No. 1 (2024) Current Issue

Published June 3, 2024



  • Plant clinic in Nepal: An overview

    Plant clinics play an important role in supporting farmers in growing healthy crops and achieving higher productivity in Nepal. The development and operation of plant clinics in Nepal are assessed in this study through a comprehensive analysis of the institution via literature review and interaction with key stakeholders. The plant clinic approach of the agriculture extension system started in Nepal in 2008, followed up with engagement with CABI and the Government of Nepal. Enhancement of farmers' knowledge and skill, encouraging sustainable farming methods, and ultimately increasing crop yields are the impact of plant clinics. However, there are some challenges faced during the implementation of plant clinics in the existing agricultural extension systems. In Nepal, the plant clinics are primarily operated by agricultural technicians with expertise in plant protection, as well as IPM farmer facilitators and community business facilitators after attending an intensive plant doctor's training. Plant clinics have been integrated into the agricultural extension system by agro-advisory service provider of the government of Nepal. Despite institutionalisation, policy support needs to be strengthened to ensure the sustainability of the different components of the (e.g., data management, validation, monitoring, localised content, etc.) plant clinic in Nepal.


  • Sewage sludge compost as an alternative source of phosphorus to rye in acidic sandy soil

    Today, the use of chemical fertilisers is significantly determined by their production and purchase costs, which are high. In contrast, phosphorus (P) is present in sewage sludge in a form that is easy for plants to absorb. Good quality sewage sludge compost (SSC) could contain a high quantity of P, together with other macro- and microelements and organic matter. The effect of regular SSC application on soil characteristics as well as plant parameters has been studied since 2003 in Nyíregyháza in a small plot experiment. Focusing on the P in the soil-plant system, our hypothesis was that SSC covers plants’ P demand through enhancing soil P content and its plant availability in the acidic sandy soil. The effect of the SSC was examined at the doses of 0, 9, 18, and 27 t ha-1 on rye as a test crop. Some soil chemical parameters (pH, soil organic matter - SOM, ammonium lactate (AL) extractable P2O5), and the relationship between plant development (green weight, shoot length), physiological parameters (SPAD index), plant shoot P content, and soil available P content were studied. The obtained data indicated that the SOM content, pH, and available P content of the treated plots increased as a result of the long-term applied SSC compared to the control. Measurement of the relative chlorophyll content showed a strong correlation with the available P content of the soil, but surprisingly less correlation with shoot P content was found. The results of plant biomass and soil P content proved that SSC could be used as a low-cost and good source of P for plants.

  • Biostimulant induce growth, chlorophyll content and fresh herbage yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and variegated alfalfa (Medicago × varia Martyn) plant

    The use of biostimulants is associated with promoting plant growth by stimulating cell division and improving nutrient availability and uptake. A study was conducted at the University of Debrecen, Hungary, to examine the effect of biostimulants on alfalfa growth, chlorophyll content and fresh herbage yield. The experiment was arranged in a randomised complete block design with three biostimulant treatments plus control replicated three times. Data collected were subjected to analyses of variance using Genstat, where significantly different means were separated at a probability of 5% using the least significant difference. The findings show no different variation in plant height or chlorophyll content (SPAD) throughout the early stages of growth. Nonetheless, a notable impact was noted in the latter stages (28 days after biostimulant treatment application) on the growth of the alfalfa plant. Biostimulant treatments did not had effect on fresh yield for second through fourth cuts, but the fifth cut showed a significant effect, with T1 treatment recording the highest herbage yield of 19745 kg ha-1 followed by T2 (Tricho Immun plus Ino Green) and T3 (Tricho Immun), with yields of 19528 kg ha-1 and 17273 kg ha-1, respectively, while the T0 (control) recorded the lowest herbage yield of 12060 kg ha-1. However, the average mean yield indicated the application of biostimulants significantly increased fresh yield herbage by 20.5%. Correlation coefficient values suggested plant height at both 14 and 28 DAH (days after harvest) strongly correlated with fresh herbage yield (r = 0.7756 and 0.7455) which reflected in the increase in fresh herbage yield. Therefore, our results suggest that the use of biostimulants in alfalfa cultivation holds promise for improving growth and yield potential through their positive effects on chlorophyll content and the growth of alfalfa plant.

  • Simplified volume equations for grey poplar (Populus × canescens Smith.) standing trees

    Grey poplar (Populus× canescens Smith.) is a natural hybrid of white poplar (Populus alba L.) and Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula L.). It can be found throughout Europe, where both parents are present. The above mentioned species of poplars (under the term of ‘domestic poplars’) cover approximately 5% of the forests of Hungary. Of these species, grey poplar holds significance in forestry, and its role in afforestation shows a growing tendency. For this reason, improving the growing technology of grey poplar is a timely topic. In this paper we introduce algorithms which help estimate grey poplar tree volumes without having to use volume tables. Based on the performed evaluations, both equations can be used for single tree volume estimation with an error of less than 5%.

  • Evaluation of bioactive substances in different parts of the root in beetroot (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculenta var. rubra)

    Beetroot, also known as Beta vulgaris ssp. esculenta var. rubra, is a root vegetable that contains a substantial quantity of bioactive elements, notably antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. These bioactive compounds, including betalains, phenolics, and flavonoids, contribute to the health-promoting properties of beetroot. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of beetroot have been extensively studied in preclinical and clinical settings. The active compounds in beetroot have been reported to provide benefits in reducing the risk of various diseases, our research provides a comprehensive analysis of the bioactive compounds the inner and outer skin parts of the root structure. The findings aim to contribute to a deeper understanding of the potential health benefits associated with specific beetroot root components. Furthermore, the results have implications for optimising beetroot cultivation and processing for enhanced nutritional value. This research not only advances our knowledge of the phytochemical profile of beetroot outer skin but also offers valuable insights into the broader field of plant biochemistry and its applications in promoting human health and nutrition.


  • Forest lookout tower visitor data in the Covid epidemic periods: what the numbers tell

    The Covid epidemic between the spring of 2020 and the summer of 2021 showed that there is an increasing demand for various forms of forest-related tourism. Number of visitors in forests broke records in certain places: 32 million visitor days were registered in 2020 in Pilisi Parkerdő Ltd. alone. In this article we present data originated from the automatic visitor counters placed on certain forest lookout towers. Processing the data, we can get an insight of the number and distribution of hikers in each period. As a result of the research, forest managers can learn more about the popular tourist destination, furthermore, knowledge is gained about the motivations and needs of forest tourism participants. Based on this, public welfare investments that meet real demands can be planned in a cost-effective manner. Ideally, the results achieved can bring satisfaction to all actors involved in forest tourism. On the demand (visitor) side, targeted and needs-tailored developments increase the experience factor of the time spent in the forest. On the supply (forestry) side, knowing the motivations makes the performance of public welfare tasks more efficient, which ultimately contributes to the improvement of the sector's image.

  • Study of the effects of silicon and sulphur foliar fertilization on yield components and yield in different winter oat cultivars

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of sulphur and silicon foliar fertilisation treatment in different Hungarian-bred winter oat cultivars on the yield and the yield components, e.g. panicle ear-1 numbers per square meters, number of panicle nodes, number of spikelets per panicle, and thousand kernel weight (TKW) in the 2022–2023 growing season. The obtained results show that the applied fertilisers influenced the measured parameters, and we get the highest yield at the combined treatment – where silicon and sulphur was both applied –, and unexpectedly the lowest when only silicon was applied during the growing period. We measured the highest number of panicles m-2 at the sulphur treated experimental plots, and the lowest at the silicon treatment. We measured the average number of nodes of the panicle, and we can say that the sulphur fertilisation caused significantly higher values than any other treatment. Talking about the spikelet numbers, we get the highest value at the sulphur fertilisation, and the lowest at the control plots. However, our result wasn’t that prominent in the case of TKW, we get the highest weight at the silicon treatment, and the lowest at the sulphur fertilisation.

  • An advanced classification method for urban land cover classification

    This manuscript presents a detailed comparative analysis of three advanced classification techniques that were used between 2018 and 2020 to classify land cover using Landsat8 imagery, namely Support Vector Machine (SVM), Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLSC), and Random Forests (RF). The study focuses on evaluating the accuracy of these methods by comparing the classified maps with a higher-resolution ground truth map, utilising 500 randomly selected points for assessment.

    The obtained results show that, compared to MLSC and RT, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach performs better. The SVM model demonstrates enhanced precision in land cover classification, showcasing its effectiveness in discerning subtle differences in landscape features.

    Furthermore, using the precise classification results produced by the SVM method, this study examines the temporal variations in land cover between 2018 and 2020. The results provide insight into dynamic land cover changes and highlight the significance of applying reliable classification techniques for thorough temporal analysis with Landsat8 images.

  • Biological potential of plant pathogenic fungi on weeds: A mini-review essay

    The invasion of weeds into productive areas has substantial negative effects on native ecosystems as well as agricultural production systems globally. Consequently, the task of maintaining or restoring these systems will become increasingly challenging without consistent, ongoing management efforts. The intensifying emergence of herbicide resistance in numerous weed species, coupled with the unintended pollution caused by synthetic herbicides, underscores the growing necessity for alternative, environmentally friendly, and sustainable management techniques, such as the utilisation of bioherbicides. Plant pathogenic microbes play an important role in biologically management of weeds, with the utilization of plant pathogenic fungi emerging as a promising area of study for novel research trends aimed at weed management without reliance of herbicides and to mitigate environmental pollution. A potential solution to decreasing pesticide usage involves the development of bioherbicides containing fungal active ingredients. Among the most commonly utilised fungi in bioherbicides are genera like Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phomopsis, Phytophthora, Phoma, and Puccinia. Increased weed resistance to herbicides has influenced new strategies for weed management, with some fungi from genera such as Colletotrichum and Phoma already employed for weed control. Nonetheless, it is evident from reviews that further research is imperative in this domain, with particular emphasis on analysing the efficacy of each plant pathogenic fungi.

  • Unfair commercial practices towards consumers in the Hungarian food industry

    Unfair commercial practices in the food industry can include actions and practices by traders or producers that mislead consumers about the true characteristics, quality, or price of products. For example, if a producer does not accurately and transparently list the composition of products, or if advertisements contain false or misleading information about products, or if inappropriate product quality is concealed, or if promised benefits of products are not realised, or if consumers are unfairly persuaded to purchase products.

    It is important to note that all traders and producers must comply with consumer protection rules. If any unfair commercial practices are observed, consumers can legitimately file a complaint with the Consumer Protection Authority or the Hungarian Competition Authority.

    Unfair commercial practices can be a serious problem for consumers as they mislead them about the true characteristics of products, making it difficult to make informed purchasing decisions. Therefore, it is important for consumers to be informed about the true composition and quality of products in order to avoid falling victim to unfair commercial practices.

    Through various legal cases, I demonstrate how important it is for consumers to be fully informed and aware of their rights. Additionally, I illustrate how investigating different complaints can have an impact on preventing unfair commercial practices.



  • Preparatory study for carbon sequestration modelling of agroforestry systems in Hungary: The assessment of the yield class distribution of windbreaks

    The escalating carbon dioxide emissions leading to global climate change are acknowledged as a paramount environmental challenge in the twenty-first century. The significance of land use systems in stabilising carbon dioxide levels and enhancing carbon sink potential has gained noteworthy attention from both the scientific and political communities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasises that agroforestry systems present vital prospects for synergising climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts, offering substantial technical mitigation potential. Windbreaks are well-known agroforestry systems in Hungary and form an important part of agricultural landscapes. The improved agroforestry subsidy system in our country makes it relevant to model the carbon sequestration potential of windbreaks. In the framework of the ForestLab project we plan to develop a carbon sequestration model specific for Hungarian agroforestry systems. In this study, as a preparatory step of the model development, we assessed the yield class distribution of Hungarian windbreaks by tree species group and identified variables that had significant effect on yield class based on the data of the National Forestry Database. Our results show that among the examined effects the most important predictor of the yield class of windbreaks was the tree species group, followed by the thickness of the productive soil layer and the hydrology of the site.

  • The status of conservation and management of indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa - A review

    Indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa play an important role in local food security and they are adapted to local conditions. Their genetic and cultural values have to be recognised for national importance. The conservation of these breeds is very critical as most of them are already classified as endangered. The South African government has the initiative to attempt the conservation of these animals; however, it comes with several challenges. In addition to funding, breed conservation demands farmers to understand and recognise the role of such breeds in society. This is especially crucial in the rural communal lands where breeds are kept. Farmers that raise indigenous breeds should be taught the necessity of maintaining the purity of these breeds. Indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa are not favored by the commercial farmers and thus they are more vulnerable. This review outlines the nature of sheep farming and the conservation status of four indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa. The effort and challenges that are met in current conservation arrangements are discussed. Moreover, we emphasise on the conservation techniques that are employed in South Africa.

  • Impacts of ethnoveterinary medicine integrated with livestock farm technologies on the performance and antimicrobial resistance of indigenous goats in South Africa –A review

    Ethnoveterinary medicine and livestock farm technologies represent a junction of innovation and tradition with the aim to accomplish livestock systems that are resilient, productive, and sustainable to meet 21st century challenges, especially the antimicrobial resistance issue. This article aims to emphasise the impacts of integrating ethnoveterinary medicine with livestock farm technologies on the performance of indigenous goats in South Africa. With the growing concern over antimicrobial resistance in livestock, there is a pressing need for complementary approaches to the health of animals and their productivity. In this review, the aim evaluated whether an integrative approach could offer a sustainable alternative that benefits animal health and productivity while addressing the concerns of antimicrobial resistance. Comparative study designs across multiple indigenous goat farms were used to integrate specific medicinal plants in ethnoveterinary medicine with present-day livestock technologies that are used to monitor the effects on livestock performance indicators and antimicrobial resistance patterns. In the treated populations, the outcomes were indicative of substantial improvements in reproduction and growth rates, and alongside, there has been a notable decrease in the markers of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, it is proposed that through these discoveries, the integration of these traditional and modern approaches not only improve the performance of indigenous goats but also contribute immensely to the mitigation of risks associated with antimicrobial resistance.

  • Seed treatment with Bacillus bacteria improves maize production: a narrative review

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important crop in relation to its production and consumption. Production of maize is constrained by soil infertility and poor quality seed. Microbial technologies like seed treatment with Bacillus bacteria improves the productivity of maize on infertile soil. However, due to variations in maize growth environments and Bacillus species, this review was conducted to identify the common species of Bacillus species used for seed treatment, and provide an overview of the effect of seed treatment with Bacillus on maize growth and yield. Results show that Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were the dominant species used for seed treatment. Bacillus was used as both a biofertiliser and biopesticide. The conspicuous positive effects of Bacillus were in plant height, shoot and root length, and shoot dry matter depending on the species. In terms of grain yield, Bacillus subtilis (8502 kg ha-1), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (6822 kg ha-1) and Bacillus safensis (5562 kg ha-1) were the bacterial species that had an overall pronounced effect. The highest increase in grain yield was in the interactive effect of Bacillus megaterium + Bacillus licheniformis (18.1%) and sole Bacillus subtilis (15.6%), while Bacillus pumilus reduced grain yield by 4.8%. This shows that the improvement of maize productivity using Bacillus bacteria requires careful selection of the species for seed treatment.

  • Awareness and adoption of a nurse sow management system among small-scale pig farmers in Nakuru County, Kenya

    This study aimed to assess the level of awareness and adoption of nurse sow management strategies among small-scale pig farmers in Nakuru County, Kenya. The research included a survey of pig farmers who visited the Nakuru Agricultural Show in July 2023. A total of 139 farmers were interviewed within 5 days of the show. The corresponding author interviewed the respondents in a face-to-face engagement, where questions on nurse sow management were initially drafted in English and translated into Kiswahili, i.e. the second language in Kenya. The obtained results indicated that farmers came from two main regions of the county: the northern part (54.7%, 76/139) and the southern part (45.3%, 63/139). Levels of awareness and adoption were insignificant between the two groups (χ2, p<0.05). A major obstacle to the adoption of this strategy was identified as feed challenge at 77.7%; (108/139) and market issue at 59.7%; (83/139). This study identified important aspects and limitations that should be considered when developing sustainable productivity development strategies for Kenyan pig farmers. To assist the sustainable growth of small-scale pig production, the authors suggest government measures that shield farmers against exploitation of feed and marketing components, as well as advocating for effective breeding to increase live born.

  • An overview of swine production and marketing in Africa - Mini review

     Pigs are the oldest domesticated animals, though their ancestry is still uncertain because of a lack of archaeological and genetic evidence. Pigs serve a vital role in reducing the demand for livestock and livestock products in most parts of the world. Especially in the African continent, pigs serve as mobile cash implying how easily they can be converted into cash to sort pressing family needs. Pig production in Africa is different from advanced systems of production in temperate countries, however, it has similarities with most of the tropical low and middle-income nations. Pig production in Africa requires attention to enable it to contribute effectively to the growing African population. However, it has been orchestrated with a myriad of challenges including market access. This mini-review is designed in a manner to provide an overview of pig production contribution to livelihoods in Africa and associated challenges with possible appropriate solutions.

  • The effect of washing for the shelf-life parameters of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    Spinach is a very popular green leafy vegetable because of its versatile usage and beneficial for the health. However, spinach may contain several pathogen bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause several serious health problems. This study investigates the effects of washing with citric acid for the shelf-life parameters of spinach in comparison to the effect of washing with water and control. Washing of spinach with 0.5% citric acid solution decreased the elasticity of the spinach leaves, as well as the chlorophyll content. On the other hand, the total plate count, as well as the yeast and mold count could be decreased with this treatment, but difference was not detectable at the forth storage day. The fecal indicator E. coli did not change, indicating washing was not effective in this case. Further optimisation of treatment and storage conditions may decrease microbial risk of fresh spinach consumption without decreasing its sensory quality.

  • Individual cage housing affects feed intake and induces sex-specific effects on body weight in Japanese quails

    Individual cage housing in poultry production could be a potentially stressful environment for the birds that can alter feed intake, consequently induce negative effects on performance. Previous studies used individual bird-based experiments to extract the detailed molecular, physiological, and fitness outcomes of treatments. Understanding sex-specific effects of isolation on social birds such as Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) may reveal important considerations. To understand this phenomenon, birds were kept in groups of 10 for one week and they were kept in individual cages for another week.  Daily feed intake (DFI) was measured each day and body weight was measured at the beginning, middle, and end of group rearing and at the beginning and end of individual rearing. It was found that both males and females showed a reduction DFI in response to individual rearing (p<0.0001). Females consumed on average 29.38% higher amount of feed than males. Additionally, females showed a pronounced reduction in body weight after isolation, while the effect on males was not significant. Similarly, females had on average 17.61% higher body weight than males. The body weight to DFI ratio was higher in males than females. The finding of this research revealed an important implication of isolation and sex differences.

  • Performance of agricultural factors on yield of  sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata ) - A review

     Sweet corn producers and industries require more reliable cultivars which could be accomplished by hybrid breeding. However, progressive phenological growth may be affected by different factors. In this paper, we analyze the key factors that determine the growth and yield of sweet corn. Environmental factors such as temperature and photoperiod were strong determinants of dates of flowering and harvest which are often crucial to yield in diverse climates and agricultural systems, besides the country's pedological conditions, especially soil fertility, affected phenological development. The effectiveness of fertilization in improving sweet corn growth performance was significantly influenced by the soil characteristics, the water supply, the genotype, and the agrotechnological factors. Therefore, genetic improvement of hybrids should be incorporated into the climate and soil elements to stabilize sweet corn yields in various agroecosystems. Decisions made in the sowing period are very significant, as up to 30% of the obtained yield may depend on making the proper choice. Deviation from the optimum date (either early or late sowing) may decrease yield. When deciding about the sowing date of maize, one needs to consider climate, soil quality, geographical location, temperature, weed infestation, sowing seed quality, and the ripening time of the hybrid to be produced.

  • Impact of precision irrigation on the unit income of maize production

    The study of the economic/economic impact of precision farming should be a priority area in digital agriculture, as the results, profitability, and efficiency indicators can have a significant decision-support effect on the development of both the agronomic and the technical regions of individual farms both in the longer and shorter term. Individual firms, companies, farmers, and family farms quantify the effectiveness of their farming processes. The modern age offers the possibility of digitally recording all the elements of farming technology, making it possible to analyse the cost-effectiveness of a farm more effectively and, in some cases, to carry out more detailed analyses. Nevertheless, the number of farms demonstrating their profitability with such precise economic calculations is still minimal.

    Our analyses were conducted on a 56,02 ha field of Balogh Farm-Tépe Ltd. The agricultural operations carried out were fully documented so that the inputs (seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, crop enhancers) were recorded in coordinates and kind, as well as the specific yields, grain moisture data, irrigation norms, and irrigation rotations. At the same time, the company's owner provided the data's monetary value. The main econometric indicators (yield, production value, cost of production, income, cost price) related to the evaluation of the enterprise management were evaluated along with the spatial data in the irrigated and non-irrigated tables. Our calculations show that a given year's climatic and market characteristics fundamentally determine the cost and income relations of a plot of land (and thus of an entire farm). In addition to additional inputs, introducing some elements of precision farming and intensification and increasing yields improves yield security and allows for excellent yield stability.

  • Unraveling changes in the duck microbiome and inflammatory processes due to allithiamine-enriched feed

    The gastrointestinal tract of poultry harbors a diverse and intricate microbiome that plays a crucial role in nutrient digestion and absorption, immune system development, and enhances resistance against pathogens. Maintaining a healthy state and proper production is fundamentally determined by the symbiosis between the host and microbes. Due to genetic and technological improvements, intensive growth rate can be associated with many pathological conditions, such as increased susceptibility to infections. Intestinal inflammation in poultry industries detrimentally affects productivity by hindering nutrient absorption and the efficient allocation of nutrients for growth. The host releases different biomarkers in response to inflammation. Hence, there is an utmost interest of reliable, precise, sensitive and robust biomarkers to evaluate both the gastrointestinal health status and inflammation in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine how the developed feed prototype (allithiamine) affects the community diversity in raised duck, and the relationship between gut microbiome composition and inflammatory factor as calprotectin, using targeted 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and Chicken Calprotectin ELISA Kit.

  • The effect of different sowing depth on the yield and yield-forming elements of maize

    On a global scale, maize is an important food, feed and industrial crop, with an increasing production area (Nagy, 2007 and 2021). Among the environmental impacts, extreme weathering factors caused by climate change are causing serious problems for crop stability, and maize is no exception.

    Precision farming is today's most innovative agrotechnical approach, which can greatly increase crop safety and reduce costs by exploiting the genetic potential of our soils and the hybrids we use (Torres, 2012).

    Sowing is one of the most important agrotechnical elements, and with good seeding we can ensure that we have all the requirements of a high yielding, high growing crop (Pepó, 2019). In the case of sowing, it is important to place the seed in moist soil to provide the optimum environmental conditions for the crop to ensure uniform emergence (Széles et al., 2020; Shrestha et al., 2018).

    Precision planting is the market leading technology in precision planters in the United States, and when cooperating with them we looked for methods to optimise the depth of sowing and to monitor the effect on yield by studying the initial development of the plants. The seeder was equipped with the company's SmartFirmer soil scanner integrated into the seed drill. Automatic seed depth adjustment based on soil moisture is an exceptional solution for uniform emergence and drought protection.

  • The effect of sous-vide cooking on the antioxidant properties of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus L.)

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus L.) are renowned for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and prebiotic properties. This study explores the antioxidant characteristics, activity, and β-glucan content in freeze-dried mushroom samples, investigating the influence of sous-vide cooking. Uncooked freeze-dried P. ostreatus and three pre-cooked freeze-dried samples (70, 80, 90 °C through 4 hours) were analysed for Total Polyphenol Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Radical Scavenging (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and β-glucans content via HPLC and Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) via enzymatic gravimetric method. Results indicate that uncooked mushroom powder exhibited superior antioxidant capabilities compared to cooked samples. The sous-vide cooked (80 °C) mushrooms displayed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. Moreover, pre-cooked (70 °C) mushroom powder demonstrated the highest β-glucan content, significantly surpassing the uncooked control sample. Notably, pre-cooked groups (80, 90 °C) demonstrated significantly higher TDF levels compared to uncooked sample. This research offers valuable insights into the potential use of mushrooms as high-antioxidant, antimicrobial, and prebiotic food or feed supplements, with broad implications across various fields.

  • Grassland association stock of plants the examination of the regeneration of a construction

    Due to the drastic change in using the nature like grassland association (one-sided overgrazing – one mowing per a year), by the third year of the experiment in every area, where overgrazing stopped, independently on second sowing and nutrient resupply, Borhidi degradation degree decreased. In the areas where overgrazing with large animal density (sheep) continued, degradation degree was 3.4–5.0 by the third year of the experiment, and Hordeum murinum, which causes animal healthy problems, appeared massively.

  • Biotechnological methods for improving reproduction on sheep breeding program using laparoscopic artificial inseminations in Debrecen, Hungary

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the LAI method in different types of breeds and seasonal variations. Analysing n=536 LAI in 7 years, there were no significant differences observed in the breed in lambing rates. Although the lambing rate of Prolific Merino (F+) was better than any other breed (45.3%). We found significant differences between breeds of Tzigaia, its pregnancy rate was 19.2%. In the case of prolificacy there were significant differences between breeds: Prolific Merino’s (FF) was the highest (2.38) and, Indigenous Tzigaia’s was the lowest (1.4) from all of them. The obtained results showed that summer inseminations were the most effective in concern of pregnancy rate (49.5%). The results are based on use of the types of semen, showed that using frozen semen was most effective than fresh semen in both parameters, however there were no significant differences. Summarising all tested conditions in our study breeds, seasons and type of semen using LAI the total results of pregnancy rate was 40.3% and the prolificacy was 1.78, respectively. Follow up the out-of-season ovarian, progesterone level of n=36 Prolific Merino were examined and insulin, IGF-1, leptin, T3, and T4 hormones as well, to evaluate the energetic status of the flock. Progesterone analysis showed 43% of examined ewes had a cyclical ovarian function in April and a cyclical ones had good reaction for estrus-induction hormonal treatment. Our results showed that valuable information can be obtained about energy supply from the determination of some metabolic hormones as IGF-1, insulin, leptin.