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  • Sheep production in Hungary – is it a sustainable sector?
    95-100
    Views:
    137

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production especially animal production and events leading to its development can be dated back to the second part of the last century. Sustainability is a priority subject matter as it is a core element in our existence and in the survival of the forthcoming generations. The notion of sustainability comprises three aspects: ecological, social and political and economic target systems, which by now have been supplemented with cultural and regional elements including the protection of environment, local traditions, scale of values, cultural and historical heritage. The principles of sustainable development also include the improvement of human and animal health and the maintenance of vital rural communities. The priority notion of sustainability of agricultural production refers also to animal husbandry and especially sheep production. Sheep have contributed substantially to the grassland-based agricultural production in Hungary for centuries. Sheep sector is important in rural areas as the tool of sustainability of animal production. It should also be highlighted that contrary to numerous efforts, the globally difficult process of sustainable development poses almost unsolvable problems for implementers even on local and regional levels. This paper will review briefly the levels of sustainability in the Hungarian animal production with a special regard to sheep production and their content and then points out the most significant economic issues by the application of “SWOT” – analysis, “problem tree’and “structure of objectives” methods, on the grounds of the received findings.

  • Performance indicators in CSR and sustainability reports in Hungary
    137-142
    Views:
    286

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or Corporate Sustainability reporting is a relatively new phenomenon in Hungary. As the external pressure from the civil society, public authorities and the media has so far been fairly low, this important corporate activity emerged only at the beginning of the last decade. In spite of this, several pioneering companies have started to publish information on its environmental and social performance in recent years. CSR and sustainability reports are seen increasingly as strategic documents that offer a balanced, objective, and comprehensive assessment of a firm’s non-financial performance. In 2008 and 2009, more than a third of the 100 largest companies reported on their non-financial results (most of them were GRI based reports). In 2010, sixty-one organisations published a report about their non- financial performance, and 22 of these for only the first time. The aim of this paper is to present recent attempts to use indicators in CSR and sustainability reports. On the basis of a detailed review of 70 CSR/sustainability reports published during the last 9 years in Hungary, an analysis was made on the performance indicators appearing in the reports. The motivations of indicator selection processes was analysed and the intended roles of indicator set in communication and strategy design was presented. The significance of and limits to the proposed indicators was discussed.

  • Factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest among graduate youth in Southwestern Nigeria
    Views:
    210

    The paper examined factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest of graduate youth in Southwestern Nigeria. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; identified their agripreneurship activities of interest and identified factors associated with their interest. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 185 respondents from the selected the Local Government Areas in Southwestern States, quantitative and qualitative data were collected using semi structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tool such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation while factor analysis was used to isolate crucial factors associated with sustainability of agripreneurship interest of serving graduate youth in the study areas. Results showed that respondents had a mean age of 26.18 ± 2.74 years and majority (75.7%) were not graduates of agriculture. The agricultural enterprises of interest to the respondents were poultry farming (67.6%)’ fish farming (56.5%) and snail farming (50.9%). Crucial factors found to influence sustainability of graduate youth’s interest in agripreneurship were motivational, parental influence, community asset and institutional factors among other. The study concluded that these identified factors were germane to the sustainability of graduate youth’s interest in agripreneurship in Southwestern Nigeria.

  • Aspects of the sustainable utilization of renewable energy sources
    91-94
    Views:
    144

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the main approaches to sustainability and to present an alternative interpretation for the issues involved in the utilization of RES. The utilization technologies can be described by the average values of several technological parameters. Some significant parameters were chosen which are the most relevant for the issue of sustainability. The group of attributes was composed of these parameters in the analysis, which was conducted by the choice experiment (CE) methodology. The examination of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was made possible by this method and the preferences of the relevant experts were determined. The weight of the attributes was defined by experts according to the importance of each attribute regarding RES-based technologies. The importance of sustainability attributes implies the significance of sustainability in the case of RES technologies, which thus highlights the characteristics of the more prosperous technological parameters regarding sustainable development.

  • Arguments for the optimisation of using biomass for energy production
    103-108
    Views:
    114

    Using biomass to produce energy is not a new idea. In the past, the by-products of energy(?) production processes or naturally grown materials were mainly used for energy production. At the same time, during the production of biomass the conventional sources of energy are used (fuels, the embodied energy of which is used in the production of the biomass and equipment, etc.) which must be taken into account when determining the net energy production. This research aims to examine how to optimise the production and use of biomass energy and its supply chain in the energetic and economic criteria system, as well as how to impact upon the managing models of the processes to the energetic and economic parameters of the supply chain; we ask what criteria characterise the natural (environmental), economic and social sustainability, and how they can be implemented e.g. within the framework of an innovation cluster. This article describes a test model, and analyses the results of the model examinations and the conditions for compliance with sustainability criteria. Arguing the environmental, economic and social sustainability among the criteria of the model for evaluation is not possible at all times by means of direct indicators. The results of the research proved that only multi-criteria optimisation models serve a proper decision-making instrument for the evaluation of biomass utilisation for energy production.

  • Composite indicators and sustainable development of regional agriculture applied to the Stavropol Territory in Russia
    81-88
    Views:
    201

    The aim of this paper is to understand and evaluate agricultural sustainability in the Stavropol Territory by means of a composite indicator. In particular, the paper applies principal component analyses to calculate a composite sustainability index by integration of selected economic, social and environmental indicators. The results demonstrate the utility of analyzing several indicators in conjunction. The results also may indicate which variables influence development of regional agriculture. This information is important in order to design agricultural support policy and to implement an increase the sustainability of the agriculture sector.

    JEL Code: O13, Q11

  • Development of the European Union’s environmental policy and its measures for climate protection – a review
    Views:
    295

    The negative impacts of human activities on the environment and nature can be felt worldwide. Thus there is a growing focus on measurements that keep sustainability in mind. As one of the main pioneers of environmental protection and sustainability efforts, these aspects are more and more prevalent in the current environmental policy of the European Union (EU). In this review article, the development of the environmental policy of the EU is presented. After listing the main milestones, the role of the EU in the area of environmental protection, the frameworks built around the goals and the roles of the institutions are discussed. Then – with an international detour – the details of the Paris Agreement about climate change and the state of the 20/20/20 commitments are summarised. In the remaining parts of the article, the focus is on the climate protection goals of the EU for the next three decades, the expected future directions, and the agenda of the von der Leyen Commission concerning climate protection. An important step and tool for achieving the goals set until 2050 is to incorporate climate and environmental protection elements to the 2021-2027 budget of the EU. In order to achieve the expected effects, it is crucial to develop the right tools of the environmental policy, to form a widespread cooperation, to raise awareness, and incentivise and support the innovative solutions in the sustainability area.

  • THE NEXUS BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES AND FINANCIAL BENEFITS OF THE SOYBEAN VALUE CHAIN SYSTEM IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS OF GHANA
    Views:
    77

    Soybean is an important crop that contributes to economic freedom and food security. The study of soybean value chain is therefore important to improve on the activities of the chain actors for an overall economic gains. This paper aims to examine the nexus between sustainable value chain and financial benefits of the soybean value chain system in Ghana. Specifically, we employ the triple bottom line model to examine the soybean value chain from economic, social and environmental perspectives using sample data from Ghana. With a sample size of 300 including all actors of the value chain, our findings reveal that chain actors do not differ in their perceptions of overall financial gains that accrued to them with their involvement in chain economic activities. The findings further revealed that perceived financial sustainability of chain activities was affected by tangible financial benefits. Moreover, the results further show that chain actors’ perception of social sustainability performance was significantly affected by expected overall financial gains that accrue to them as a result of their participation in chain economic activities.

  • The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices
    67-76
    Views:
    714

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare) are understudied. The current study aims to add to the existing literature by investigating the added value of sustainable process motives (environmental welfare, animal welfare and social justice) above product motives. Two on-line surveys of representative Dutch samples tested whether process motives increase the explained variance of sustainable consumption. The results indicate that sustainable process motives are of added value above product motives in the understanding of consumer food choices. In addition, product categories differ in the sustainable process motives that are most useful in explaining sustainable purchases in that category (Study 1), and different types of sustainable products (organic versus fair trade) differ in the sustainable process motives that are most useful in explaining these purchases (Study 2). In conclusion, this paper shows that understanding of sustainable consumption can be improved by considering sustainable process motives above product motives. Thereby, it is important to take the sustainability dimension (e.g., social justice versus environmental welfare) and the product category (e.g., meat versus fruit) into account.

  • Economic questions of land usage – scarcity, sustainability
    43-47
    Views:
    98

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of land usage. This topic is important because land is the basis of industrial and agricultural production, as well as energy and environmental security. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage and scarcity and sustainability.

  • Effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability in local rural development partnerships
    31-37
    Views:
    160

    Due to the ever-increasing role the LEADER approach is playing in realizing rural development policy, Local Action Groups (LAGs) have become key actors in the institutional system of rural development. Through their activity in supporting and improving local development, they represent a spatial organizing force in rural regions. Their operation can effectively contribute to the competitive and sustainable development of their local area, within the framework of European rural development policy. Compliance with this role requires the active and conscientious work of the LAGs, both in the process of programming and implementation. In this paper, we aim to present the impact mechanism of the operation of LAGs and its determinant factors. Based on expert evaluations, we investigate the experiences of the implementation of the LEADER approach for rural development from the viewpoints of effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability.

  • Tourism, meditation, sustainability
    81-91
    Views:
    232

    The economic value of meditation based services is clearly demonstrated by a growing number of companies using such services. In the USA one quarter of the companies offer in-house meditation training to their employees. On the otherhand,the number of those who think that the western consumption paradigm in its present form is unsustainable is also increasing. In addition to its business value, meditation and its most popular western form mindfulness is a practical tool that can catalyze a change in our world view and value system. A basic precondition for learning meditation techniques is to have an open, receptive, feminine attitude. As it is revealed in the present research, tourists poses a significantly elevated level of openness to new experience. This increased openness together with an upward trend for spiritual experiences can create a synergy for certain destinations, accommodation types, tourism locations to expand their service portfolio with meditation based services. While favourable physical and psychological effects of traditional tourism services fade within a few weeks, meditation is a portable tourism product which can be taken home and practiced regularly in a virtually cost-free way. By learning and practicing meditation the extremely poor physical and psychological condition of the Hungarian population could be improved in a preventive and cost-effective way. As the level of mindfulness is positively correlated with sustainable behaviour by offering meditation services tourism might take on a new level of significance in the battle for sustainability.

  • Environmental management activities of NHL teams
    Views:
    139

    Over the past two decades, the sports sector has paid increasing and growing attention to understanding sustainability, including the environment, and in particular what can be done in practice. The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental CSR measures adopted by professional hockey teams in North America.

    To answer my research question, I used a comparative analysis based on secondary data sources. For all 32 teams, I examined the available reports and their information on CSR activities, the information published on the teams' websites, and the research results related to the teams. I have selected 3 teams (Minnesota Wild, Pittsburgh Penguins, Seattle Kraken) that are at the forefront of the issue under study, using an evaluation system based on international literature, and case studies to showcase good practices that can serve as examples for the sports sector.

    JEL Code: Q56

  • An application of the error correction model in analyzing the long run equilibrium between Ghana’s exports and imports
    57-62
    Views:
    119

    This study investigates the long-run relationship between Ghana’s exports and imports for the period of 1948 to 2012. Using the Engle Granger two-step procedure we find that Ghana’s exports and imports are cointegrated. However, the slope coefficients from the cointegration equations were not statistically equal to 1. Furthermore, application of the error correction model reveals that 1% increase in the imports will significantly result in 0.56% increase in exports, suggesting that the exports’ responsiveness to imports is low. The estimated error correction coefficient suggests that 32% of the deviation from the long run equilibrium relation is eliminated, leaving 68% to persist into the next period. These results suggest persistence in the trade deficit and an option of curbing the deficit is to re-order the relationship between imports and exports with a view to reducing imports demand. These results imply that though Ghana’s past macroeconomic policies have been effective in bringing its imports and exports into a long run equilibrium, it is yet to satisfy the sufficient condition for sustainability of foreign deficit.

  • Moral hazard problem for poor under joint forest management programme evidence from west bengal in Indian context
    95-105
    Views:
    76

    This study explores policy framework on current JFM programme, which secures traditional right of local need subject to the carrying capacity of forest, but face moral hazard problem in which Government cannot legally monitor actions against JFM householdswhich live below poverty line and that extract TFPs for their livelihood, and thereby threatening to sustainability of forest, whereas the incentive work opportunities that Government provides them is insufficient for their subsistence. A good incentive fee dependent on their work plus a lump sum fee (subsidy) are required for their livelihood sustenance and sustainability of forest resources.

  • Long-term government responses to sustainable tourism development: principles and strategies
    89-92
    Views:
    162

    Tourism is one of the leading sectors in the world economy. Enhancing its well-known economic, social and environmental benefits while managing its negative impacts are highly important for the national governments in European Union. Strategic planning is essential to meet the long term requirements of sustainability. National sustainable development strategies and tourism strategies are fundamental means of strategic planning as they provide guidance for the decision-makers of the tourism sector. The member states of the European Union have prepared their national sustainable development strategies, furthermore the Union’s common strategy and the national strategies of some member states have already been revised and renewed by now.The Hungarian strategies – National Sustainable Development Strategy and National Tourism Development Strategy – were completed the World Tourism Organization published its twelve aims for an agenda for sustainable tourism in 2005. Consequently these strategies are expected to contain references to the sustainability requirements and environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development. In the present study we analyse the issues of sustainable tourism development in the sustainable development strategies of the EU and Hungary and the National Tourism Development Strategy of Hungary 2005-2013 with special attention to the principles laid down by the WTO in 2005. Our aim is to investigate the cohesion between the principles of sustainable development and sustainable tourism, and their manifestations in some of the strategic documents influencing Hungarian tourism development.

  • The conditions of security in sustainable rural economics
    51-57
    Views:
    109

    This work aims to map the potentials of safe rural economy. This topic cannot be separated from the processes of globalization and localization, affecting each other, whose positive and negative effects have been focussed on, especially in terms of the protection of security and sustainability or their damaging. In Hungary, sustainable rural economy cannot be achieved only by the rural economy’s systematic stabilization but its present structure and the security system, accompanying the process, also needs to undergo some drastic changes. Sustainable rural economy means a modern economy that aims to keep the rural inhabitants while increases the wealth of the whole society. The legal security of the sustainable local economy is guaranteed by the state in Hungary. The security of the rural areas is provided by the police as an armed force, the auxiliary police, the public place supervision, the local agricultural rangers, the environment wardens, and by the fish- and game-keepers. The Police Act allows cooperation with the further organizations of the society to preserve public order, and to protect property and prevent and detect crimes. The purpose of my thesis is to present security as one of the most important factors to improve the rural areas. I also aim to map the possibilities of improving security (such as cooperation, naming the resources assisting strategic tenders and participation in rural development programs).

  • Potential for Hungarian Grasslands in integrated rural development
    37-39
    Views:
    123

    Sustainability and multifunctionality, two key principles, which will determine future development in any activities. On the bases of these principles, society as a whole has already outlined future expectations towards rural areas. Rural functions (economic, ecological and socio-cultural ones) have been declared in European Charter for RuralAreas. To what extend can different rural development initiatives meet these functions? The question may be answered by using the method of multifunctional rural resource analysis (NAGY, 2007). The paper is investigating the potential for Hungarian grasslands by using this methodology. It is concluded that our grasslands, as land use systems in their present conditions can participate in integrated rural development in the most balanced way compared to other land use systems in the county. Economically their potential is good. Ecologically their potential is outstanding. The socio-cultural potential of grassland use in Hungary is also outstanding due to the historical roots.As a future prediction the relative importance of the three grassland functions has been outlined in integrated agriculture and rural development.

  • Sustainable development of the rural economy
    31-36
    Views:
    171

    This paper seeks to provide an overview of those economic social and enviromental issues which could be relevant for sustainable development of the rural economy. Rural development is of great significance for the future of both the EU and Hungary. We must reduce migration, create new jobs and focus on sustainability and the principles and goals of environmental protection and nature conservation. Rural economy is a complex and dynamic system, and agriculture should be treated as a part of it.The development of rural settlements and their infrastructure, the manifold exploitation of the agroecological potential, the rationalization of farming remain, extremely important components of rural development.

  • Moral hazard problem for poor under joint forest management programme evidence from West Bengal in Indian context
    61-71
    Views:
    91

    This study explores policy framework on current JFM programme, which secures traditional right of local need subject to the carrying capacity of forest, but face moral hazard problem in which Government cannot legally monitor actions against JFM householdswhich live below poverty line and that extract TFPs for their livelihood, and thereby threatening to sustainability of forest, whereas the incentive work opportunities that Government provides them is insufficient for their subsistence. A good incentive fee dependent on their work plus a lump sum fee (subsidy) are required for their livelihood sustenance and sustainability of forest resources.

  • Effect of uncertainty on farmers decision making: Case of animal manure use
    7-13
    Views:
    128

    Due to the high levels of manure application and the poor use efficiency of manure, the European agriculture is held responsible for a considerable negative impact on surface water quality (Langeveld et al., 2007). This problem has emerged particularly in Western-European countries such as the UK, Belgium, The Netherlands and Denmark, facing a large expansion and intensification process in the livestock production since the 1960s (Van der Straeten et al., 2008). Policy measures related to the application of manure on the land encompass two major measures: emission rights, understood as the amount of nutrients which can be applied on the land, differentiated by crop and the N spreading calendars, whereby the manure can only be applied when the crop needs nutrients. The fundamental aim of this pillar is to maximising application rate while avoiding overfertilisation. Maximizing the application rate is related to the economic sustainability of the agricultural sector, by altering the manure surplus, while avoiding overfertilisation is imperative in enhancing ecological sustainability, by preventing nitrate leaching to surface and soil waters. For nitrate policy to meet its target, the farmers should not exceed their emission rights, however make optimal use of their emission right for manure. Consequently, the successful implementation of sink-related measures will strongly depend of the absorptive capacity of farmers towards new ways of nutrient management in general and of animal manures in particular.

  • The new strategic directions of rural development in Hungary
    143-150
    Views:
    103

    The notion of sustainability is the basis for our future possibilities. Local sustainability, in the centre of which can be found the livable settlement, is especially important in rural areas.Without developing rural areas, there is no developing society. The growth of the Earth’s population and the world economy has already surpassed the carrying capacity of this planet which may result in an “overshoot and collapse”. This can still be prevented today. The population of towns and cities is rapidly increasing. Urbanization is a very fast process, even in Hungary. In large cities with millions of inhabitants crime and lumpen lifestyle pose huge problems. However, the bases of a successful economy are morals and a puritan lifestyle, which so far have characterized rural villages. 70% of the poor and needy live in rural areas in the developing countries and agriculture provides livelihood for 40% of the world’s population. The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) was established in 2002 by FAO and theWorld Bank to learn more about the role of agricultural science and technology. After the positive decision some comprehensive summaries were made on all the related topics with the participation of 400 scientists. The assessment provided many lessons to learn and at the 2008 closing sessions in Johannesburg, the reports were accepted and it was proved that rural areas have a significant role in providing adequate means of earning a livelihood. The Ministry of Rural Development composed a domestic-level study with the title of the National Rural Strategy. The objectives stated in the study can be seen as the main directions of the Hungarian rural strategy. The land policy aims to support the 50–70 hectare family farms and have the agricultural lands under national authority. The population must be provided with ample and safe food. The priority of local economy, local sale, and local markets is important. The positive exploitation of our natural resources may result in the strengthening of rural areas. The deterioration of rural areas must be stopped. In order to halt these processes swiftly fundamental, patriotic economic and social policy changes, a strong people’s party, a short-run crisis treating and a medium-long-run strategic development and action plan are needed which is based on the respect of work and moral norms, national cooperation, solidarity, and the defense of our mutual interests rather than on speculation (ÁNGYÁN, 2010). The greatest problem of Hungary is low employment.Workplaces may be created in the least expensive and the fastest manner in irrigational agriculture. In order to achieve this, the role of the state must be reconsidered and EU rules on state intervention must be reviewed.

  • Responsible behaviour or business? Social responsibility (CSR) in sport management
    83-90
    Views:
    481

    CSR has become increasingly important in today’s business world and managers must consider not only the economic results of their decisions but also the legal, ethical, moral, and social impact and repercussions of each of their decisions. Some multinational companies’ CSR activities even clearly represent applicability of CSR in sport management. The aim of this study was to do a critical comparative analysis, present the changes, alterations in the traditional company philosophy, objectsystem; then to define the concept of CSR, its importance in sport, finally to analyze some of the top 20 World Food & Beverage Companies’ (Coca-Cola, Danone, Nestle) CSR activities in sport management. Similarly to the whole economics – beside traditional theoretical tendencies, parallel to them and not developing them – a new kind of company theory concerning the long-term balance problems of the natural environment and society is being formed. Although the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is prominent in some of the current discussions and investigations about the role of business in society, the concept – integrate social and environmental aspects in their business activity – is not new. According to the websites and sustainability reports of the international parent companies and domestic subsidiaries, we can say, that the companies show similarity at several points with regard to social responsibility within the field of sport management. However we must emphasize that we can find in the domestic practice fewer examples. In this case probably the media plays important role, which prefer the news of scandals such as CSR-related initiatives. In the public the companies’ CSR activities are even less known. Finally we can establish, that about the sport sponsorship the parent companies we have more information, their reports and websites are more transparency. In contracts, in the case of subsidiaries we can meet deficiencies.

  • Strategy for soil protection in cross-border region of Hungary and Romania
    173-175
    Views:
    85

    Within the Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme for 2007-2013 the University of Debrecen and the University of Oradea is to elaborate a soil strategy for the Nyírség and Bihor Mts region.Project partners expect the strategy will support and strenghten national, regional and local soil policies and contribute to the competitiveness of the region by protecting and developing various soil functions.Project partners also expect to prevent cross-border problems with soil and reduce the competition caused by cost differences.The elaboration of the strategy includes the problems of erosion, deflation, compaction, water-deficiency, inland water-threat, problems induced by the usage of fertilizers, loss and substitution of soil organic matter, amelioration (bentonite, sewage sludge, fermented biogas). Based on summarised data of former examinations and new experiments a concise database will make it possible to calculate and apply the Sustainability Index Model, which may be useful in order to address EU supports properly based on objective calculations,and may be useful to determine the optimal culture. The project also encourages the farmers to keep in mind the cross-compliance, since EU gives financial support to realise sustainable soil strategy based on EU directives. This may enhance the options to initiate the take off of rural areas with shrinking export facilities, to mitigate social tensions and the effect of migration processes.

  • An analysis of the national strategies for sustainable development with special emphasis on the issues of Agriculture and Rural development
    53-60
    Views:
    107

    In this paper which is based on my dissertation I carried out a comprehensive analysis of the national strategies for sustainable development prepared by the EU and its member states. I paid special attention to agricultural and rural development issues discussed in the strategies. According to my hypothesis the sets of objectives defined in accordance with the principles of sustainable development provide a firm basis for the objectives of the ongoing reforms of the European Union’s CommonAgricultural Policy. Due to the complexity of the topic I applied an interdisciplinary approach in my research.

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