The increasing consumption of beer indicates the necessity of the thorough analysis of its composition. In this study, the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and colour intensity of 24 beer samples have been determined. The samples contained pale barley, dark barley, pale wheat and dark wheat beers. The aim of the study was to determine ...the amount of the antioxidant compounds in beer, as well as to find correlation between different beer types and the above mentioned parameters.
Dark barley samples contained phenolic compounds in the highest concentrations, and it can also be concluded that dark beers contain phenolic compounds and flavonoids in higher concentrations than pale beers in the case of barley and wheat samples.
According to the performed statistical analysis, these beer types cannot be differentiated based on the analysed parameters. The highest percentage of correctly classified samples could be observed in case of dark barley samples, but this value has only been 75%, and the total result of correctly classified cases was only 41.7%. The analysis of more samples and parameters is required to carry out a successful differentiation.
Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three ...soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the m...ethod of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.
The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.
The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.
The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.
The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.
Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.
Research of blanched asparagus has begun at the University of Debrecen Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm Research Institutes of Nyíregyháza in 2011. Establishment of the plantation took place in May 2011. The Grolim hybrid was used in the trial, 16 medium plot trial area has been formed under field conditions, with fou...r repetitions and 36 m2 plot size. In the course of our studies, the effect of different nutriment supply methods (untreated, manure, sheep manure compost, fertilizer) has been analysed on the spear yield of the Grolim asparagus hybrid between 2013 and 2017.
In our studies, the beginning of vegetative growth has been recorded upon the constant presence of 10 °C of average soil temperature in the case of the Grolim asparagus hybrid. The beginning and length of spear harvesting are both influenced by the time and dynamics of initial development in spring. During the analysed period, the dates of spear harvesting were various, the earliest being on 23rd March, 2014 and the latest on 23rd April, 2015; the rest of the three years have been varied within this one month interval. The total of heat units required for the vegetative development of spears has been determined; it provides important information for cultivation practice.
Spear yields turned out to be hectic during the analysed period. In 2013 and 2014, yields have surpassed the amount of 50 kg/harvest period/plot in the case of every treatment version. However, in 2015 a significantly lower specific yield has been recorded due to the unfavourable weather conditions in spring; a yield decline of nearly 50% was recorded in the case of the control treatment compared to the previous years. Yield was also lower in the rest of the fertilization treatments compared to 2014; however, in these cases, the degree of yield decrease was around 5–10%, which suggests the yield stabilising effect of fertilization. In 2016, a slight yield increase was measured in comparison with the base year. In 2017, there was a decline of yield in the control treatment; however, the different fertilization treatments resulted in yield increase as compared to previous years.
On the basis of our studies, it is clear that the best yield results have been provided by the artificial fertilization treatment in all of the five analysed years. It was followed by the sheep manure compost and manure treatments in terms of their effect on spear yield. During the three harvesting periods, the lowest yield on acidic sandy soil was recorded in the case of the control treatment. The most remarkable effect of nutriment treatments has been realised in terms of the decreased deviation of yield results, which perfectly represents the yield stabilising effect of nutriment supply in the case of perennial crops – asparagus – as well, even on a poor nutriment supply characteristic sandy soil.
According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavo...urable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.
The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.
The common smut of maize (corn smut, Ustilago maydis /DC/ Corda) can cause large economic losses in susceptible sweet corn hybrids as well. The protection against this pathogen is fundamentally based on prevention. Many methods to control corn smut have been recommended or evaluated, including crop rotation, sanitation, seed treatments, modific...ation of fertility, and biological control. In spite of these frequently mentioned control strategies, the host resistance seems to be the only effective method to manage common smut in those areas where Ustilago maydis is prevalent.
The supervision of plant hygiene of sweet chestnut grove on Pécsbánya (South Hungary) started more than four years ago. Hypovirulent strains were applied as a biological process to control Cryphonectria parasitica fungus which causes the chestnut blight disease. By now the performed interventions have shown obviou...s results, the vitality of the trees has greatly improved, the amount of harvested nuts is increasing, and the hypovirulent strain has been spreading within the area. During plant health inspection the galls of chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) was found in the year of 2015, which is the obvious symptom of new occurrence of the pest. The pest was eradicated by destroy galls, which allows taking out of consideration the damage by now in this area.
Cyclic hydroxamic acids are the most considerable secondary metabolites in grasses and their main task is to protect these species from pathogens and pests. The cyclic hydroxamic acid content and common smut susceptibility were examined in our experiments. 27 maize hybrids were used for experimental plants in a climate room, wher...e the plants were grown on a nutrient solution. An infiltration method was used for the inoculation of the plants. The total quantity of cyclic hydroxamic acids was determined and the ratio of infected plants and the ratio of inhibition was determined, too. Based on our results, on the basis of all hybrids’ data, the total hydroxamic acid content of the infected plants was higher than in the control. On the level of individual hybrids, only 9 of them had higher cyclic hydroxamic acid content in the case of infection. Increase in cyclic hydroxamic content induced by the fungus in this case is a tool for the fungus to suppress other pathogens and pests. Amongst the hybrids’ cyclic hydroxamic acid contents, significant differences were detected in the control and in the infected treatment, too. The so-called “sweetcorn” hybrids showed high level of cyclic hydroxamic acid content. According to the differences amongst hybrids, homogenous groups were created which groups differed in the case of control and infected treatment, because of the difference in increase of cyclic hydroxamic acid content. The examined hybrids showed different levels of infection and different rate of growth inhibition for the effect of inoculation. According to the infection caused damage hybrids were ranked. Infection caused notable damage for hybrids Prelude, Desszert 73, DKC5276 and DK440.
The aim of the current experiment was to optimize the creation process of single cell protein on plant-based substrate solution with the intention to improve end-product turn out by means of adding vitamin solution. Based on the results of the fermentation processes of yeast strains, it was concluded that the vitamin-supplementation produced it...s greatest effect on the dry matter production, primarily on the K. marxianus DSM 4908 strain, while it was less beneficent when it comes to the figures of wet cell mass. In addition, it can be assumed that vitamin supplementation increased the maximum specific rate of growth (μmax) and decreased the generation time (tg) significantly. In the case of the K. marxianus yeast strain on corn steep liquor treated with vitamin-supplementation, the highest (μmax) and the lowest (tg) data were observed [(0.226 h-1) and (4.4 h), respectively]. Based on the results it was found that K. marxianus DSM 4908 is expedient to be applied on corn steep liquor medium in order to determine its suitability to produce additive for feeding.
Studies were conducted between 2015 and 2017 with yellow sticky traps in seven tobacco plantations. The purpose was to determine when and in what numbers onion thrips individuals can settle into tobacco plantations. The primary objective of the study was to determine the proper timing of chemical treatments, furthermore, the determination of cr...ucial factors that can influence the population dynamics of Thrips tabaci.
In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones ...were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the decrease in grain moisture content in three maize hybrids in Debrecen in 2017. Armagnac, Sushi and Loupiac were the examined hybrids in this study. The culture medium and temperature conditions were applied uniformly for all three hybrids. According to the results obtained from the ratio of moisture c...ontent of seeds per day, the Armagnac variety in the intensive drying down phase loses more time and moisture content, so it can be concluded that the produced dry matter is more than in the case of other varieties. Armagnac requires more time to achieve yield, while the Sushi and Loupiac hybrids produce less harvest. Regarding the slope of the regression line, the rate of loss of moisture in the grain has been negatively correlated with the amount of “b” in the three examined hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97% in the Loupiac, 95% and in the Sushi 90% of the total dynamic value of moisture motion.
Currently, maize is one of the most important crops (Zea mays L.) both globally and in Hungary. We compared physiological parameters of a maize genotype – p9903 – at two different experimental sites in a field experiment. Furthermore, we examined these parameters’ variability in individual plants on the leaves with different ages. Absolut...e chlorophyll content of the leaves were analysed, separately that of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. We also measured the absolute carotenoid contents of leaves. Furthermore, we calculated these photosynthetic pigments’ content ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) and dry matter weight were also measured in order to characterise plant production. The results obviously reflect the decreasing in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus on the low yield site. Otherwise, we identify significant differences only in certain cases of leaves.
Plant litter decomposition in inland waters contributes significantly to nutrient load, particularly in still waters, such as shallow lakes and wetlands. The decomposition rates of Salix alba and Populus tremula leaf litter was examined in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland, using litter bag technique. Leaf litter was incubated in small (ᴓ=...3 mm) and large (ᴓ=900 μm) mesh size bags for the assessment of the relative contribution of macroinvertebrates to leaf litter decomposition. Dry mass, exponential decay coefficient and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, NH4 +, NO3 -, SO4 2-, PO4 3-, Cl-) were determined. Leaf mass loss showed negative exponential pattern during the 168 days of the decomposition period. Leaf litter mass loss generally did not differ between the small and large mesh sizes, suggesting that macroinvertebrates generally have a negligible role in leaf decomposition in the winter period.
The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol an...d the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
The primary aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of legal problems of soil protection. The basis for my study is the ombudsman’s 2016 principle of soil protection. This resolution summarizes the most pressing soil protection measures in 15 points that need to be taken as soon as possible to preserve soil resources. To narr...ow the wide range of topics, I will examine three points: (1) preservation of soil resources, (2) soil sealing, (3) brownfield instead of greenfield. Hungary is in a special position concerning this most ancient natural resource, as only 11% of all the land covered area of Earth consists of soil, the EU average is less than 30%, while in Hungary it is more than 60%. Despite the existing protective legal requirements, soil degradation is a constant issue. The persistence of population growth spells the need for more arable land, but as a result of the stressful impacts caused by people we are running out of useable topsoil.
Assessing both the short and long term process of land reclamation, it can be stated that more and more farmland becomes permanently and imperviously covered for other purposes each year, and as the arable land area decreases, the impervious surface area grows despite all respective decisions, regulations and prohibitions.
The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.
Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.
The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to... determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.
The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).
The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.
Mineral water consumption increased dramatically in the last 30 years. One reason for this change lies in the changing consumer behaviour: consumers are increasingly recognizing the importance of healthy nutrition and appreciate the beneficial nutritional physiological properties of mineral water. Local mineral water harmonizes well with import...ed waters. Bottled mineral water may travel several hundred kilometres until it reaches consumers. In the present study, the dynamic mechanical vibration caused by transporting on public roads was simulated in laboratory vibration tests then samples were subjected to microbiological examinations in compliance with legislations currently in force. Due to this vibration, the initial microbe count increased by two orders of magnitude, while after terminating the 4-hour mechanical action it decreased gradually. Growing dynamics of microbes constituting the total germ count at 22 °C and 37 °C were almost similar.
Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an incre...asing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.
The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.
A study of fungi responsible for severe leaf spots of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in the Hajdúság region (East Hungary), Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata were isolated from infested leaf tissues. F. sporotrichioides was the most virulent fungus in pathogenicity tests conducted on healthy leaves of common milkweed ...plants. Inoculation of common milkweed (A. syriaca) in different growth stages with F. sporotrichioides yielded similar symptoms as the original ones. Spray mixtures containing 1.0×106 conidia/ml gave effective control when common milkweed plants were sprayed until runoff occurred. Laboratory (wet chamber) and field experiments showed that asexual spores of the fungal pathogen, F. sporotrichioides, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against common milkweed (A. syriaca).
More efficient control efficacy was observable on elder plants (at flowering stage) than younger ones. These results initiate that this fungus may be a biocontrol agent for controlling this invasive weed but should clarify its hosts because it could infect cultivated plants as well.
Maize has high productivity and produces huge vegetative and generative phytomass, but this crop is very sensitive to agroecological (mainly to climatic, partly to pedological conditions) and agrotechnical circumstances. In Hungary, maize is grown on 1.1–1.2 million hectares, the national average yields vary between 4–7 t ha-1 depending on ...the year and the intensity of production technology. The longterm experiment was set up in 2015–2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK (Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management) research area of the University of Debrecen. We examined the following commonly used hybrids of Hungary: SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9074 (FAO 310), P9486 (FAO 360), SY Octavius (FAO 400), GK Kenéz (FAO 410), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experiment was set up in three different plant densities. These were 60, 76, 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experiment was set up with three different sowing dates, early, average and late sowing. The yield was measured using a special plot harvester (Sampo Rosenlew 2010), measuring the weight of the harvested plot and also taking a sample from it. As a next step, we calculated the yield (t ha-1) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them to each other. We evaluated the obtained data using Microsoft Excel 2015.
The experiment has been set up in the University of Debrecen Látókép Experimental Station in three different years (2014, 2015 and 2016), three different plant densities 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, four replications of the same nutrient supply with using a line spacing of 45 cm. In the experiment, the fore crop was winter wheat in each y...ear. The amount of weeds was observed five times in the last experimental year (2016/2017). In the three experimental years, the highest yield was harvested from the early sowing plot with the highest plant density. On the basis of the Pearson’s correlation analysis there was significant negative correlation (r=-0.583) between the effect of the annual year and yield of the hybrid.
Viable urban environment is largely dependent on the size, condition and distribution of urban green spaces within and around cities. Treerows in streets are one of the most essential elements of urban green spaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate tree taxa compositions and lifespan values of trees in tree-row system with special referenc...e to five narrow streets (Garai, Jókai, Tanító, Csokonai and Zsák) of Debrecen. Tree numbers, tree taxa and the origin of tree taxa were determined in two years (2009 and 2017). As a next step, six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer', Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia 'Browseri', Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides 'Olmsted', and Crataegus x lavalleei 'Carrierei') were further estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0–5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0–5 grades), v) estimated tree viability (in 0–5 grades), and vi) tree value in Ft. Our results showed that the numbers of tree taxa were 9 and 11 in 2009 and 2017 as well as an overall 279 and 282 trees were evaluated in 2009 and in 2017, respectively. More than 60% of the trees were native or similar to native taxa. The largest and the lowest trunk diameters were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The largest and the lowest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides ’Olmsted’ and for Magnolia kobus, respectively. The best and the worst trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Crataegus x lavalleei, respectively. The best and the worst tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer platanoides. Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the importance of appropriate choice of tree taxa for an establishment of tree-row system in narrow street conditions.