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The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): II. Important features of their epidemiology (Review paper)
Published March 16, 2004
17-33.

Plant disease epidemiology provides the key to both a better understanding of the nature of a disease and the most effective approach to disease control. Brown rot fungi (Monilinia spp.) cause mainly fruit rot, blossom blight and stem canker which results in considerable yield losses both in the field and in the storage place. In order... to provide a better disease control strategy, all aspects of brown rot fungi epidemiology are discribed and discussed in the second part of this review. The general disease cycle of Monilinia fructigena„M. laxa, M. fructicola and Monilia polystroma is described. After such environmental and biological factors are presented which influence the development of hyphae, mycelium, conidia, stroma and apothecial formation. Factors affecting the ability of brown rot fungi to survive are also demonstrated. Then spatio-temporal dynamics of brown rot fungi are discussed. In the last two parts, the epidemiology of brown rot fungi was related to disease warning models and some aspects of disease management.

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The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): I. Important features of their biology (Review paper)
Published October 20, 2003
23-36.

The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): Important features of their biology (Review paper)

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Yield loss caused by fruit rot fungi on sweet cherry in Kyustendil region, Bulgaria
Published November 15, 2004
49-52.

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of fruit rot caused by several fungal pathogens from 1999 to 2003. The study was conducted in three sweet cherry orchards at the Institute of Agriculture (Kyustendil, Bulgaria). One copper containing fungicide was applied in late autumn and early spring. During the growing seasons, 2-5 sprays ...were applied against fungal diseases. Trees were not sprayed specifically against fruit rot during the growing season, with the exception of 1999, when a spray of myclobutanil was applied after a long rainy period during the maturity of fruits. In one orchard, two nitrogen fertilization treatments were also prepared. In treatment 1, trees were fertilized with ammonium-nitrate 10 g/m2 and in the other treatments trees were not. Incidence of the five most important fruit rot pathogens, Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa, Botritys cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer was assessed in all orchards. The most severe yield loss (14.80 %) was measured in 1999, when weather conditions were the most favourable for fruit rot development. In this year, brown rots (M. fructigena and M. laxa) caused the highest damage (9.22 and 4.04 %, respectively) out of all assessed fruit rot pathogens. In all other years, yield loss was significantly lower than in 1999. In 2002, A. alternata caused the main fruit rot (4.46%) and all other fungi were less important, while in 2003, B. cinerea caused considerable yield loss (2.28 %) compared to all other fruit rot pathogens. Experiments on fertilization showed that nitrogen significantly increased fruit rot damage in 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003. The effect of nitrogen fertilization was higher in years with rainy periods around harvest (1999 and 2002) compared to more dry years (2000 and 2001). Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the results are discussed.

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The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): III. Important features of disease management (Review paper)
Published November 15, 2004
31-49.

In the third part of this review, important features of disease management are summarised for brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilia polystroma). Several methods of brown rot disease management practices were collected and interpreted in five main chapters. In the...se chapters, details are given about the legislative control measures, the cultural, physical, biological and chemical control methods. Chemical control is divided into two parts: pre-harvest and post-harvest chemical control. In addition, host resistance and fungicide resistance statuses are also included in this part of the review. Finally, future aspects of brown rot disease control are discussed.

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Impact of foliar fungi on dogroses
Published October 16, 2007
23-30.

Wild roses of the section Caninae, commonly known as dogroses, have been described as more disease tolerant than ornamental roses and could therefore become valuable for breeding improved rose cultivars. Two fields with dogroses, one with plants obtained by open pollination in wild populations, and one with plants obtained from intra- ...and interspecific crosses, were evaluated for blackspot, powdery mildew, rust and leafspots in the autumn of 2005. Symptoms of the different fungi on different dogrose species were carefully evaluated in a microscope and documented by photography. Interestingly, almost no symptoms of powdery mildew were found in either field, although the fungus infected wild roses of a different section in a field closeby. Surprisingly few symptoms were found also of blackspot, and they differed considerably from those found on ornamental cultivars, indicating a lower susceptibility in dogroses. The most important fungal disease in 2005 was rust, followed by leafspot symptoms. The latter were apparently caused by Sphaceloma rosarum and Septoria rosae which can be properly discriminated only in a microscope. The investigated dogrose species and their progeny groups varied significantly in disease susceptibility and in the appearance of encountered symptoms but there was no evidence of major resistance genes, except possibly in Rosa rubiginosa which did not show any symptoms of Septoria. In 2006, a subset of the plant material in Field 1 was evaluated to check for consistency between the years. Leafspots had overtaken rust as the most important disease but results were otherwise very similar to those of 2005.

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Effect of acidity on growth rate and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates
Published March 16, 2004
63-67.

The effect of acidity (pH) ranges on the mycelial growth and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena Pers: Fr. and of M. polystroma van Leeuwen was determined on agar plates and apple fruits. Four isolates of each of the brown rot fungi and two apple cultivars, `James Grieve' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin', were used for th...e study. For the agar plate study, a range of the initial pH was prepared from 2.5 to 6.5. The dishes were inoculated with a 4 mm plug of each isolate and incubated at 23 °C in darkness. The mycelial growth was measured after 1.5, 4, 7, 10 and 20 days of incubation. After a 30-day incubation, stroma formation was determined by image analysis and weighing of mature stroma. In the fruit experiment, both cultivars were inoculated with one isolate of M. fructigena and of M. polystroma. The pH changes were determined after 7, 14, 28 and 35 days of incubation in both healthy and inoculated fruits. The fastest mycelial growth was at pH 4.5 for M. polystroma and at pH 3.5 for M. fructigena. After a 30-day incubation, M. polystroma isolates produced twice or three times more stroma compared to M. fructigena isolates. For both brown rot fungi, the amount of mature stroma increased from pH 3.5 to 5.5, and then decreased at pH 6.5. Results of the.fruit experiment showed that healthy fruits were quite acidic (pH < 3.5), but pH rapidly increased in the inoculated fruits for both cultivars, reaching pH 4.6-5.4 depending on cultivar and fungus isolate. On both cultivars, the stroma developed at a significantly higher pH for M. polystroma than for M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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Examinations of potential environmental friendly materials against tomato and pepper patogens
Published December 8, 2008
49-54.

In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective pot...ential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.

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Real-case application of mycorrhizal inoculums on Capsicum annuum L. var. longum cv. Szegedi and Kalocsai
Published March 3, 2013
75-79.

The aim of this study was to test the use of commercially available arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculant Symbivit, a mixture of six species of Glomus spp., in spice pepper field cultivation. The inoculants containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was able to establish a symbiosis in the rhizosphere of pepper plants and mycorrhizal inoculat...ion increased fresh and dry weights of shoots of spice pepper cv. Szegedi and only fresh weight of Kalocsai type. There were no significant differences in the root weights due to treatment only in fresh weight of Kalocsai pepper type. Treated plants of both variants exhibited an increase in cumulative crop production compared with control non-treated plants and the growth response of pepper was higher for var. Szegedi than var. Kalocsai. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a great positive effect on external hyphal length of AMF also showing differences in that between Kalocsai and Szegedi variants. The root colonization showed seasonality by treated and non-treated plants. The lowest degree of colonization was observed in June in general and colonization percent increased during vegetative development and there was a slight decrease at harvesting. In conclusion, it can be stated that inoculation with Symbivit containing mycorrhizal fungi could be an integral part of spice pepper production.

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Disease warning models for brown rot fungi of fruit crops
Published March 3, 2013
19-22.

In this review, disease warning models for brown rot fungi, including Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa and M. fructicola, were summarized. Few studies have been made to relate epidemiology and disease warning in brown rot infection caused by M. fructicola and M. laxa in order to predict infections or develop decision support models for fungicide a...pplications during the growing season. More recently a disease warning model and a decision support system were also performed for M. fructigena for organic apple orchards. This review gives an overview on some details of the above disease warning models and decision support system.

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Possibility of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) production in Hungary
Published April 10, 2016
29-32.

Artificial sweeteners have harmful effect on human health, so it is great interested in stevia extract. Our experiment was aimed to show the possibility of inland production of stevia. Different plastic mulches were used (black and white) on raised bed and were compared to uncovered (control) plots for yield and state of health of plants. Furth...ermore we evaluated the depth of cuttings (low cutting until the 6th double leaf; normal cutting until the upper ⅓ of the plant) on the yield depending on the covering method. The plants were  transplanted on 9 of May, 2014 on raised bed, 3 rows on it, with 33x25 cm spacing. According to our results, the black plastic mulch produced the highest yield, which can be explained by suppressing effect on weeds, furthermore it kept the soil warm, moist and protected the lower leaves from soil wetness. But, the white sheet mulch could not eliminate weeds around the plants. The total biomass on the black plastic sheet covered plots was the highest, nearly 1000 g pro plant by low cutting. On the control plots the fungi infection reached about 25-30%, which caused leaf falling of plants, decreasing of yield by the end of vegetation period. To summarise, stevia production is possible in Hungary, but it is important to pay attention to the balanced soil moisture and low humidity in the leaf area. It is suggested to cover the soil with plastic sheet or organic materials, such as bark and chippings.

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The microscopic fungi of orchid species in the Őrség National Park
Published May 20, 2009
31-36.

The wild orchids growing in Hungary are some of the most decorative and interesting members of the country's flora. The majority of species are rarely spotted, and some are only found in very few habitats, though others are quite common .All the species known in Hungary are protected, and 1 1 species are strictly protected. Itis thus important ...to monitor the health status of these plants, to determine what diseases affect them, what pathogens are found on them and how severely they are infected, and to take the necessary precautionary measures. Eleven of the 14 orchid species occurring in the 6rseg National Park were included in the study and the presence of microscopic fungi was detected on eight of these. Pathogenic species were found on lesser butterfly orchid (Platanthera bifolia), green-winged orchid (Orchis morio), burnt orchid (Orchis ustulara), sword-leaved helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia), common twayblade (Listera ovata), autumn lady's-tresses (Spiranthes spiralis), western marsh orchid (Dacrylorhiza majalis) and broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine). A detailed account is given of the symptoms of major diseases and of the microscopic traits of the pathogens. An attempt was made to determine to what extent the pathogenic fungal species found on protected orchid species influence the lives of these plants. Current knowledge on this subject is extremely deficient, as practically no data are available from Hungary.

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Brown rot blossom blight of pome and stone fruits: symptom, disease cycle, host resistance, and biological control
Published May 19, 2008
15-21.

In this paper, important features of symptoms, biology and biological disease management are summarised for brown rot blossom blight fungi of pome and stone fruit crops (Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia mali). Firstly, European brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa is discussed highlighting the blossom ...epidemiology features, then host susceptibility of the most important stone fruit species including several Hungarian and international cultivars. At the end of this chapter, recent biological control possibilities against Monilinia laxa are also included. Secondly, American brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola is discussed. Symptoms, biological features of blossom blight and host susceptibility of flowers to Monilinia fructicola are demonstrated. Finally, the symptoms and the biology of the least frequent species, Monilinia mali are shown.

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Primers designed for the detection of grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating material by quantitative real-time PCR
Published April 12, 2015
21-30.

Several grapevine pathogens are disseminated by propagating material as systemic, but latent infections. Their detection and identification have a basic importance in the production and handling of propagating stocks. Thus several sensitive and reliable diagnostic protocols mostly based on molecular techniques have been developed. Of these meth...ods quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) has recently got an emerging importance. Here we collected primer data for the detection and identification of grapevine pathogens which are important in the production of propagating stocks by q-PCR. Additional novel techniques that use DNA amplification, hybridization and  sequencing are also briefly reviewed.

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Relationship between zinc and cadmium contents and cultivating conditions of gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens
Published December 19, 2019
21-27.

Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food ch...ain receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.

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Conventional PCR primers for the detection of grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating material
Published September 7, 2014
69-80.

Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature... for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.

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The evaluation of grape vine decline pathogens in the experimental field of the Georgikon Faculty of Agriculture in Cserszegtomaj
Published October 16, 2007
19-22.

Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-ro...otstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.

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Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) selection programmes in Hungary: a short review
Published October 18, 2016
31-34.

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced from North America to Europe, at the beginning of the 17th century. Its unprecedented fast spread is due to its high-grade adaptability, drought-tolerance, abundant and frequent seed crop, excellent sprouting ability, fast growth and relatively high timber yield.... Other advantages are, that it has scarcely any fungi or insect pests. This review is a short summary on black locust improvement in Hungary, giving guidance for specialists who are interested in black locust management.

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Situation of peach resistance to diseases in Romania
Published June 20, 2006
65-69.

The resistance of peach cultivars to the most important diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and mycoplasms was studied in Romania over two working stages in the period between 1985-2005. The major diseases examined were: Cytospora cincta Sacc., Taphrina deformans (Berk) Tul., Moruluua laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl) Honey, ...m>Sphaerotheca pannosa var. persicae Woron., Stigmina carpophila (Lev) M.B.Ellis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, mycoplasm and plum pox potyvirus. Based on the obtained results, the studied cultivars were classified into resistance groups for the different diseases (very resistant, resistant, medium resistant, sensitive and very sensitive).Based on the results of our study, the following gene sources were chosen following the evaluation of the various genetic material in the peach germoplasm fund, in the climatic conditions of Romania: Cytospora cincta: Cullinan, Cardinal, Hamlet, NJF 3, Onakita Gold, Triumf, "Superba de Toamna", Anderson, Weinberger; Stigmina carpophila: Armgold, ARK 109, Stark Early Blaze, Cardinal, Congres; Taphrina deformans: Madeleine Pouyet, Cumberland, Harbelle, Indian Blood, Sulivan, Victoria, Zafrani, Pekin, Naradnji Ranhii; Spaherotheca pannosa var. persicae: Triumf; Congres; Victoria; Armking; Morton; Regina; Nectared 7; ARK 125; ARK 134; Regina.

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The increasing importance of grapevine trunk diseases
Published October 18, 2016
21-30.

Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are destroying the woody parts of the plants, resulting decline or dieback of the grapevine. More detailed research of the GTD began in 1950s, when Hewitt et al. (1957) observed that specific symptoms cannot be detected on the diseased trunks every year. Latest results have also proved that abiotic factors affect... the appearance and the severity of the disease. Moreover several pathogenic fungi may play role as causative agents (Bertsch et al., 2013). Eutypa, Botryosphaeria, Phomopsis dieback, esca disease complex, and Petri disease are considered the major GTDs, where a variety of pathogens attack the woody perennial organs of the vine and ultimately lead to the death of the plant (Lehoczky, 1974; Larignon & Dubos, 1997; Rolshausen et al. 2010; Kotze et al., 2011; Bertsch et al., 2013; Fontaine et al., 2015).
The GTD incidence has been reported to be increased during the last decades (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2014). The esca incidence has reached 60% to 80% in some old vineyards in southern Italy (Pollastro et al., 2000; Surico et al., 2000; Calzarano & Di Marco, 2007). The disease incidence of the esca was reported to be increased from 1.83% to almost 13%, between 2003 and 2007 in Hungary (Dula, 2011). There was detected a five times increase in the GTD disease incidence in the Tokaj Wine Region, Hungary between 2014 and 2016 (Bihari et al,
2016).

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Possibility of modernization of Ganoderma lucidum strains substrate
Published May 18, 2005
55-57.

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom), the object of our experiments, is also known to contain medicinal compounds. This fungus has been used for many centuries as medicine in China. The fruiting body of the fungus contains carbohydrates, amino acids, little protein, fat, alkaloids, vitamins and minerals. Two groups of its substances are reported... to be effective particularly. One of them is constituted by the polysaccharides, whose antitumor and immunostimulating effects are well demonstrated, and the other is constituted by the triterpenes. The latter include ganoderic acids, ganolucidic acids and lucideric acids. These acids have been reported to suppress liver hyperactivity (Lelley 1999). The experiment was carried out with 8 Reishi mushroom strains in 3 repetitions. Experiments were performed on 3 different substrates The spawn run period took approximately 2 weeks, the first fruiting bodies appeared on the 33rd day from inoculation, but the formation of the fruiting bodies took almost 70 days on the different substrates. Spawn run presented a diversified picture as influenced by the specific substrates. No spawn run was seen with any of the strains on the substrate composed of 100% wheat straw. Among the strains the fastest spawn run was produced by GA02 and GA06. The earliest start of spawn run was registered for substrate 1 after 1 week.

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Propagation material borne fungus pathogens causing early stock decay in vineyards
Published June 25, 2011
51-57.

A decline, a slow or sudden decay of vine trunks can occur in any phase of trunk life. In senescent or old plantages the increase in trunk decay is quite common but it is unacceptable in young plantage in their best production years.All over the world as well as in Hungary, a drastic decay of young trunks in nurseries and new plantages have cau...sed panic in the past decades. From among the numerous fungal pathogens which are responsible for considerable financial and yield losses and threaten stock vigour Petri disease, esca and Black foot are the most important. In young decaying plants the fungal species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon spp. were the most frequent while other fungi causing different trunk diseases, cancer or decay, like Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeria spp. and Fomitiporia mediterranea were also found. The most important infection source is the infected propagation material. Infection is systematic, the disease process is latent, diseased plants cannot be cured, thus, prevention is the only answer to the challenge.

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Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
Published April 14, 2003
29-33.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Grapevine and apple replant disease in Hungary
Published November 15, 2004
57-61.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50 % captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10 % oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 I soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of II wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Bed. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.)Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Study on the yeast and mould biota of the botrytized grapes in Tokaj region in two years
Published October 16, 2002
61-65.

The famous wine Tokaji Aszú is produced from "noble rotted" grapes infected and modified by Botrytis cinerea under special condition. The objective of this study was quantitative and qualitative characterisation of saprophytic fungi present on the surface of aszú­berries, with special regard to yeasts. There were considerable differ...ences in these populations depending on the origin of noble rotted berries, notably between berries taken from the vine or the ones taken from the winery. Beside Botrytis, other mould species like Penicillium, Aspergillus were commonly found, in widely varying population. Yeast counts were detected between 104 and 107 cfu/g berry. In the samples taken from the vineyard Candida pulcherrima predominated followed by some aerobic basidiomycetous species, but Hanseniaspora species were also present in relatively high population. After transport and storage of the grape in the wineries, population of aerobic yeasts and C. pulcherrima quickly declined and Candida stellata followed by other sugar tolerant species became dominant. This autoselection process directs attention to the importance of storage conditions.

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Relative ecological and biological indicator values of plum and prune cultivars
Published September 20, 2015
37-53.

The study was conducted to compare historical plums, gene collections, and is currently cultivated and recent perspective varieties from the author. The object of the study was the relative ecological Borhidi’s figures and classification of varieties under the new definition, as the relative biological values. There were 11 figures no one in ...particular affect the data of the plums grown in importance as TB, WB, RB, LB, and the values are relative biological value (OP, FR, SS, and DR). The specificity of each indicator was different, but in general the  importance and specific breeds was associated with. The SB (salt figures) is not proved informative, partly because small data in the literature, on the other hand, had little to their own observations as well. The gene bank of Cegléd is now third-generation (1951–1972, 1973–1991, since 1992) kind of collection, during which many aspects have changed climatic conditions: cold winter eased the strictness, but has increased the threat
of spring frost advection. The relative biological scores markedly influenced around flowering extreme weather (dry, windy weather and so flowering in within 2-3 days), optimal conditions of the plum pox virus vectors and of course the presence of fruit and foliage harmful fungi. It see to be, in the case of semi-wild and wild fruit species – are possible with similar comparative analyzes, and hopefully will in feral forms, culture – as we have seen previously (Surányi 2000 and 2006). In the continuation analysis of the natural vegetation and cultural context of the complex multifactorial factors will be carried out more easily, according to the relative value figures, as well as rootstock effects and plantation’s habitat studies, and even the most phytotechnical evaluation of interventions.

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