Dianthus chinensis and Dianthus caryophyllus varieties were tested for shoot regeneration from leaf and petal explants and transformed with Agrobacterium tuniefaciens strains (EHA 105 and LBA 4404) harbouring an apple derived ACS cDNA in antisense orientation in order to reduce ethylene production and influence the et...hylene dependant traits in carnation. After transformation regenerating shoots were selected on MS medium containing 50-75-100-125-150 mg/1 kanamycin and supplemented with 1 mg/1 BA, 0.2 mg/1 NAA. Transgene integration was proved by PCR analysis with npt II spcific primers followed by Southern hybridisation of DNA isolated from green shoots on medium containing 150 mg/1 kanamycin. Several putative transformants were subjected to RT-PCR in order to examine the npt 11 expression at mRNA level. Both the transformant and the non-transformant plants were potted into glasshouse to observe the effect of changed ethylene production on flowering time, petal senescence and vase life.
Altogether 40, mainly old Hungarian apple varieties were screened with six previously described microsatellite markers. A total of 71 polymorphic alleles were detected (average 11.8 alleles/locus) and the heterozygosity of markers averaged very high (0.8). The genetic variability among the genotypes proved to be so remarkable that as few as thr...ee markers from the applied six were enough to distinguish between the 40 varieties. This was also confirmed by the cumulative probability of obtaining identical allele patterns for two randomly chosen apple genotypes for all loci, which value was quite low: 2.53 x 10-5. The molecular identification of these genetically very different old apple genotypes could be very useful in future breeding programs.
The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (PS) is one of the most significant stressors of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemical and agrotechnical treatments have minor importance, so breeding has great part in the protection against this pathogen. Most of the cultivars are susceptible to PS. The genetic background... of resistance in the plant is a complex system. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but there are some modifier genes. The pathogen species can be divided into different races.
To understand the functioning of this resistance gene, experiments were carried out using bean varieties with different genotypes and near isogenic lines of bean. Eight lines were tested. Our main objective was to test bean lines with PS with high virulence.
The experiment was made in greenhouse and on field. The virulent bacterium strain has been isolated in Hungary.
The changes of carbohydrates were tested after infection. In homeostasis the level of carbohydrates (especially glucose and fructose) were higher in susceptible lines. In case of artificial and natural infection the decrease of glucose were more significant in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. In the leaf samples from systemic chlorosis the level of this carbohydrate increased.
These changes are connected with the level of resistance, but more experiments are needed to verify this assumption.
RAPD markers were used to reveal genetic diversity between nine varieties of Cucumis melo L. and to identify the studied varieties. Of the 60 primers tested 12 primers produced polymorph patterns. A set of 4 primers was sufficient for distinction the nine investigated melon varieties.
This study was conducted to select the most appropriate RNA isolation method that can be used successfully in case of stone fruits. The changing pattern of gene expression during the ripening process of stone fruits may elucidate the molecular background of several phenotypical or phytochemical alterations present among different genotypes. Our... laboratory aims to study the expression of genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze crucial steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. RNA isolation from fruit mesocarp is a challanging task due to high levels of sugars and polyphenolics accumulating during fruit development. Therefore, at first, the optimal techniques eligible for RNA isolation from fruit tissues at different ripening stages must be selected. Our study compares three different RNA isolation protocols and describes their potential applicability according to different fruit species and ripening stages.
An RNA fingerprinting study of strawberry receptacle and achene tissue was performed to identify candidate genes involved in fruit ripening. Quantitative cDNA-AFLP was used to detect differential gene expression in green, white, pink and red stages of fruit ripening. Based on hierarchical average linkage clustering the differentially expressed...genes formed three major groups, genes expressed only in green receptacle, genes expressed mainly in white, pink and red receptacle, and in achene. 130 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated and sequenced. Most TDFs did not show any homology to sequences with known functions, others were homologous to genes involved in oxidative stress response, signal transduction, regulation of development and cell-wall metabolism. Novel genes, so far not associated with strawberry ripening and ripening in general, were identified, such as genes encoding a bHLH protein, putative nitrilase-related protein, putative HD-zip protein. The differential pattern of gene expression draws the attention to the significance of ripening induced-or repressed promoters in strawberry fruit, whose isolation and characterization can be useful tool for functional genomics. For this purpose nine cDNA-AFLP fragments related either to ontogeny or senescing were completed with 5'UTR aiming at more precise annotation and future promoter isolation. Although tens of potentially important transcriptome changes were identified, the function of many ripening induced genes remain unknown.
Utilization of the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique as a molecular marker was tested to investigate the relationships between some representative grapevine cultivars and hybrids established at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding (CUB), to distinguish clones as well as to characterize various hybrids between spec...ies or cultivars and their parents. Vitis vinifera cultivars were easily and successfully distinguished by the RAPD technique and they were grouped according to the traditional taxonomic classification. RAPD patterns of the examined Pinot gris clones proved to be completely identical. Number of generations was reflected by the value of genetic distance of the examined hybrids. Genetic identity of parents and their offsprings was influenced by the selection applied in the process of plant breeding. Parental phenotypic and morphologic characteristics showed high degree of segregation in hybrids, but RAPD analysis revealed that their genetic similarity is considerable. The three Vitis anntrensis clones were properly discriminated from every cultivar and hybrid of Vitis vinifera, i.e. hybrids are much closer to the cultivated grapevine than to V. anzurensis due to the phenotypic selection carried out during the life-cycle of one or two generations.
Seventeen strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars representing the national list of Hungary, were subjected to RAPD, AP—PCR and STS analysis. Of the 31 decamer and oligomer primers tested 26 primers produced polymorphic patterns. 45 polymorphic fragments were analysed, ranging between 200-2800 by in size. Based on the data,...similarity coefficients (Jaccard index and Simple matching coefficient) were calculated, and dendrograms were constructed using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA). The dendrograms only partly reflect the known pedigree data. Specific RAPD markers were identified for cultivars F5, Pocahontas and Rabunda.
Some parameters involved in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in muskmelon Hales best (HBS) were studied. Cotyledon explants excised from 3.5-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring binary vectors which contained GUS and BAR genes. After co-cultivation on a low pH medium, explants were transfe...rred to selective medium, with higher pH, containing Claforan and Finale. The medium was changed every two weeks till shoots were induced. All shoots rooted on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/L IBA. These parameters combined as a whole led to successful transformation. The expression of the introduced gene construct was confirmed by GUS staining of shoot segments.
Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different...antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.
Cotyledonary segments of the casaba type muskmelon variety "Hógolyó" were used to induce organogenesis. Fifty different hormone combinations were applied to enhance the induction of shoot formation on the edge of the segments. The phases of organogenesis were followed with light- and scanning electron microscope. Shoot induction was achieved...with high frequency. The shoots were transferred to hormone free media for root induction. The rooted plantlets were planted out to soil.
NAA was feasible and the method can be applied in transformation experiments.
The analyses of various host-pathogen relationships have established the response reaction roles of carbohydrates — especially monosaccharides — measurable in the vegetal parts of the host. Published results also provide information concerning the way various pathogens utilize carbohydrates and concerning the carbohydrates pathogens prefer...out of the "selection" provided by the host plant. The role of carbohydrates in the response reactions to abiotic stress has been studied on several plant species as well — currently, too, it is an often discussed area of research. The above-mentioned results form the basis of our intention to study the connection between susceptibility to grey mould and the quantity of measurable carbohydrates in the leaves of grape varieties of various stress tolerance levels.
Up until today, apple sport mutants proved to be indistinguishable from each other and their progenitors at the molecular level using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker techniques. This is not surprising, since the genomes of these somatic mutants differ... only in one or a few small regions that affect economically important characteristics, such as improved fruit colour, size, or flavour. In most cases, these genome differences are probably caused by retrotransposons which are able to convert their RNA transcripts to DNA with reverse transcriptase enzyme prior to reinsertion, but unable to leave the genome and infect other cells. Retrotransposon insertions can alter the expression of other genes and/or the structure of encoded proteins. The sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (S-SAP) technique is capable of revealing the genetic distribution of retrotransposable elements over the whole genome. The present study used this approach to try to characterize and distinguish 'Jonathan' somatic mutants via fingerprinting, which is an unsolved problem.
Rhodiola rosea L. is an important adaptogen medicinal plant. In this study two new microsatellite markers were developed. The assessment of the genetic diversity of R. rosea has recently started with molecular markers, but only a few species-specific microsatellite markers have been published so far. However the small number of markers allows o...nly a limited insight into the genetic variability of the species therefore the aim of our work was to develop new microsatellite markers for R. rosea with a microsatellite enrichment library technique. Genomic DNA was cleaved with an endonuclease enzyme followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification. DNA fragments that contained microsatellites were first isolated using a biotin-streptavidin linkage based magnetic selection and then cloned into plasmids. Out of forty-three sequenced clones three contained microsatellites, in these cases primers were designed for the amplification of the microsatellite repeats. The newly developed primer pairs were tested on individuals from distant R. rosea populations and the variability of the amplified fragments was estimated by fragment-length analysis. The locus RhpB14a was found to be monomorphic while RhpB14b and RhpB13 were polymorphic. As a result of the present study, two novel variable microsatellite loci were identified in the genome of R. rosea.
Fruits are essential part of the human diet: they provide vitamins, minerals, antioxidants to the mankind. Physiologically they can be divided into two groups-climacteric and nonclimacteric - depending if they display any respiratory peak and dramatic increase in ethylene biosynthesis or do not. Ethylene is a gaseous hormone playing a very impo...rtant role in several physiological processes in plants. While climacteric fruits, like apples, bananas, tomatoes, peaches, apricots show increased ethylene biosynthesis and dramatic respiratory peak during their ripening, nonclimacteric fruits, like strawberries, grapes, citrus do not.
The most widely used fruits for studying nonclimacteric ripening are strawberries: several papers are focusing on the identification and characterization of ripening related genes from this plant. Therefore here we attempt to summarize the most important advances in strawberry fruit development, and ripening.
The identification of plant species and study of their genetic relatedness is an important object of plant genetics. The Rosaceae family contains a lot of economically important fruit, ornamental, and wild plant species. The microsatellite markers have been proven to be an efficient tool for description of the genetic relatedness among varietie...s and species. Their evolutionary conserved regions enable them to differentiate among various accessions. This article intends to show proceeded identification and characterization projects on Rosaceae species by using SSR markers. The article presents sources of already published primer sequences. The use of already published primers can highly reduce the cost and duration of this kind of researches.
In this paper we report the establishment methods of a rapidly growing callus culture of Phaseolus vulgaris bean as well as the conditions required for a high level of transient gene expression using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A vector is containing both the lindan-resistance gene as a selectable marker, and GUS ge...ne as a screenable marker. By using hypocotyl explant and vertical culture on B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 kinetin- and 2,4-D 2 mg/1 and subcultured every 3-4 weeks, we can recommend to get a good and much callus from bean. This will help in introducing foreign DNA into callus cells. One strain of Agrobacterium carrying plasmid as vector for introducing foreign DNA into plant cells was used. At different concentrations of lindan; 3, 4 and 4.5 mg/I, the transformed Maxidor callus survived and grew over a period of 6 month and subcultured every 3-4 weeks, but the control callus died. Callus were assayed for GUS activity to confirm the expression of the GUS gene using the histochemical assay test. The GUS gene was also correctly expressed in callus cultures grown on 4mg/I lindan-selected medium, the typical blue colour in the histochemical assay using the X-gluc as substrate. But the control, non-transformed callus was not able to grow in the presence of lindan, neither showed a positive reaction in the in vitro assays.
Apricot takes an important place in Hungarian fruit production. Considering morphological characteristics of apricots it was concluded that the genetics background of European cultivars is very limited. Molecular markers and their use for genotyping have revolutionized the identification of cultivars. In a classic apricot breeding program, it i...s important to be able to establish unique DNA profiles of selections to identify them unambiguously and to determine their genetic relationship. Presently SSR is far the most frequently performed technique for genetic diversity studies. In this study there were used peach and apricot primer pairs from four different sources in order to examine microsatellite polymorphism among cultivars and investigate relationships among them. The possibility of cross species amplification among different Prunus species using SSR primers allowed us to use primers developed in peach to study genetic diversity in apricot. In this work, 90% of the primers used were able to amplify SSRs in apricot and more than half of them were polymorphic. With the 10 primer pairs utilized were proven to be sufficient to set unique fingerprint for several cultivars studied. The obtained dendrogram classified of the 45 cultivars included in this study into two major groups and several subgroups.
Tissue cultured Cymbidium PLBs (protocormlike body) were used as starting material to induce embryogenic callus which could serve as objects of genetic transformation. We obtained callus using two methods. The first method was culturing the PLB segments for one month in liquid MS medium in the presence of 0.5 mg/1 benzyladenine and 0.0...5 mg/1 naphtylacetic acid followed by cultivation on the same composition solid medium with 0.5 g/l activated charcoal for an additional month. Callus formation was observed on 30% of the explants. The second way was to propagate the PLB segments on solid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 thidiazuron. In these cultures we also observed callus formation on 20% of the explants.
Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase...-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.
European plum is an important fruit crop with complex, hexaploid genome of unknown origin. The characterization of the selfincompatibility (S) locus of 16 European plum cultivars was carried out using the PaConsI-F primer in combination with the EM-PC1consRD primer for the first intron and the EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD primers for the secon...d intron amplification. Altogether, 18 different alleles were scored indicating high genetic diversity. These alleles were labelled using alphabetical codes from SA to SS. We identified 5 different alleles in 9 cultivars, 4 alleles in 5 cultivars, while 3 alleles were shown in two of the assayed cultivars. A total of 16 different S-genotypes were assigned, and discrimination of all plum cultivars was successful based on their unique S-genotypes. However, further research is required to reliably identify the S-alleles based on their DNA sequence and clarify complete S-genotypes.
Grapevine cultivars and clones traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin are maintained in the genetic collection of the Corvinus University of Budapest. Mostly ancient varieties and clones were genotyped using microsatellite loci. The investigated 6 loci were sufficient to distinguish all cultivars. Some clones could also be separated... based mostly on the variable VVS2 loci. For 17 out of the 31 investigated cultivars this is the first report on characterization of the polymorphism of the allele lengths by microsatellite markers on loci: VVS2, VVMD7, VVMD27, vrZAG62.
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. The individual amounts and relative proportions of macro- and micro elements present in food is also of great consideration since these are involved in a wide rang...e of physiological processes including the influence of the redox homeostasis. The antioxidant power and mineral nutrient content of fruits might be affected by several factors including genotype, ripening stage, year-effects or a wide range of environmental conditions. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content in fresh fruits of apricot and analyse some genetic and environmental factors that may have important contribution to the inner content of apricot fruits. In addition, the influencing effect of the extraction procedure used for antioxidant analyses was also tested. Our analyses indicate that a considerable fraction of antioxidant capacity is attributable to the hydrophilic antioxidants. The genetic background has crucial importance in determining apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral nutrient content; however, the growing season and the ripening time of fruits may have also important effects.
Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a widespread genetic system that promotes out-crossing. In Prunus species the SI is a gametophytic trait, which is controlled by a single multiallelic locus, termed S-locus. S-alleles codify stylar glycoproteins with ribonuclease activity (S-RNases). Our objective was to assess the S-genotype of...some Hungarian apricot varieties by isoelectric focusing of stylar RNases as well as by PCR analysis using cherry consensus primers. Consensus primers amplified one or two bands of various sizes. Primers amplifying the 1st intron gained fragments the size of which ranged from 250 to 500 bp; while those amplifying the 2nd intron resulted in fragments of 800-2000 by length. Our data demonstrated that the first intron of the apricot S-RNase gene is shorter than the second one, which coincides with the structure of cherry S-RNase alleles. `Hargrand' (S1S2) and `Harcoe (S1S4) possessed one common S-RNase isoenzyme. Hungarian 'Orias' apricot cultivars showed different bands compared to the previous cultivars, but they shared completely identical patterns confirming that they possess the same S-genotype. 'Bergeron', `Harmat' and 'Korai zamatos' are characterised by an evidently distinct S-RNase pattern. The self-compatible cultivar (`Bergeron') had one allele, which suggests its correspondence to the Sc. Primers for the 2nd intron was unsuccessful in gaining fragments, which indicates that the 2nd intron in the Sc allele is too long to get any amplification. On the basis of our data, identities and differences were revealed in the S-allele constitution of some economically important Hungarian apricot cultivars at protein and DNA levels.
We report the method for the establishment of rapidly growing callus cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris and the conditions required for efficient transformation using high velocity microprojectiles and high level of transient gene expression. Using hypocotyl explant and vertical culture on B5 medium with lmg/1 kinetin and 2 mg/1 2,4-D, we can recom...mend to get a rapidly growing callus from bean which is a good starting material to introduce foreign DNA into bean cells. The GeneBooster particle delivery system was used for the bombardment of bean callus and the Hgm resistance gene (Hgmr) was used as a selectable marker gene. 25mg/I hygromycin (Hgm) concentration was sufficient to kill the control callus. We used the standard physical factors, the appropriate pressure of N2 gas for the bombardment of the callus tissue, the shooting distance and the size of tungsten particles used as microprojectiles. Selective and nonselective tests were made by transferring the healthy green and white calluses, subcultured for 4 months on selective and nonselective medium. Several Hgm resistant calli had been obtained. Selective pressure was maintained over a period of 10 months.