differences with an error below 5% were considered to be significant. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between season of birth, body development and motor-related performance data. Age, body height, body weight, throwing a stuffed ball in one hand, twenty-metre dash, six minutes of continuous running, and obstacle race-test are interdependent variables of development and motor performances of young girls of this age. Data from the study results show that the children group included in the tests was quite homogenous in body height, but heterogeneous in body weight and motor performances. Physical development and four of the five evaluated sport skills were affected by the birth season. Development and motor performances of the summer- and autumn-born girls are generally better than those born in winter or spring. Differences are significant except for the obstacle race-test. Age, body height, body weight, throwing with a stuffed ball in one hand, twentymetre dash, six minutes of continuous running, and the obstacle race-test seem to be interdependent variables of development and motor performances of young girls of this age.

Performance indicators in CSR and sustainability reports in Hungary

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or Corporate Sustainability reporting is a relatively new phenomenon in Hungary. As the external pressure from the civil society, public authorities and the media has so far been fairly low, this important corporate activity emerged only at the beginning of the last decade. In spite of this, several pioneering companies have started to publish information on its environmental and social performance in recent years. CSR and sustainability reports are seen increasingly as strategic documents that offer a balanced, objective, and comprehensive assessment of a firm’s non-financial performance. In 2008 and 2009, more than a third of the 100 largest companies reported on their non-financial results (most of them were GRI based reports). In 2010, sixty-one organisations published a report about their non- financial performance, and 22 of these for only the first time. The aim of this paper is to present recent attempts to use indicators in CSR and sustainability reports. On the basis of a detailed review of 70 CSR/sustainability reports published during the last 9 years in Hungary, an analysis was made on the performance indicators appearing in the reports. The motivations of indicator selection processes was analysed and the intended roles of indicator set in communication and strategy design was presented. The significance of and limits to the proposed indicators was discussed.

Sport as power of integration among minorities

The opportunities and development of skills in the field of sports may open a door to social inclusion that also facilitates social integration. Based on the funding provided by the national sports strategy and integration, the research project can be developed further on and implemented. The efforts of the European Union (EU) and of the European Council towards the member states are carried out through its directives, and the analyses of these documents provide guidelines for the elaboration of the Hungarian Roma strategies. Funding is one of the key factors for the elaboration of Roma integration strategy and its efficiency. The research highlights upon the way of thinking and mentality of Roma young people about sports currently, and on the importance of sport affairs for them. Also, reflects on the factors which promote motivation to have successful career goals and achieve those based on the program. The sports integration survey suggests conclusions on the role of mentoring in Roma youngsters’ studies, in sports, in building social relations, the role model motivating for them, or on the supportive role of the parents or even the lack of it in their families. The expected result would be a survey on sporting habits of the Roma minority and disadvantaged youth and their positioning in education through which we could develop programs to promote the integration of the Roma minority and to improve their general circumstances. The National Social Inclusion Strategy (Ministry of Human Capacities, National Social Inclusion Strategy 2011–2020) provides the financial background of the integration project whose application also prevails in the field of sports integration. The aspirations of the EU provide guidance to the amount of funding and its allocation manners. The National Roma Self-Government’s (NRSG) sports integration project and best practice has provided the basis for the sports integration research project. The survey is examining the recreational habits, motivational factors, study levels among the Roma minority and the disadvantaged young people. Based on the questionnaire, we can draw some conclusions about the development of sports integration programs. The issues cover the field of sport activities of young people aged between 9-18 and on the significance of sport opportunities for break-out for the Roma youth, and on the effect of role models for them. The sports integration projects treat simultaneously the development of education and sport, furthermore they are significantly linked to each other. The target group of the questionnaire survey are mainly the Roma and disadvantaged people. The sample item number is 1216 completed questionnaires from the whole territory of the country, from 16 schools. As shown in the survey, the sport and the level of education are significantly related to each other. Those who do any sports, obtain higher level of achievement in their studies. It can be revealed by the fact that through mentoring the sportsmen can promote their school performance and sport development together. The research highlights on another observation, namely, it also confirms the legitimacy of sports integration program and points out the direction for development. For accomplishing the goal of social inclusion through sport we have at hand the appropriate concept. It is, furthermore necessary to strengthen and to develop the mentoring program, which ensures the lower drop-out rate among the participants. The effect of Sports integration is motivating for the Roma and for the disadvantaged youth. The use of sport as a tool for social inclusion proves to be of utmost importance.

JEL code: Z23

The value of quality

The significance of quality production and quality improvement is widely acknowledged by many but few specify what should be improved and what quality should be produced. The reason may be that there are different quality categories in the process of the value chain. Moreover, the issue of quality costs, i.e. economically optimal quality has not yet been explored yet. The present study raises problems in the pigmeat verticum, but similar studies are needed in other animal husbandry sectors as well. It is reasonable to treat the quality categories of animal products in a complex way, as this allows the full satisfaction of consumer expectations at the certain stages of the value chain and solvent demand as well.

A survey on tourism experiences by Hungarian travellers: towards guest satisfaction

In the 21st century experiences got great significance in the every-day life and in tourism as well. Human popularity can achieve very good and happy moments e.g. by shopping (complex experience in shopping centres) by common spare time activities in the nature and in towns, also by having vacation at a special destination. Animation/entertainment is a sphere of hotel services that is to help the guests sparing their free time on holidays in a good atmosphere, by providing experienceful programs. Good memories of a tourism service can make guests satisfied and build a returning clientele sphere. That is why it is awaited to map the (potential) guests’ expectations and observations of services. This paper discusses Hungarian tourists’ experiences conducted in Hungary aiming to reveal the need for professional services focusing on the not-so-spread area, Animation. The experiential dimensions of every-day life and tourism was studied by an own-edited questionnaire (N = 1000) in the half-year period of 1st August 2010 – 31st January 2011. This study was extended by quality of life since summer 2011 and I am going to compare the results of these two surveys with the aim of development suggestions in order to achieve a main level of guest satisfaction and a loyal sphere of clientele.

Water footprint in Hungary

More and more news report on water-related extreme environmental phenomena. Some of these are natural, which are often beyond the human race. But others are definitely due to anthropogenic effects. I think the water footprint index is able to highlight national and international water-use processes and gives us the opportunity of organizing a sustainable, consumer-, environmental- and governancefriendly management. 81% of the fresh water withdrawal is from surface water bodies in the EU. In Europe as a whole, 44% of abstraction is used for energy production, 24% for agriculture, 21% for public water supply and 11% for industry. Public water supply is confined to ground waters. To the water resources related human activity caused qualitative and quantitative amortisation will grow worse in the foreseeable future due to the climate change. Beside seasonal differences the sectoral differences are increasingly becoming critical between different areas, such as Southern and Western Europe. The former, wrong agricultural support system has worsened the situation since it gave financial aid for the used improper techniques of water-intensive crop cultivation. By today, this seems to be solved. Public water abstraction is affected by many factors, of which mostly are based on social situation and habits, but technological leakage receives a big role as well. Interesting, that for example the residents’water consumption in Eastern Europe decreased because price were raised and regular measurements were introduced. But in Southern Europe it increased due to tourism in the past period. Industrial water withdrawal decreased across Europe because of the decline of industry and the development of technologies. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA), the Union needs a sustainable, demand-driven leadership which focuses on the preservation and use efficiency. This have already appeared in politics and legal administration as well. Current research calls the attention to the significance and difficulties of this kind of domestic estimation presented trough the water footprint calculation of bread and pork in Hungary. The received data indicate the domestic water consumption trends in a modern approach. There is no doubt for me about the urgent necessity of water footprint calculation because as a result innovative, sustainability supported environmental, social, economical, and political relationships can be created – not just on local, regional or national level, but on interregional, European and even global stage.

Examining some fields within human resources management

Human resources management is one of the management functions, dealing with people as the essential resource of the organization. This function aims at the most efficient usage of employees in order to realize both organizational and individual goals. Nowadays high significance is attributed to human resources management, since the human factor is the resource that determines the success of an organization. The results of a company are in proportion with the knowledge and talent of the people on its payroll. Human talent and knowledge can be utilized to the greatest extent in case management is able to motivate employees to meet not only the necessary requirements but also to achieve the highest possible results. Human resources management consists of several fields of activities, among which the following are the most important: analysis, planning and assessment of the scope of activities, human resources planning, workforce supply, performance assessment, motivation, developing human resources, labour relations, labour safety, HEM information system. Our studies cover a few fields within human resources management. Our research has been carried out at organizations in Hajdú-Bihar County. The study is based on questionnaires, which have been processed by computers and evaluated using statistical methods.

Exploring the value of brands on the montenegrin bottled spring water market

The branding strategy is based on future goals relating to clients, aimed at increasing awareness of the brand, creating a positive brand image and establishing a preference for the brand and ensuing brand loyalty. A brand is a very important factor for competitiveness and establishes a leadership position in the market, given the major impact that this form of intellectual property has on the perception of consumers and the success of innovative products on the market. The bottled water market has increased by about 35% in the last five years on the global level, dictated by young consumers who are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of proper nutrition in maintaining health. The research presents qualitative information on the market value of bottled water brands, the general characteristics of retailers, as well as on their target customers. The main task of this paper is to confirm the usefulness of marketing research in modern business as well as to present the benefits of brand value measurement to current or future brand owners. It is to be hoped that the results presented in this paper may serve as a good basis for upgrading marketing activities, based on a better understanding of target customers and their particular needs, through better communication for the purpose of stronger corporate branding.

A Matrix Model for Integrated Pest Management as a Combined Function of Extension Education and Economic Concepts

The Farmer Field Schools (FFS) help to establish the significance of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) concept, i.e., the FFS contributed to demonstrating the importance of the IPM idea. In this paradigm, the integrated pest management specialist's decision is based on the application of agricultural extension and economic principles. This requires an analysis and understanding of the ecosystem and plant physiology, followed by monitoring the population dynamics of the pest to determine the pest’s economic injury level, and finally, determining the appropriate action to suppress it. The transition point from organically integrated pest control measures to chemical pest control is when pest density exceeds economic injury. In other words, when pest density surpasses economic damage, an organically integrated pest control approach gives way to the chemical pest control method. This study advises conducting research experiments and studies to ascertain the economic impacts of pandemic pests on the targeted crop, such as powdery mildew and aphid pests in the protected tomato plant culture.


Methodological questions of a survey of civil organizations

Today, the non-profit sector, and especially the role of civil organizations, has become significant in society. In Hungary there has been a large development in the past 20 years, in the non-profit sector, as the number of such organizations has quadrupled. The number of classic civil organizations (foundations and associations) makes up more than 80% of the non-profit sector. The social attendance, economic significance and affect often raise the issue of the true intensity of the sphere and also the question of why there are such vast differences between the conditions of function, human resources and how successful they are. For years now, with management related examination, we have been searching for the answers to the above questions, within the confines of the functional aspect research program of the Institute of Management and Organization in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. Above all, we made an attempt to find general, management- related results and answers, with the use of probability sampling, a low number of samples and surveying.
In the selection process of organizations to include in our research, we relied on the data base of the Court of Hajdú-Bihar County and with K-aspect systematic sampling, and we also questioned more than 140 managers from different organizations. With this research, we acquired a diverse collection of information, which now we intend to summarize within this article. With this article, we aim to find out how realistic a picture the database of the Court gives regarding the civil activity of the county. Even the sampling was not trouble free, since the entire database is not accessible.
The survey also revealed some problems that confirmed the statement of the Central Statistic Office (KSH), i.e. that some organizations either do not function at all or function in name only.

Tourism, meditation, sustainability

The economic value of meditation based services is clearly demonstrated by a growing number of companies using such services. In the USA one quarter of the companies offer in-house meditation training to their employees. On the otherhand,the number of those who think that the western consumption paradigm in its present form is unsustainable is also increasing. In addition to its business value, meditation and its most popular western form mindfulness is a practical tool that can catalyze a change in our world view and value system. A basic precondition for learning meditation techniques is to have an open, receptive, feminine attitude. As it is revealed in the present research, tourists poses a significantly elevated level of openness to new experience. This increased openness together with an upward trend for spiritual experiences can create a synergy for certain destinations, accommodation types, tourism locations to expand their service portfolio with meditation based services. While favourable physical and psychological effects of traditional tourism services fade within a few weeks, meditation is a portable tourism product which can be taken home and practiced regularly in a virtually cost-free way. By learning and practicing meditation the extremely poor physical and psychological condition of the Hungarian population could be improved in a preventive and cost-effective way. As the level of mindfulness is positively correlated with sustainable behaviour by offering meditation services tourism might take on a new level of significance in the battle for sustainability.

The role of the time factor in the manager functions

The role of the time factor in management is increasing. Change directs attention to the time factor from the point of view of the organisation,and management does the same from that of the person. I examined the time management practice of managers of organisations related to agribusiness, and the reaction time characterising the adaption ability of the organisations through a questionnaire survey. I analysed the collected data with scientifically established statistical methods. During studying resources, managing tasks, change, reaction time and effect I explored the features of time as resource, the significance of the time factor, the improvability of time efficiency in the different managing functions, the factors supporting and hindering the quick reaction of organisations, and what rearrangements can be seen in management work nowadays.

Consumer attitudes and preferences about the pork meat in Hungary (based on cluster analysis)

In my study I wish to investigate the fact that how the pork consumption of Hungary changed during the last years. This study focuses on consumer’s attitudes about (pork) meat, what do they think about the healthness of the different meat type, what are the strengths and weaknesses of pork meat, what are the main features of good quality pork meat, what are the major pork purchase influencing factors and what are the favourite food of the respondents from pork meat etc. Then I analyze the tendency of these values (cross tabs, bar/pie charts, means, Chi-square), where can be found significant differences, and make a cluster analysis to identify the pork consumers in Hungary.

Integrated approach in Ukrainian dairy industry: a case study from Poltava region

Integration processes in the field of agriculture, and particularly in dairy industry, have real prospects for improving the efficiency of business entities in this industry due to technological features. Particular attention should be paid to vertically integrated business models that allow hedging of various risk groups and minimizing costs due to the optimal combination of the efforts of enterprises belonging to such associations.

The purpose of the article is to study the current state of dairy industry in Poltava Region, Ukraine, and to show one of the conceptual ways to increase its economic efficiency. The paper presents a theoretical hypothesis concerning the necessity of vertically integrated agricultural formation’s creation in order to improve the competitiveness of dairy production in the region and having positive effect on sustainable development of dairy industry.

The practical significance of the study includes the possibility to use findings and recommendations set out in the paper for introduction of mutually beneficial economic relations between agricultural, dairy and trade enterprises in concluding agreements on joint activities based on a successful example from Poltava Region, and contribute to the stabilization, development and increase of the enterprises’ efficiency in Ukrainian dairy industry.

JEL code: F15, Q13

Aspects of the sustainable utilization of renewable energy sources

The aim of this paper is to analyze the main approaches to sustainability and to present an alternative interpretation for the issues involved in the utilization of RES. The utilization technologies can be described by the average values of several technological parameters. Some significant parameters were chosen which are the most relevant for the issue of sustainability. The group of attributes was composed of these parameters in the analysis, which was conducted by the choice experiment (CE) methodology. The examination of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was made possible by this method and the preferences of the relevant experts were determined. The weight of the attributes was defined by experts according to the importance of each attribute regarding RES-based technologies. The importance of sustainability attributes implies the significance of sustainability in the case of RES technologies, which thus highlights the characteristics of the more prosperous technological parameters regarding sustainable development.

Cost analysis of pig slaughtering: A Hungarian case study

The scale of Hungarian slaughterhouses is small in international comparison and the cost of slaughter and cutting a pig of average live weight is relatively high at 16.1-19.4 EUR on average. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost of pig slaughter and cutting through the case study of a medium-scale plant in Hungary. Based on data from the enterprise, a calculation was performed in relation to the “output” quantity of pig slaughter and cutting, as well as its value and the cost and cost structure of processing. The capacity of the examined plant and its utilisation were analysed and cost reductions were estimated for various increases of output. In 2015, the direct cost of slaughter and cutting was 18.9 EUR per pig for the medium-scale plant which processed 100 thousand pigs. When the purchase cost of pigs is excluded, labour costs accounted for the highest share (30%) of costs, followed by services (29%) and energy costs (21%). For this reason, the level of wages and employer’s contributions has a rather high significance. Analysis showed that significant increases in Hungarian minimum wage and guaranteed living wage in 2017 resulted in an estimated 7% increase in the cost of slaughter and cutting compared to 2015, despite the decrease of contributions. The capacity utilisation of the plant was a low 28% when compared to a single 8-hour shift considered full capacity. The cost of slaughter and cutting was estimated to be reduced to 14.2-17.0 EUR per pig if the plant operated at full capacity. This may be considered a lower bound estimate of cost because there are numerous restricting factors on optimising capacity utilisation, such as: 1) number of live animals available for purchase and related logistics; 2) cooling capacity availability; 3) labour availability; 4) market position of the enterprise and potential for marketing additional pig meat products. Enterprises of this scale are recommended to consider producing more value-added products and, accordingly, investing in product development.

JEL Classification: Q13, Q19

Sustainable development of the rural economy

This paper seeks to provide an overview of those economic social and enviromental issues which could be relevant for sustainable development of the rural economy. Rural development is of great significance for the future of both the EU and Hungary. We must reduce migration, create new jobs and focus on sustainability and the principles and goals of environmental protection and nature conservation. Rural economy is a complex and dynamic system, and agriculture should be treated as a part of it.The development of rural settlements and their infrastructure, the manifold exploitation of the agroecological potential, the rationalization of farming remain, extremely important components of rural development.

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