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Network attributes’ evaluation by stakeholder groups concerned to the agri-food sector in Hungary
Published December 30, 2013
55-58

As a consortium partner, University of Debrecen, Hungary, has been conducting a European four-year project with the acronym NetGrow financed within the Framework Program 7 under the auspices of the EU focusing on network behaviour of food SMEs and the performance of networks. The overall objective is to reveal more evidences and facts on innova...tion, learning, and networking in the food sector of the EU. Whithin the scope of the project, special attention was paid to reveal how network attributes were evaluated by the main four stakeholder groups of the food sector such as food SMEs, public bodies, research institutions, and network management organisations. The respondents differ in ranking the attributes, while but we got a clear order of attributes, of which the top five can be explicitly selected. Taking the next three ranks into consideration, the attributes behind them have clear meanings and they seem to be complementary for the top five. The stakeholder groups were significantly differ in scoring openmindedness and external relations, the importance of network rendered services, and the goals relevance of the network to the firms.

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36
5
10 year anniversary of the Journal APSTRACT: The history of an open access journal
Published June 30, 2017
5-8

The idea initiating the birth of the journal APSTRACT was initiated by András Nábrádi, during a 2005 AGRIMBA1 executive board meeting held in Aberdeen, UK. AGRIMBA is an open international network of academics and professionals from universities and related institutions dealing with education and research in agribusiness (Csapó et al., 2010...). Currently, the Network is especially active in Central and Eastern Europe (Heijman, 2015). The main objective of the Network is to set standards based on best practices for programmes it oversees and to accredit them on the basis of these standards. The International MBA Network was established in 1995, by founding members from Wageningen University, Scottish Agricultural College, the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Warsaw Agricultural University, University College Cork and the University of Wolverhampton. Between 2000 and 2009, the following universities joined the Network: Humboldt University Berlin, the University of Debrecen, Arkansas State University, the Agricultural University of Ukraine, the Timiryazev Academy in Moscow, the University of Belgrade and the University of Zagreb (Heijman, 2015). The Universities of Belgorod (Russia) and Kazan (Russia) has also joined the network last year.

JEL code: A10

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46
11
The evolution of the Avacongress
Published September 30, 2009
113

In the early 1990’s MBA educations started independently in Warsaw, Prague, and Debrecen. In the middle 1990’s a small network was estblished with the mentioned institutions, as well as supporters from different universities like Wageningen, Aberdeen, Cork, later Fayetteville fromArcansas (USA). In the beginning of the 21st century the netw...ork became bigger. That time did Kiev join the Network, and started negotiations with Moscow Paralell to extended network leading by Warsaw University we applied for a EU Leonardo grant. The proposal was to develop the teaching and learning materials in the programme to a common approved standard. In order to improve the quality of teaching a set of commonly approved, standardized teaching materials had been eveleoped: Handbooks fo rmodules taught within 7 courses of the MBA programs: Public Policy, Economics, Management, Marketing, Finance, Operational Methods and International Agribusiness. Handbooks and case studies had been put on Warsaw University’s website and are now accessible for teachers and students from all academic institutions participating in the project. Materials had been developed by teams of experts in specific fields from different Universities.The whole set of materials was prepared in English. Another product of the project is the quality assurance standards applied by all MBA programs and an accreditation procedurefor the International Board. That time formulated the name AGRIMBA which is official name of the International Network on Agribusiness and Commerce.

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30
1
The importance of logic planning in case of IT and innovation projects
Published December 30, 2009
15-20

In case of using methodology of project planning, in the first step we had to create a “good” logic network. We had to determine the successors and predecessors of the tasks. However, usually successors and predecessors proceed from the technology, sometimes (especially in case of IT and innovation projects) these relations between tasks ar...e not explicit. In case of projects, especially IT and innovation projects, one of the most critical points of view is the phase of logic planning. However, it is a very important phase, only slightly supported by any kind of Project Management tools. Our goal was to support the logic planning phase. In our paper a new planning method, namely SNPM (Stochastic Network Planning Method) is introduced through some practical applications. SNPM can determine all feasible solutions with the help of stochastic variables and can also take into consideration all possible precedents. The parameters of logic relations can be changed if the impacts on the project change. With this method the most probable project scenario can be determined taking into account costs and resource demands.

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43
3
Rural resilience and the role of social capital among farmers in Kirundo province, Northern Burundi
Published September 30, 2013
121-125

In Burundi, more than 90% of the active population is engaged in family agriculture, which plays a vital role in food production and constitutes more than 50% of the GDP. Before the civil war of 1993, Kirundo was deemed the “breadbasket of the country”, as the region fed many parts of Burundi through growing particular foods such as legumes... and cereals. Family farming was market-oriented. Kirundo alone includes 8 lakes which offer opportunities for field irrigation. Today, this region is the first province in Burundi which shows a high rate of malnutrition, as poverty has increased and a sharp 53.9 % decline in agricultural production has been witnessed between 1996 and 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of social capital through the local association network in improving family agriculture and the resilience to climate change and conflict crisis. In this study, 73 farmers were surveyed in Kirundo province through means of a questionnaire, and the study was completed by collecting secondary data. Analysis of the data reveals that, despite recurrent droughts in that region which caused deaths due to famines and displacement of people to neighbouring countries such as Rwanda and Tanzania, 44% of the farmers who were surveyed were shown to have resilience to climate change. The analysis of data shows that these farmers were members of well organised local associations, and had learned about specific topics such as financial management, processing and storage of agricultural products and livestock. The social capital network positively influences their income and their resilience to climate change and conflict crisis.

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43
7
Improving audit functions of supreme audit institutions to promote sustainable development
Published November 30, 2012
63-69

In this paper, we demonstrate and analyze the substance of the added value effect of a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI), focusing on sustainable development issues.We intend to answer such questions as: how could a SAI respond to global and local challenges and how it could help government to implement commitments towards sustainability. Finally..., we trace a possible way to improve external audit functions both on the state level and at the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), by using some ideas from network theory.

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76
6
Corporate branding effects on consumer purchase preferences in Serbian telecom market
Published December 31, 2010
23-36

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This paper discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.This is a quantitative stu...dy. A questionnaire is used in order to investigate corporate branding and other influencing factors involved in purchase decision of the customers. Population selected for this study are Belgrade University students which is the most of Serbian youth segment and is a valuable source that gives precise information with high probability about market preferences according to the Research of Serbian republic statistical office. Primary data are obtained by collecting data from questionnaire and interview, while the secondary data are collected from various reliable sources. Primary data provide reliable content in accordance with a secondary data obtained by Serbian republic statistical office and with a Research of competitor and consumer preferences insight provided by Telenor Company. The analysis of the data has been performed in accordance with the chosen theories and summarized in a table, which serves as a tool for deriving reliable and relevant conclusions. The sample size was determined by conducting a primary study and defining the variance of primary sample and the intended number of samples was selected carefully and randomly from the population. Then the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined. The used questionnaire in this research consisted of 7 common, and 30 specialized questions which were supporting the hypotheses of the research. Data was analyzed using the frequency percent techniques, and in the chapter related to the deductive statistics, one-sample t test was used to analyze and approve/disapprove the questions supporting the research hypotheses. The analysis of this study reveals different set of results while making comparison between literature and empirical. It investigates the relative importance of the corporate branding to the customers in mobile phone telecommunication industry while making purchase decision. The findings of this study provided useful information which is helpful not only for the students but also for the brand managers of mobile telecom operators that how they can improve their company’s strategic position for longer period of time through corporate branding to trigger more customers and for a good brand.

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37
21
Corporate branding effects on consumer purchase preferences in Serbian telecom market
Published June 30, 2011
91-104

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This paper discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.This is a quantitative stu...dy. A questionnaire is used in order to investigate corporate branding and other influencing factors involved in purchase decision of the customers. Population selected for this study are Belgrade University students which is the most of Serbian youth segment and is a valuable source that gives precise information with high probability about market preferences according to the Research of Serbian republic statistical office. Primary data are obtained by collecting data from questionnaire and interview, while the secondary data are collected from various reliable sources. Primary data provide reliable content in accordance with a secondary data obtained by Serbian republic statistical office and with a Research of competitor and consumer preferences insight provided by Telenor Company. The analysis of the data has been performed in accordance with the chosen theories and summarized in a table, which serves as a tool for deriving reliable and relevant conclusions. The sample size was determined by conducting a primary study and defining the variance of primary sample and the intended number of samples was selected carefully and randomly from the population. Then the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined. The used questionnaire in this research consisted of 7 common, and 30 specialized questions which were supporting the hypotheses of the research. Data was analyzed using the frequency percent techniques, and in the chapter related to the deductive statistics, one-sample t test was used to analyze and approve/disapprove the questions supporting the research hypotheses. The analysis of this study reveals different set of results while making comparison between literature and empirical. It investigates the relative importance of the corporate branding to the customers in mobile phone telecommunication industry while making purchase decision. The findings of this study provided useful information which is helpful not only for the students but also for the brand managers of mobile telecom operators that how they can improve their company’s strategic position for longer period of time through corporate branding to trigger more customers and for a good brand.

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30
6
The role of corporate branding in Serbian mobile phone operator market
Published December 30, 2009

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This thesis discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.

 

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Networking on the utilization of local natural resources
Published December 31, 2011
49-52

Together with its partners, Szolnok College is planning to evaluate a new project for networking on the utilization of local natural resources. This project is based on a research work (using the findings of the surveys completed by the representatives of hosts living in the eastern part of Hungary). The project itself is based on the adaptatio...n of the theory of tourism into practice by presenting existing natural values in the supply portfolio of tourist service providers. A unique natural environment can be found alongside a 120 km-long stretch of River Tisza. These natural values interlink and complete each other with respect to Lake Tisza and River Tisza. Regions and settlements situated further from the specified settlements are also rich in natural values which guests will definitely be pleased to get acquainted with. The six landscape centres (including LHH regions) alongside river Tisza (in the two regions) symbolise the interdependent system of the sample area of the project while a single landscape centre in the Pásztó Minor Region embodies a unique character. A register will be prepared for each landscape centre containing unique natural values that can be involved in the tourist supply and handicraft/economic activities (e.g. basket weaving, floodplain economy) that are or can be built on these natural values. A pictorial English/German-Hungarian professional dictionary summarises the distinctive nature of landscape centres. The education material demonstrating the registers is going to be developed both in conventional and electronic form; its spatial IT appearance on the Internet is considered a special feature. The education material will be supplemented with other information currently missing such as those related to environmentally friendly economy, and the legal context. The methodology allows the adaptation of the method in other regions, even in the whole country. The new qualifying and benchmarking system and the trademark managed by a profession-specific cluster that strengthens network co-operation and controls the development guarantee the achievement of high quality tourism.

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36
2
European cycle tourism: a tool for sustainable regional rural development
Published September 30, 2013
115-119

We present an economic impacts model based on direct expenditures for European cycle routes, originally designed in 2009 as part of a study commissioned by the European Parliament. At its request, the study was updated in 2012, including a refined version of our model which takes some limitations of the former model into account. Our main findi...ngs are that cycle tourists’ daily spending is comparable to that of other tourists, and that cycle tourism can contribute significantly in particular to rural economies that have not previously enjoyed mainstream tourism development. (European) cycle tourism thus proves to be useful as an (additional) tool for regional rural development. We arrived at a total estimated direct expenditures in Europe of almost €44 billion (€35 billion from day trips and €8.94 billion from overnight trips). We applied the model to the routes of EuroVelo, the European cycle route network which is currently being developed, showing their considerable economic potential of over €7 billion in direct expenditures. Furthermore, cycle tourism has a far lower negative impact on the environment (in terms of carbon dioxide emissions) than other forms of tourism. Cycle tourism is therefore a good example of a low carbon tourism product which could be developed as a major slow travel opportunity across (rural) Europe.

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Master training in Agribusiness and Rural Development at the University of Zagreb
Published December 31, 2007
87-91

The title of the proposed JEP project is: “Agribusiness Higher EducAtion Development” with the acronym AHEAD. This curriculum development project – in case of acceptance – will last for three years, from July 2005 and June 2008. The primary project site is the University of Zagreb, Croatia; the contractor and the co-ordinator institutio...n is the University of Debrecen, Hungary. In the consortium, 3 further European universities (University of Hohenheim, Wageningen University and Scottish Agricultural College) will participate, from the Croatian side the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management and an additional 7 Croatian institutes will also be involved. The total number of members in the consortium is 13.
The main objective of the AHEAD project is to establish new BSc and MSc programmes in Croatia at two Faculties of the University of Zagreb. These are as follows: Agricultural and Rural Development, Food Safety and Quality Management and pilot MSc training in Agribusiness and Rural Development. These are preceded by faculty retraining programmes in food safety and quality management, as well as agribusiness and commerce within the framework of a MBA programme accredited by the International MBA Network. The professional content of the project is a modernised curriculum and training palette that would be available by the end of this project at the University of Zagreb, serving not only the higher education of the country, but the demand of the Croatian national economy as well, in line with the basic principles of the European Union.

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119
15
The development of integrated accounting in small and medium-sized companies in the agri- and foodsector f the Russian federation
Published June 30, 2012
131-135

This paper focuses on the regulation of financial accounting in SMEs in the agri- and food sector in Russia. The paper presents the factors which influence the accounting system and the quality of the information it provides. The information and reports that are prepared according to international standards are not comparable with reports prepa...red by Russian standards. They do not facilitate external users in gathering relevant information on the current financial position. The present usage of different systems for procuring information to satisfy the needs of multiple stakeholder groups takes time, distorts information, and often does not provide a true and fair view on business performance. One way to overcome this is the use of an integrated accounting system which allows, within the limits of Russian legislation, to provide a broad information base for external reporting. International standards could be used like IAS41 or those applied in the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The derived data could be used for attraction of investments, presentation of information to all interested users, comparison of results of activities in similar companies, and as a benchmark for the activities of companies in various regions and/or segments. They could be used to compare Russian companies with similar ones in the European Union. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls which companies potentially experience from implementing an integrated accounting information system for company management and financial reporting purposes in the Russian Federation.

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39
13
Understanding the demand side and coordinating the supply side for connected goods and services
Published July 30, 2010
17-23

This paper addresses the coordination and innovation issues needed for promoting value added at the rural and regional level. There are two sides to value added: the ability to meet consumer demand, and to identify least cost ways of supplying the demanded goods. Human and social capital plays an important role on both sides. At the municipalit...y level the supply side issues are complex. First, because the production space has far more dimensions than for the single entrepreneur. Second, because the value of some goods and services produced depend on what other goods and services that is available. On the supply side networks are important to solve the coordination issues, while networks for identifying and understanding consumer preferences are important on the demand side. Participation in these two network types compete for the same scarce resource, the time of the inhabitants of a municipality. We address these issues in more detail. A major insight from our work is that in addition to the time conflict, innovation and new information may make it more difficult to maintain coordination networks.

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37
9
Less favoured area measure in the Netherlands: a welcome or negligible addition?
Published May 30, 2009
23-28

The Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) Directive (75/268) which was introduced in 1975, was the first common European instrument of regional agricultural structural policy. LFAs are areas where agriculture is hampered by permanent natural handicaps. The major objectives were to ensure the continuation of farming, thereby maintaining a minimum populatio...n level and preserving scenic landscapes and environmentally valuable habitats. In the Netherlands, the LFA measure is used as an additional payment, to compensate farmers for negative economic effects due to the conservation of these natural handicaps. It was not implemented as a stand alone policy, but is linked to measures aiming at active nature and landscape conservation management. In this paper, the effects will be examined of the regulations aiming at the conservation of natural handicaps on farm businesses within LFAs, when comparing them to farm businesses outside LFAs, where these regulations and handicaps do not exist. The main data source that was used is the Farm Accountancy Data Network. Reference groups of farms were compiled with the use of the simple and multiple imputation approach in Stars (Statistics for Regional Studies). Both analyses were tested with the use of a parametric and a nonparametric test. When comparing the results of both analyses, it can be concluded that there is no evidence that there is a statistical difference in family farm income corrected for and not corrected for LFA payment between the LFA farm businesses and the reference groups. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the size of the compensatory allowances is small and there is no evidence that it has a significant effect on the family farm income of LFA farm businesses. The main purpose of the Dutch LFA policy is to compensate farm businesses for negative economic effects due to the conservation of natural handicaps. Although this may be true for some individual farms, based on the methods used in this paper, it appears not to be the case for the collectivity of LFA premium beneficiaries as a whole.

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46
3
The role of education, knowledge and human resources for the agricultural development in the perspective of new cap: an hypothesis of change in Basilicata
Published June 30, 2012
123-129

The role of education, knowledge and human resources in the agribusiness becomes of primary importance for the development of agricultural sector and, more generally, of the territory. The main objective of the present paper is to verify the role of investment in human resources and, consequently, in services for the agricultural development fo...r the dynamics of rural development, trade and international cooperation of agribusiness.After a literature review, the paper firstly analyses the characteristics of the Italian Region of Basilicata, selected for our empirical application, and secondly develops an econometric model to explain the relationship between the rural GDP and a set of economic variables and of network-education-social (NES) dummy variable. These NES is representative of social, educational and, network factors, describing the degree of openness of the region firm. As expected, the results show that farmers may act as engines for economic development when they are trained on the basis of the needs and requirements related to innovation and research, and they are assisted through new models of organization of agricultural services.

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30
41
Regional identity in rural development: Three case studies of regional branding
Published October 30, 2010
19-24

Within the globalizing world, regions and their identities are subjected to great pressure. At present, places are engaged in a process of “territorial competition” in an integrated world economy. The identity of the region can be used as a starting point to brand a region and differentiate it from others. In the regional branding process, ...the region as a whole becomes a product or brand and offers a “basket” of regional products and services. Regional branding is aimed at creating a more distinctive image or reputation, which helps to increase regional competitiveness. This paper discusses the possibility of regional identity as a mobilizing force for rural development, by studying best practice examples of regional branding. Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted interviews in three case regions:West Cork (Ireland), Groene Woud (the Netherlands) and Pajottenland (Belgium). The study of these cases led to the formulation of critical success factors on the organization of regional branding. Comparative analysis of the cases demonstrates the importance of passionate initiators as ambassadors of the region and the advantage of a well-coordinated internal network in the region. Next to that, the internal marketing of the region is considered an important critical success factors.

 

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59
14
The statistical analysis for the theoretical bio-methane market based on the opinion of car-owners of Hajdú-Bihar county in Hungary
Published December 30, 2013
27-30

The more expensive fuels and the health-threatening air pollution make even necessary the spread of such a fuel, which serves as a solution to these problems. In our country at present there are three public CNG filling stations, two of them are located in Gyôr and Szeged and the third one was opened at the end of October in Budapest. The lack... of infrastructure obstructs the spread of the methane gas powered cars in Hungary. During my research getting information by means of a test questionnaire I measured the fuel selection of the drivers and their opinion about alternative fuels. Then on the basis of the results I determined the potential target audience of the bio-CNG. As it is also typical in our country, the most of the respondents use gasoline-powered vehicle and drive less than 12 000 km/year on an average. 55% of the respondents would have their car converted in order to refuel cheaper and to protect the environment, consequently there would be demand for CNG. The potential target audience is the urban population below the age of 41 with higher education degree and average salary. One of my future objectives is to design a CNG filling station network in Hajdú-Bihar county considering the demand of car owners.

 

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37
7
Green networks: Innovative capacity of SMEs in the Dutch greenhouse horticulture industry
Published June 30, 2012
43-50

The Dutch greenhouse horticulture industry is characterized by world leadership in high-tech innovation. The dynamics of this playing field are innovation in production systems and automation, reduction in energy consumption and sharing limited space. However, international competitive advantage of the industry is under pressure and sustainable... growth of individual enterprises is no longer a certainty. The sector’s ambition is to innovate better and grow faster than the competition in the rest of the world. Realizing this ambition requires strengthening the knowledge base, stimulating entrepreneurship, innovation (not just technological, but especially business process innovation). It also requires educating and professionalizing people. However, knowledge transfer in this industry is often fragmented and innovation through horizontal and vertical collaboration throughout the value chain is limited. This paper focuses on the question: how can the grower and the supplier in the greenhouse horticulture chain gain competitive advantage through radical product and process innovation. The challenge lies in time- to-market, in customer relationship, in developing new product/market combinations and in innovative entrepreneurship. In this paper an innovation and entrepreneurial educational and research programme is introduced. The programme aims at strengthening multidisciplinary collaboration between enterprise, education and research. Using best practice examples, the paper illustrates how companies can realize growth and improve the innovative capacity of the organization as well as the individual by linking economic and social sustainability. The paper continues to show how participants of the program develop competencies by means of going through a learning cycle of single-loop, double-loop and triple loop learning: reduction of mistakes, change towards new concepts and improvement of the ability to learn. Finally, the paper illustrates the importance of combining enterprise, education and research in regional networks, with examples from the greenhouse horticulture sector. These networks generate economic growth and international competitiveness by acting as business accelerators.

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39
13
Networking on the utilization of local natural resources
Published December 30, 2010
57-60

Together with its partners, Szolnok College is planning to evaluate a new project for networking on the utilization of local natural resources. This project is based on a research work (using the findings of the surveys completed by the representatives of hosts living in the eastern part of Hungary). The project itself is based on the adaptatio...n of the theory of tourism into practice by presenting existing natural values in the supply portfolio of tourist service providers. A unique natural environment can be found alongside a 120 km-long stretch of River Tisza. These natural values interlink and complete each other with respect to Lake Tisza and River Tisza. Regions and settlements situated further from the specified settlements are also rich in natural values which guests will definitely be pleased to get acquainted with. The six landscape centres (including LHH regions) alongside river Tisza (in the two regions) symbolise the interdependent system of the sample area of the project while a single landscape centre in the Pásztó Minor Region embodies a unique character. A register will be prepared for each landscape centre containing unique natural values that can be involved in the tourist supply and handicraft/economic activities (e.g. basket weaving, floodplain economy) that are or can be built on these natural values. A pictorial English/German-Hungarian professional dictionary summarises the distinctive nature of landscape centres. The education material demonstrating the registers is going to be developed both in conventional and electronic form; its spatial IT appearance on the Internet is considered a special feature. The education material will be supplemented with other information currently missing such as those related to environmentally friendly economy, and the legal context. The methodology allows the adaptation of the method in other regions, even in the whole country. The new qualifying and benchmarking system and the trademark managed by a profession-specific cluster that strengthens network co-operation and controls the development guarantee the achievement of high quality tourism.

Show full abstract
22
13
Economic results of Croatian farms
Published March 31, 2016
53-58

The objective of the paper is to provide an overview of the situation and performance of Croatian farms. Croatian farmers rarely keep business books and therefore farm level business data are deficient. Croatian accession to the European Union in 2013 brought numerous innovations to agricultural sector. One is introduction of Farm Accountancy D...ata Network (FADN) which aims to determine the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy on national agriculture of EU member states. The sample of Croatian FADN comprises 1,250 commercial farms. The paper brings results of agricultural sector financial analysis for the period 2011-2013. Total farm output decreased, but since the stronger decrease trend occurred in total inputs, this led to positive trend of gross and net farm income in the year 2013. Positive results are also shown at efficiency and productivity of Croatian farms. In the years 2011 and 2012 farms operated below the efficiency level while in 2013 efficiency increased above the efficiency level. In the observed period there was a 70% increase in productivity. The analysis shows that the most efficient farms are those in vegetables and flowers type. It also has the highest debt ratio due to their capital intensiveness. The vegetable and floriculture farms have the largest gross farm income in all three analysed years, but with a large drop in 2013, while the farms in type pigs and poultry have largest increase of gross farm income in last observed year.

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30
5
The elements of strategic and marketing planning applied in the case of Avital company
Published September 30, 2009
111-112

Presently, the environment that is characterized by rapid changesinallsocialspheres,thechallengesofrapidadaptation and survival in the market, the ability of thinking and acting in front of ‘’time’’is one of the key factors of success. Every day we have witnessed a large decline of the number of companies, poor implementation of many pr...ojects, poor implementation of governmentreforms, and life challenges of people to find work. On the other hand, there are individuals, organizations and companies that face challenges and changes very fast in all world markets and societies. Question that could be asked based on this is ‘’Why and how some companies manage it and the other not?"

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29
10
Strategic approach to sustainable business of Galenika Fitofarmacija A.D. in a context of accession of Republic of Serbia
Published September 30, 2009
109-110

Strategic management is ultimately concerned with the quest for sustainable advantage. To be practical, advantage for commercial firms concerns earnings and sustainable means a concern with earnings into the future. Pearce and Robinson define strategic management as a set of decisions and actions that results in the formulation and implementati...on of plans designed to achieve a company’s objectives. David says that strategic management can be defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives. Strategy is also hierarchical concept – it takes place at three different levels: corporate, business, and functional. These levels correspond with the activities of managers in different parts of the organization.

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25
3
Efficiency analysis of dairy farms in the Northern Great Plain region using deterministic and stochastic DEA models
Published December 31, 2012
113-122

Running any dairy enterprise is a risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the price fluctuation of feed and animal health products from inputs, as well as by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances, it is essential for the cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in manage...ment as effectively as possible. In this research the efficiency and risk of 32 sample dairy farms were analysed in the Northern Great Plain Region from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) by applying classical Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and stochastic DEA models. The choice of this method is justified by the fact that there was not such an available reliable database by which production functions could have been defined, and DEA makes possible to manage simultaneously some inputs and outputs, i.e. complex decision problems. By using DEA, the sources that cause shortfall on inefficient farms can be identified, analysed and quantified, so corporate decision support can be reinforced successfully. A disadvantage of the classical DEA model is that the stochastic factors of farming cannot be treated either on the side of inputs or outputs; therefore, their results can be adopted with reservations, especially in agricultural models. This may have been because we could not discover that many agricultural applications. Considering the price of inputs and outputs as probability variables, 5000 simulation runs have been done in this research. As a result, it can be stated that at which intervals of the input and output factors can become competitive and the fluctuation of these factors can cause what level of risk at each farm.

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50
9
Hungarian endeavours for the enhancement of economic relations in Southeast Asia focusing on a new partnership with Vietnam
Published May 12, 2020
5-12

Beyond a brief review of the economic integration process among the states of the ASEAN region, the authors of the present study aimed to examine and analyze the main economic, social and political characteristics of the Hungaro-ASEAN relations. The importance of the topic of this research is underlined by the fact that the Hungarian government... considers big importance to the improvement of the foreign economic relations with Asian economies. This intention was expressed by a new foreign economic strategy „Eastern opening” announced by the government in 2012, even though the foreign trade statistical figures did not justify its success by now.The authors believe that increasing opening towards Asia serves Hungarian economic interests. Therefore, it is a right and desirable direction to proceed, they consider that in the background of the modest results there might be the insufficient knowledge of the market mechanisms, the actors of the local supply chains and the potential partners. They believe that in order to make the Hungarian foreign economic endeavours in this direction more successful a more thorough examination of the local characteristics – including the actual demand arising at the targeted markets - is necessary. This opinion is prevalent to not only the Asian „Giants”, like China, India and Japan, but also to smaller states, like the ASEAN members, which – together - in terms of population and economic performance – reach the dimensions of an economic great power as well.
Furthermore, the integration of the ten Southeast Asian countries develops rapidly, which is coupled by their increasing weight in the world trade. The dynamic economic and social development in the ASEAN region – and in parallel with this the growing demands and purchasing power - may encourage the Hungarian ventures in theory. However, there are still very few Hungarian entrepreneurs, who are ready to enter the market in the region and able in long run to operate there successfully. It is a well-known fact that the since the regime has changed in Hungary, foreign trade became strongly concentrated towards the EU members.
The ASEAN countries – because of the geographic distance and by other reasons - definitely cannot mean an alternative of the EU market, however in a certain extent they can relieve this one-sided concentration and may provide additional opportunities for the Hungarian export of goods, and rather to the export of Hungarian services and know-how. The ratio of the ASEAN region within the entire Hungarian foreign trade turnover is small nowadays, furthermore – according to the statistical figures – this region is rather an import resource for Hungary than being an export market. This fact – just itself – is should not be considered as problem. When the amount of the import exceeds the amount of exports, that means that it is more worthwhile to do business with suppliers from there countries than with others. By and large all this is prevalent to the field of the agricultural trade as well: Hungary imports a range of commodities which cannot be produced by domestic farmers or in Europe (spices, tropical fruits, etc.). It is obvious that the ASEAN region cannot be the major market for the Hungarian agricultural export, not even in long run. However, there are still a lot of opportunities to enlarge the turnover of goods and services and enhance the co-operation in this geographic region. In the last chapter, the authors outlined an example in case of Vietnam – co-operation of joint public warehousing of agricultural commodities – which may be a good example for the promising potential opportunities. In contrast with the majority of the ASEAN countries, the Hungaro-Vietnamese political and economic relations had started much earlier than the regime was changed in Hungary. However, the potential advantages arose from this fact – the network of connections and the sympathy of Vietnamese professionals graduated in Hungary, the reputation and popularity of Hungarian agricultural products and technologies, the achievements of R&D in the field of agriculture – could not be utilized from Hungarian side. Vietnam, however still preserved its socialist political establishment, but in terms of its economic development strategy and economic policy has gradually been standing on the basis of market orientation. Vietnam, with its population of ninety million shows a rapid and successful development and it means good opportunities even for Hungarian entrepreneurs. It would be a mistake to leave these potentials unused.

JEL Classification: F14, Q17, R11, N75

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