Current Issue

No 2 (2019)

Published December 4, 2019

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Articles

In the last 50 years, poultry meat production has increased dynamically. The role of crude fiber content in feed is unclear based on a small amount of literature about goose feeding. The aim of theis experiment was to determine how various crude fiber content (55; 60; 65g crude fiber/kg feed) influences the performance of meat geese in the second... phase of the rearing period. 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatment, 10 birds/cage) were included in the test. The experiment started and finished at the age of 21st and 63rd  day, respectively. The obtained results suggest that various crude fiber content did not influence the performance of meat geese significantly; however, a feed of 55g crude fiber/kg resulted in better fattening results (final body weight, body weight gain, specific feed protein and energy conversion rate). In addition, compound feed of 65g crude fiber/kg proved more favourable with respect to cost-efficiency. Based on the obtained results so far, further models and farm experiments are required.
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An observational retrospective study was done to provide up-to-date information on recent sow removal patterns from 9 breed-wean herds of Midwest USA. The study comprised of sow’s removal reasons and removal types of F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts entered in the herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. Data was extracted from existing datab...ase on Dec 2018 and 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence not included in the study. Descriptive statistics showed that out of the 20,009 removed sows, planned removals comprised of farrowing productivity (FP) 3,523 (17.6%) and old age (OA) 1,785 (8.9%) while unplanned removals consisted of reproductive failure (RF) 7,786 (38.9%), health problems (HP) 2,629 (13.1%), locomotion problems (LP) 1,473 (7.4%) and conformation issues (CI) 1,350 (6.8%).‘Did not conceive’ and “No heat” were observed as the main contributing factors accounting for 37.6% and 32.9% respectively for gilts & sows removed by RF.13.5% of the gilts (Parity 0) were removed from the herds before attaining their first litter of which 64.1% of their removals was due to RF. Removal type consisted of slaughter (S) 85.0%, found dead on the farm (DoF) 10.8% and euthanized (E) 4.2%. The research findings depict an upward trend of sow RF removals in the US swine herds posing a serious concern for US swine producers. Characterization and quantification of sow removals gives a revelation on the deeper intrigues about the vulnerability of the various parity in respect to common causes of RF. This helps swine producers to decisively improve on gilt replacement selection, reproductive efficiency, health and nutrition management all aimed at increasing overall swine productivity and efficiency in management. Swine farmers in the US can now focus their efforts towards curbing unnecessary RF removal within parity specifics.
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Age at first breeding and lifetime reproductive performance was analyzed on 17,558 F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts from 9 piglet producing herds of Midwest, United States entered in herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. At the time of data collection Dec 2018, 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence excluded from the analysis. ...Individual gilt data included date of birth, age in days at first mating, piglet total born by parity, lifetime piglet total born and reason for culling. Quality data checks were done before analysis to eliminate all outlier values together with sows that had no entry information for any listed category. The total database of the sows was classified into 6 classes according to age at the first mating in days 170-190(n=754), 191-211(n=4683), 212-232(n=7123), 233-253(n=3385), 254-274(n=1002) and 275-369 (n=611). Piglet total born obtained from each sow during the lifetime production was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for gilts bred between 233-253 days of age at first mating. Gilts that were bred at <233 days appeared to have a higher risk of removal by farrowing productivity as compared to the other groups. However, the results show that the risk of being culled due to health problems and conformation issues increases as the age at first mating is delayed. Overall reproductive failure appears to be the most economical culling reason across all age groups. There is a need to evaluate the best management decisions for gilt initiation in a herd to maximize her lifetime performance. The results indicate that gilts mated for the first time at the right age, 233–253 days, are more productive, both in lifetime total born and have a minimal risk of culling due to farrowing productivity.
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The study was undertaken to identify the effect of different shading net on the quantum efficiency of PS II on ‘Star Flame’ chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) over a period of time cultivated under plastic house environment. ‘Star Flame’ pepper was grown under red shading net and samples without shading were used as control. Analysis of photo...synthetic activity revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between Fv/Fm values in control and red shading at the end of July (p = 0.031) after the first harvest. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) used in the detection of early stress in plants.  
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The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf te...mperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.
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The goal of agri-environmental schemes (AES) and greening programs are protecting and increasing biodiversity in agricultural lands. The evaluation of effectiveness of AES needs further investigations. For the purpose of investigations, species and species groups should be selected which can indicate the effects of changes in landscape use on biod...iversity. Bumblebees are good indicators for this purpose. The role of bumblebees in pollination is well studied but in the case of different crops, much less detailed data are available. In 2018, bumblebee assemblages of 44 sites belonged to 8 different agricultural and semi-natural habitat types were studied in the surroundings of Sajószöged, Tiszaújváros and Derecske. This study provides new distribution data of 8 bumblebee species in three 10×10 km UTM cells covering the sampling area. According to our results, the alfalfa and red clover fields and semi-natural grasslands has more species rich and abundant bumblebee assemblages than different crop fields (sunflower, oilseed radish and vegetable morrow) and can help protect bumblebee assemblages of agricultural lands. Based on the collected distribution and abundance data, the role of the bumblebees in pollination of the studied crops should be re-evaluated.  
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Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment, e...specially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.
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Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly growing public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hyperglycaemia, which can cause tissue injury by several mechanisms. One of these is the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). In this study, the effect of allithaimine, a fat-soluble thiamine d...erivative, was investigated on hyperglycaemia-induced AGEs levels using human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a hyperglycaemic model. HUVECs were isolated by enzymatic digestion, characterized by flow cytometer and treated 30 mM glucose plus allithaimine or thiamine or cell maintenance medium as control.  Allithiamine was synthesized and purified. The structure of the synthesized and isolated compound was verified by reverse phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF. AGEs were evaluated by ELISA. Collectively, our results indicate that allithiamine can reduce level of the hyperglycaemia-induced AGEs similar to thiamine.
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European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease causes an increasing amount of damage. This is especially true to the Gönci growing region. The insect vector of the disease, which has been shown to have a vector role during transmission experiments, is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). In 2018, during the swarming period of plum psylli...d, in 3 different settlements (Boldogkőváralja, Nagyvárad and Bekecs) 265 psyllidswere collected, from which 165 were plum psyllid. Molecular biology studies showed 106 individuals infected with phytoplasma, of which 20 were males and 86 were females.
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In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big financi...al sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.
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 Sunflower is the most important oil crop in Europe which is grown on the biggest area of all the oil crops. The area of producing sunflowers in Hungary was changing to 524–704 thousand hectares in the past decade in comparison with approximately 100 thousand hectares in the 1970’s. In our experiment different sunflower hybrids were exami...ned. The doses of fertilizers were the following in 2017 and 2018: 0–30–90–150 kg ha-1 N, 0-50-90-90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 0–70–110–110 kg ha-1 K2O. Three different treatments of plant protection were used in the experiment to protect them from fungal infections. A rise in the dosage of nitrogen resulted in increasing infection. The biggest fungal infection was identified in 150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg ha-1 K2O treatment. The largest infection was measured on plots without plant protection at the highest N doses, both in leaf and disc diseases. We measured the highest 41.25% in 2017 and 53.1% in 2018 Diaporthe helianthi infection, and 24.5% in 2017 and 25.5 % in 2018 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disc infection in these plots. kg ha-1 Average yield was changing between 2.96–4.67 t ha-1 in 2017/2018. The lowest yield was obtained in the absolute control plot (without plant protection and without nutrient) in both years, which was 2.96 t ha-1 in 2017 and 3.14 t ha-1. The yields increased due to growing nutrient supply and excellent plant protection. The highest yields were 3.67 t ha-1 in 2017 and 4.67 t ha-1 in 2018 (150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg K2O active substance). Purpose of the experiment at analysing the impact of different treatments on the profitability of sunflower production.  
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Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack of... lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of different sulphur forms (soluble, adsorbed) in chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment supplied with increasing doses of NPK fertilizers for a long time. In addition, other objective of this study included the examination of the applicability of recommended extractants of the different sul...phate fraction in Hungarian soils. A long-term field experiment was established at the Research Station of Látókép of the University of Debrecen in 1984. In addition to control, two levels of NPK fertilizer doses have been used with irrigated and non-irrigated variants. Winter wheat and corn were cropped in a crop rotation on plots. Soil samples were collected in three different development stages of winter wheat, at the stage of stem elongation (April), flowering (May) and ripening (June of 2018) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) of experiment plots. Water-soluble inorganic sulphate was extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 solutions. The soluble plus adsorbed sulphate was extracted with 0.016M KH2PO4 solution. Sulphate was measured by turbidimetric method. 0.01M CaCl2-SO42— ranged between 0.293–1.896 mg kg-1 and the 0.016 M KH2PO4-SO42- varied between 5.087–10.261 mg kg-1. The values of KH2PO4 SO42- was higher than that of CaCl2-SO42-, because KH2PO4 extracted the adsorbed and soluble fractions of sulphate, while CaCl2 extracted the soluble sulphate fraction. The amount of absorbed sulphate was calculated by the differences of KH2PO4- SO4 and CaCl2-SO4. The KH2PO4 characterizes mainly the adsorbed sulphate fraction much more than the water-soluble fraction. KCl is the most widely used extractant for the determination of plant available sulphate content of soil in Hungary; therefore, KCl-SO42- fraction also was determined. The KCl-SO42- ranged between 0.328–2.152 mg kg-1. The CaCl2-SO42- and KCl-SO42- fractions were compared and based on Pearson's linear correlation, moderate correlation was established (r=0.511) between them. In all three extractant (0.01M CaCl2, 1M KCl, 0.016 M KH2PO4) higher sulphate fractions were measured in the fertilized plots where superphosphate had been supplied for ages until 2010. The arylsulphatase activity of soil also was determined and ranged between 9.284 and 26.860 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1. The lowest value was observed in the treatment with highest NPK2 dose, both in irrigated and non-irrigated areas.
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Spices and herbs have been used by humanity for thousands of years, so they are very important plants. In this study, the change of dry matter content and antioxidant compounds of eight spices (basil, thyme, rosemary, mint, parsley, lemongrass, chives, coriander) have been examined the raw plants and in plants preserved by three different drying ...methods (an oven in 50–60°C; drying at room temperature; lyophilisation between -40 and -50°C, under pressure), because we wanted to see the change of the parameters. The water content of raw plants was very high, i.e. the dry matter content was very low. By the application of the three drying methods nearly 100% of the water has left the plants, with the exception of the lyophilized basil and rosemary. Based on the results related to the original material, lyophilized has proved to be the best treatment for the preservation of antioxidant compounds, however air drying also showed high results for some spices.  
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Nearly a quarter of the agricultural utilized area of our country is made up of sandy soils. Sandy soils are poor in nutrients, and, therefore, the effectiveness of farming is basically determined by the method of maintaining soil fertility and the fertilization practice. The hairy vetch called Vicia villosa Roth (Sandy Roth.), also known as a sa...nd pioneer, plays a significant role in the exploitation of sandy soils. Its cultivation was started in Hungary in the late 1800s. It is primarily used as green fodder, most recently as a green manure and as a soil protection plant. The lupine is grown mainly as a supportive plant, which was previously rye, and today it is triticale. The ratio of the two plants to each other and the spatial location of plants depend on the method of sowing. The aim of our work was to present the yields of some of the grain grown in different sowing methods and some of its crops.
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Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat. The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON toxin concen...tration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method. Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.
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 Drought is one of the natural hazard risks which badly affects both agricultural and socio-economic sectors. Hungary, which is located in Eastern Europe has been suffering from different drought cycles; therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the rainfall data obtained from ten metrological stations (Békéscsaba, Budapest, Debrecen, ...Győr, Kékestető, Miskolc, Pápa, Pécs, Szeged, Siófok, Szolnok) between 1985 and 2016, by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The results showed that 2011 was recorded as the worst drought cycle of the studied period, where the SPI ranged between -0.22 (extreme drought) in Siófok, and 0.15 (no drought) in Miskolc. In a similar vein, the study highlighted the year 2010 to be the best hydrological year, when the SPI reached 0.73 (mildly wet) on average. Interestingly, the Mann-Kendall trend test for the drought cycle showed no positive trends in the study area. Finally, more investigation should be conducted into the climate change spatial drought cycle in Europe.
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Of the different physical features of fruits, one important quality feature is flesh hardness. This is an important parameter to be considered when selling fresh apples, for the manufacturing industry and when entering into storage. In our research, we examined 7 apple varieties, in 2016 and 2017, from the establishment of KITE Zrt. in Derecske an...d the Horticultural Experimentation Site of Pallag (Pallagi Kertészeti Kísérleti Telep). The plantations took place in accordance with intensive apple production. In both years, samples were collected at the time ripening of the given apple variety. Of the examined apple varieties, 5 of them are resistant to scab (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda, Fujion), 1 is not resistant (Golden Reinders) and 1 (Pinova) is moderately susceptible to scab. The scab resistant apple varieties were correlated to the non-resistant Golden Reinders. Flesh firmness was measured with a fruit penetrometer in each of the seven apple varieties. In the first year a two-month storage experiment was carried out, where the flash firmness after harvest, and after one-month and two-month storage was measured. The results were assessed with the help of the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 program. The goal is to compare the apple varieties based on their flesh firmness, in particular with regard to the resistant varieties. The Isaaq 8.81–8.82 N/cm2 , the Modí 9.18–9.59 N/cm2 and the Fujion 8.66–9.13 N/cm2 , all of which are scab resistant apple varieties, showed a significant initial flesh firmness. During storage, the Pinova apple variety flesh firmness changed the most favourably.
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The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is ur...gent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.
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An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of vegeta...tion, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated. The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.
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Currently, one of the most important objectives of agriculture is to maintain the principles of the sustainability. The use of precision technologies in agriculture belongs to this topic. The use of precision technologies is increasingly widespread in the cultivation of various agricultural crops, including maize. Sensing is an important part of t...hese techniques. In our experiment we compared two methods: measuring relative chlorophyll content and the method of determine the extractable chlorophylls. The experimental plant was maize (Zea mays L.) and the measurements were performed at an early development stage (V8) of three genotypes. Three levels of nitrogen (0; 80; 160 kg ha-1) were applied during the experiment. The relative chlorophyll content was measured by SPAD-502 (Minolta, Japan) and a handheld GreenSeeker (Trimble, USA) device. The extractable total chlorophyll content decreased in parallel with the increased nitrogen level. The obtained SPAD values were diversified furthermore the NDVI values have not been changed for the effect of different nitrogen fertilization. In the early stages of development of maize, these parameters need to be complemented with other measurements to provide reliable information about the crops nitrogen status.
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The vector of Grapevine Flavescens Dorée phytoplasma, the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) has been in Europe since 1924. In Romania, the first populations were detected in 2009 in the central, eastern and southern part of the country. Later, the leafhopper was found also in West Romania in 2014. In 2015 and 2017, altogether, 1...4 sampling sites were studied in two vine regions of this area. The Scaphoideus titanus could be detected in 10 of them with relatively small abundances. During the studies, the yellow sticky traps proved more effective methods than sweep netting. To prevent vineyards from disease, we should do everything against the vector from prevention to chemical protection.  
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The wiser usage of irrigation water is inevitable in the future. Irrigation has very high input cost; therefore, farmers must carry out irrigation with care. Also, the effect of irrigation on crops has a big role in decision making. Modeling provides a possibility to evaluate this effect. AquaCrop, as a crop production simulation model has great p...otential in this field. The accuracy of tomato biomass yield prediction of the model was tested in this research. For collecting the necessary data, a field experiment was conducted at Szarvas on processing tomato with different water supplies, such as 100% (I100), 75% (I75), 50% (I50) of potential evapotranspiration and a control with basic water supply (C). The relation of the simulation and actual biomass yields was evaluated during the season. Very good correlation was found between the modelled and the actually harvested data. The data for the control and I100 treatments showed higher correlation than the I75 and I50. The relationship for all of the data was moderately strong. Miscalculations occur mostly when the dry biomass yield reaches 7 t ha-1. The accuracy of the model was evaluated with the use of mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values. The least error was found in the C treatment, which means 0.34 MAE and 0.45 t ha-1 RMSE. The simulation resulted in higher errors in the I75 and I50 treatments.
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Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1 crop yield.... This quality has high importance to be researched. The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g). The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece. The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g. Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.
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Over the last few years, warming of the atmospheric layer near Earth's surface is increasingly experienced and researchers have also established that concentration of numerous greenhouse gases have risen over the past two centuries value. Change is basically a legitimate process - considering atmospheric concentration as well - but the change expe...rienced during the past centuries could not have become this critical without the contribution of human activity. Due to the nature of the greenhouse effect, the result of a very fragile, complex process is experienced currently on Earth, which can be significantly unbalanced even by a slight change. Carbon dioxide emitted from the soil is involved in the global cycle and has an impact on the greenhouse effect. The rise in soil respiration may result in the further intensification of warming. In the scope of the present study, it was examined how carbon dioxide emissions of the soil evolve over a day. The results have been established based on the comparison of the effects of different parts of the day, tillage methods and irrigation.
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With the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary, the role of the turf cultivation is also significantly decreasing. The proportion of the under- and non-utilized turf is increasing. In the research conduced at the University of Debrecen, IAREF Research Institute Karcag, we studied four types of turf utilization in three replicates on a ...salt field with timothy grass. We determined the flora composition of the experimental area, measured the soil moisture and the carbon-dioxide content of the soil.
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