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The inheritance and durability of scab resistance in apple progenies
Published August 12, 2005

In order to select the appropriate parent cultivars and maintain the durability of resistance, it is important to clarify the mechanisms of inheritance of scab resistance depending on the parents. It has been known that the progeny segregation ratios based on scab-resistance do not depend only on the genotype of the resistance locus but also on... the genetical makeup of the donor and recipient parents as well as on the susceptible parent.

The aim of this study has been to demonstrate what factors in the Vf, Vr and VA scab-resistant cultivars — combined with susceptible and resistant parents — affect the inheritance and durability of resistance in seedlings in their first 4 year's growing four years' growth. After inoculating apple seedlings sown in 2001 with the suspension of Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. in the greenhouse, we studied the segregation ratios of the progenies into reaction classes. Seedlings showing resistance in the greenhouse were also evaluated for scab-resistance after they had been moved to the field and had naturally been infected with the pathogen in 2002 and 2004.

The majority of our results obtained in the greenhouse test, similarly to earlier experiences, have not justified monogenic inheritance at the phenotypic level. The effect of susceptible parent cultivars on the segregation ratio of progenies have become apparent again. The high infection rate of seedlings in the field trials, which had previously exhibited varying degrees of resistance in the greenhouse test, has raised concern. Our data has raised further doubts, concerning the durability of Vf resistance in Hungary. It is assumed that the composition of natural field populations of Venturia inaequalis in Szigetcsép has changed. The complexity of Vf resistance has been confirmed. The high infection rate in the progenies derived from Vf resistant cultivars draws the attention to the importance of utilizing additional sources of resistance.

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Evaluation of different sources of resistance for breeding powdery mildew resistant grapevine varieties
Published May 24, 1999

The appearance of resistance to powdery mildew was investigated on seedling progenies of interspecific crossings. Hybrids of American and East-Asian wild species and one Vitis vinifera variety (Janjal kara) were used as source of resistance in the crossings. The resistance of foliage and of berries were tested in the field at the time ...of vintage. The degree of resistance was ranked into six classes.

In American and Asian hybrid derivatives there were few highly resistant progenies, but in the hybrids of Janjal kara variety more than 90 % of the progenies proved to be highly resistant to powdery mildew. According to the distribution of classes of resistance in the populations the resistance of American and Asian sources are mostly influenced by additive gene affects. The resistance of Janjal kara seemed to be mono or digenic.

No close correlation was found between the powdery mildew resistance of the foliage and that of the berries.


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Changing of carbohydrates by inoculation of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola oil bean lines with different resistance
Published February 23, 2000

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (PS) is one of the most significant stressors of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemical and agrotechnical treatments have minor importance, so breeding has great part in the protection against this pathogen. Most of the cultivars are susceptible to PS. The genetic background... of resistance in the plant is a complex system. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but there are some modifier genes. The pathogen species can be divided into different races.

To understand the functioning of this resistance gene, experiments were carried out using bean varieties with different genotypes and near isogenic lines of bean. Eight lines were tested. Our main objective was to test bean lines with PS with high virulence.

The experiment was made in greenhouse and on field. The virulent bacterium strain has been isolated in Hungary.

The changes of carbohydrates were tested after infection. In homeostasis the level of carbohydrates (especially glucose and fructose) were higher in susceptible lines. In case of artificial and natural infection the decrease of glucose were more significant in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. In the leaf samples from systemic chlorosis the level of this carbohydrate increased.

These changes are connected with the level of resistance, but more experiments are needed to verify this assumption.

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The genetic background of resistance to common bacterial blight in newly identified common bean lines on the basis of inheritance studies
Published February 23, 2000

Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp). is a major disease problem of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The inheritance of resistance in Xrl and Xr2 lines to two isolates of Xcp was studied in the F2 and F3 popu­lations from the crosses between these lines and the Masay ...variety (susceptible to Xcp). Segregation patterns indicated that different single recessive genes presumably in coupling phase linkage determined the resistance to the HUN and EK-1 1 strains of Xcp in both lines. The presence of some minor, modifying genes beside the monogenic genetic background of resistance was also observed. Xrl and Xr2 lines represent valuable new monogenic genetic sources in resistance breeding to CBB.

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Study of genetic resources for Powdery mildew resistance by biochemical and physiological parameters on peaches and nectarines in Romania
Published March 16, 2004

During 1997-2002, studies on the physiological and biochemical changes due to powdery mildew attack in peach and nectarine cultivars and hybrids belonging to different classes of resistance had been performed at the Research Station for Fruit Tree Growing (RSFTG) Baneasa Bucharest, located in the southern part of Romania. The study was based on... disease assessments in the field and on other diagnosis criteria.

The southern part of Romania has favourable ecological conditions for growing peach and nectarine but trees have been attacked by various pathogens such as Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.: Fr.) Lev. var. persicae Woronichin fungus for a long time. The presence of the pathogen causes important changes in the quantity and quality of fruits and affects the metabolism of trees.

This study was focused on several physiological and biochemical parameters such as photosynthesis and respiration intensity along with catalase activity; and changes in some biochemical compounds such as free, total and linked water content, dry matter, nitrogen and protein content, tannin levels. The aim was to find possible correlation among the above parameters and the biotic stress induced by the powdery mildew fungus calculated as attack degree (AD%).

Results showed that photosynthesis diminished significantly in the case of the attacked phenotypes, the respiration was more intense in the infected cultivars and catalase proved to be less intense in the affected plants. The total water content significantly increased in contrast to the dry matter and tannin contents, which greatly reduced in the case of resistant cultivars such as 'Victoria', Vectared 7', 'KB 11-40'. The total nitrogen and protein levels showed less influence on resistance to powdery mildew on all cultivars. All genetic material found resistant to powdery mildew is currently used in peach and nectarine breeding programs in Romania.

Further studies focused on isolation and characterization of resistance genes for powdery mildew resistance will be done in the future based on data collected during several years.

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Virus susceptibility and resistance of Hungarian pepper varieties
Published August 23, 2000

The aim of our study was to examine susceptibility or resistance of 18 pepper varieties to four viruses [tobacco mosaic

tobamovirus (TMV), sowbane mosaic sobemovirus (SoMV), NTN strain of potato Y potyvirus  (PVYNTN) and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV). Out of the 18 varieties, 13 were resistant to CMV infection. Thirteen were susceptible to TMV, while five ones (Dabora Fl, Brill Fl, Feherozon Synthetic, Ciklon Fl, Cecil Fl) showed only local hypersensitive reaction. All of the tested pepper varieties showed resistance to SoMV. Eight varieties (Tuba, Fehérözön Synthetic, Boni, Alba Regia, Korona, Édesalma, Cecil Fl, Star) were found to be resistant to PVYNTN. Out of the examined varieties five (Boni, Alba Regia, Korona, Édesalma, Star) were resistant to three viruses (SoMV, CMV and PVYNTN). Only one (Cecil F1) displayed complex, extreme resistance to SoMV, PVYNTN, CMV and hypersensitive reaction to TMV, therefore this hybrid is very important in pepper breeding and growing for virus resistance.

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Resistance Gene Analogs (RGA) as a tool in fruit tree's breeding
Published March 25, 2009

Breeding for pest and disease resistance comes as a major objective behind the fruit traits. To increase the effectiveness of fruit resistance breeding application of the Marker Assisted Selection ( MAS) is advantageous. For generating molecular markers which enable the following of interesting traits basically two methods are available: target...ed marker design based on conservative region of already known Resistance ( R) gene sequences or randomly generated markers. The creation  and the application  of  these homology  based  markers  are the object of this review in  the main  temperate zone  fruit species.

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Studies on the Tobamovirus resistance of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar Greygo
Published March 21, 2001

Resistance of the Hungarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar "Gre.ygo" to Tohamoviruses has been investigated. All plants of the population of Greygo proved to be resistant to tobacco mosaic and tomato mosaic viruses (TMV, ToMV), both represent the pepper pathotypes Po of ...>Tohamoviruses. Individuals of Greygo, however, were found to be susceptible to pathotypes P12 and P123 of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV). When inoculated with the XM isolate of dulcamara yellow fleck virus (DYFV, pathotype P1) the population of Greygo segregated in resistant and susceptible plants. These results as well as inoculations of the progenies of three TMV resistant plants clearly showed, that besides the resistance allele Li the cultivar Greygo possesses also an another allele. This allele, provisionally marked by L2g behaves like to the allele L2 characteristic to Capsicum frutescens cv. . Tabasco. Determination of the identity of the allele L2g to the allele L2 needs further genetic and pathological informations. Relations between the Tohamoviruses pathogenic to pepper and the alleles of the resistance gene L are outlined for the discussion.


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Malus taxa and the progenies of Malus floribunda selected in Hungary, as gene sources of resistance breeding
Published August 13, 2004

One of our objectives in the apple breeding program of the Department of Fruit Science, beside creating new varieties, is to search for new gene sources. After evaluating the disease resistance of Malus taxa available in Hungary, we put the promising selected individuals through further examinations. Their habit and growth vigor was ob...served, as well as productivity and fruit characteristics were evaluated. Malus fusca seems to be a new, promising gene source in Hungary among the examined taxa. Beside its optimal canopy, growth vigor and fruit characteristics, it has the advantage to be in distant relationship to Malus x domestica, therefore its resistance is based on a different genetic basis. SBG 1 selection of Malus spectabilis can be recommended as a new gene source for resistance breeding. The range of gene sources can further be widened by selected clones of Malus floriblunda (BA I), Malus x zumi (BA) and Malus baccata (SBG 6). An additional value of Malus taxa chosen by us is that they show resistance not only to apple scab, but to powdery mildew as well, and according to our results, they have optimal habit, acceptable productivity and good fruit quality. Nine hybrids were selected from first Malus progenies which proved to be resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. These are valuable not only as gene sources of breeding, but as pollenizers or ornamental trees, while their decorative fruits can be used in inside decorations and flower arrangements.

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Situation of peach resistance to diseases in Romania
Published June 20, 2006

The resistance of peach cultivars to the most important diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and mycoplasms was studied in Romania over two working stages in the period between 1985-2005. The major diseases examined were: Cytospora cincta Sacc., Taphrina deformans (Berk) Tul., Moruluua laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl) Honey, ...m>Sphaerotheca pannosa var. persicae Woron., Stigmina carpophila (Lev) M.B.Ellis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, mycoplasm and plum pox potyvirus. Based on the obtained results, the studied cultivars were classified into resistance groups for the different diseases (very resistant, resistant, medium resistant, sensitive and very sensitive).Based on the results of our study, the following gene sources were chosen following the evaluation of the various genetic material in the peach germoplasm fund, in the climatic conditions of Romania: Cytospora cincta: Cullinan, Cardinal, Hamlet, NJF 3, Onakita Gold, Triumf, "Superba de Toamna", Anderson, Weinberger; Stigmina carpophila: Armgold, ARK 109, Stark Early Blaze, Cardinal, Congres; Taphrina deformans: Madeleine Pouyet, Cumberland, Harbelle, Indian Blood, Sulivan, Victoria, Zafrani, Pekin, Naradnji Ranhii; Spaherotheca pannosa var. persicae: Triumf; Congres; Victoria; Armking; Morton; Regina; Nectared 7; ARK 125; ARK 134; Regina.

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Xanthomonas resistance in Hungarian 4 spice pepper varieties
Published September 11, 2001

With a view to further enhance the reputation of Hungarian spice pepper it was necessary to improve resistance to the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, the most dangerous pathogen of pepper varieties. From among the familiar resistance genes in Hungary only the gene Bs-2 could provide sufficient protection the aggressiveness spectrum of the bacterium species X.c.pv. vesicatoria. The first results of the resistance breeding are the spice pepper varieties Kaldom and Kalorez. In addition to the Bs-2 gene attempts are also being made at building in a gds gene into pepper, a gene creating a general defense system, a different strategy towards Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.


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Pomology of gene resources bearing resistance to Erwinia amylovora
Published August 12, 2005

The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality... and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).

During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.

We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.

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Reaction of different Capsicum genotypes to four viruses
Published March 1, 2003

The objective of this study was to examine the reaction of 44 Capsicum genotypes to common strain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-C/U1), Obuda pepper virus (ObPV), NTN strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) and legume strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV­U/246). Reaction (extreme resistance, hype...rsensitive reaction, latent susceptibility, susceptibility) of the tested Capsicum species/hybrids and breeding lines seemed to be greatly depending on hosts and viruses. Out of the breeding materials 4/99 F2 and IX-8 in to CMV-U/246, while 32.Bogyisz. type, VI-57 ii. 57/83 and V-12=19/98 to TMV-C/Ui showed extreme resistance. Two lines (V-25 F1=32/98 F1 and V-27 in F4=35/98 F4) showed hypersensitive reaction to ObPV. Latent susceptibility to PVYNTN was observed in case of all eleven tested Capsicum genotypes and in case of several lines to TMV-C/U1, ObPV and CMV-U/246. Other breeding materials proved susceptible to the mentioned viruses. Pepper genotypes showing extreme resistance and hypersensitivity could be used for resistance breeding to viruses.

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Genetic engineering of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for resistance to fungal diseases using g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)
Published April 22, 2014

In the present study, g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida coding for 2-pyrone synthase which contribute for fungal and insect resistance was used. The aim was to work out an efficient approach of genetic transformation for apple cvs. ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘MM111’, ‘M26’ rootstocks for improving their fungal resistance... using genetic engineering techniques. Adventitious shoot formation from leaf pieces of apples studied was achieved using middle leaf segments taken from the youngest leaves from in vitro-grown plants.
Optimum conditions for ‚direct’ shoot organogenesis resulted in high regeneration efficiency of  0%, 95%, 92%, 94% in the studied apples respectively. Putative transgenic shoots could be obtained on MS media with B5 Vitamins, 5.0 mg l-1 BAP, or 2.0 mg l-1 TDZ with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA in the presence of the selection agent “PPT” at 3.0-5.0 mgl-1. Shoot multiplication of transgenic shoots was achieved on: MS + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg l-1 BAP + 0.3 mg l-1 IBA, 0.2 mg l-1 GA3+1.0 g/l MES+ 30 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l Agar, with the selection agent PPT at 5.0 mg l-1 and were subcultured every 4 weeks in order to get sufficient material to confirm transformation of the putative shoots obtained. Six, seven, one and six transgenic clones of the apples studied respectively have been obtained and confirmed by selection on the media containing the selection agent “PPT” and by PCR analysis using the suitable primers in all clones obtained for the presence of the selection” bar gene (447 bp) and the gene-of- interest “g2PS1” (1244 bp), with transformation efficiency of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.1% and 0.3% respectively. These transgenic clones were multiplied further in vitro in the presence of the selection agent ‘PPT’ and rooted in vitro. Rooted transgenic plantlets were successfully acclimatized and are being kept under-containment conditions according to the biosafety by-law in Syria to evaluate their performance for fungal resistance .

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Evaluation of fruit quality of old apple cultivars originating from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, for utilization in breeding and in organic farming
Published August 12, 2005

In the frame of the apple breeding program at the Department of Fruit Science old cultivars found in the Carpathian basin were involved in examination as well. Beside testing susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora of old genotypes (historical, local and regional cultivars) originating from scattered orchards of Visk (foot of ...the Carpathian Mountains), fruit quality was also evaluated and other open-field observations were made.

According to the results of inner content examinations, 'Szemes alma' and 'Sikulai alma', chosen as gene sources for breeding to resistance against fire blight, had inner content values worthy to mention in some aspects, and competing with those of the control cultivar 'Jonathan'. The quality of 'Pónyik alma', also recommended as a gene source is confirmed by the data of earlier literature. Further three cultivars ('Batul', 'Vilmos renet', 'Zöld sóvári') also proved to be good based on resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the first two cultivars are suitable from the point of view of fruit quality, too.

In our field observations, susceptibility to apple scab and powdery mildew was evaluated. Among cultivars selected from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains on the base of resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the production value of 'Szemes alma' is worsened by its high susceptibility to apple scab. Further selected cultivars ('Sikulai', 'Pónyik alma', 'Batul', 'Vilmos renet') are not too susceptible to fungal diseases and their fruit quality is also suitable, therefore they can be recommended for direct planting in ecological farming or in restoring scattered orchards.

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Application of DNA markers for detection of scab resistant apple cultivars and selections
Published August 12, 2005

A DNA marker-based study was undertaken to identify the occurrence of major scab resistance genes in some apple cultivars and selections of importance for apple breeding. Unfortunately none of the RAPD-based markers previously reported to detect the Va, Vb, Vr and Vx genes produced unambiguous results.... By contrast, the CAPS marker MI8 produced the expected three bands in all cultivars and selections already known or suspected to have the Vf gene, as well as in the Russian cultivar 'Antonovka Polotora Funtovaja' suspected to have Va resistance which however may be allelic to Vf. Vf-carrying selections and newly named cultivars 'Frida' and 'Fredrik' are grown successfully in Sweden without fungicides, suggesting that the Vr resistance breaking scab races 6 and 7 have not yet become a problem. The SCAR marker B12 detected the Vm gene in 'Prairifire', 'Rouville', clones 'OR45T132' and 'OR48T70', and selection '16-36-193'. The SSR locus 0102b10 detected one band at 118 by in 'Reka'. This is presumed to be identical to the Vr gene marker previously reported.

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Scab resistance in Malus sp. progenies - inheritance and resistance stability
Published April 14, 2003

Susceptibility of progenies of some Ma/us species to apple scab was evaluated. Susceptibility of hybrid families was observed first in greenhouse after artificial inoculations by the suspension of the pathogen, Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint., then in open field. The Hungarian type of Malus floribunda, which proved be scab resistant in our examinations, has a positive effect on the segregation of progenies to resistant and susceptible individuals as a male parent, not depending on the rate of susceptibility of the other parent. However, the German type of Malus floribunda and Malus prunifolia act as dominant, highly susceptible parents.

Malus x purpurea and Malus baccata, which proved to be highly susceptible to apple scab in open field and in artificial inoculations, transmits its susceptibility only slightly to its progenies as a male parent.

According to our experiments, the inheritance of scab resistance of Malus floribunda cannot be considered as monogenic, as published by other authors.

Scab susceptibility of parents influences the segregation of progenies to resistant or susceptible individuals. The moderately scab susceptible `Idared' as female parent has a statistically proved positive effect on the segregation of its progenies.

More factors indicate the appearance of a new race of Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.: change of the symptoms in the greenhouse; considerable increase of susceptible individuals after greenhouse inoculation in 1997; more and more progenies of the male parent Malus floribunda became susceptible to scab in open field.

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Induce the plant resistance to pathogen infection
Published April 22, 2014

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a mechanism of induced defense that confers long-lasting protection against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Salicylic acid (SA) is the signal molecule which is required for induce SAR and is associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins, which are thought to contribute to resistance. SA ...paly vital role in some related resistance gene expression in plant cell which have direct or indirect effect on pathogen growth as SA has direct toxicity for pathogen and in the same time has stimulation effect for some enzyme related to reduce the oxidative burst.

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General defense system in the plant kingdom III.
Published October 16, 2002

Our observations regarding the symptoms not fitting into, significantly differing from the hypersensitive defense system, which we noticed during the judgment of several plant species, symptoms provoked on several million plants have constituted a unified entity. They have provided evidence for the existence of a different plant defense system.... We called this so far unknown basic response of plants to biotic effects as general defense system. This system defends them from the attack of numerous microbe species in the environment.

The evolutionary intermediate phase between the general and the specific, the two defense systems is the susceptible host—pathogen relation. The vertical resistance system of plants escaping from the susceptible host—pathogen relation, based on specific hypersensitive reaction also suggested the existence of a more original, general defense system and the susceptible host—pathogen relation developed as a result of the collapse of that system.

The evolutionary relation of the two defense systems is proved by the only recessive inheritance of the older general defense system and in the majority of cases dominant hereditary course of the specific defense system. In our experiences, the modifying genes of the recessive general defense system, in most cases, are behind the specific defense systems, which are known to have monogenic dominant hereditary course and react with hypersensitive tissue destruction. This seemingly striking genetic fact is explained by the following: the general defense system less dependent on environmental effects regulates much faster pathophysiological reaction than the specific resistance genes strongly dependant on environmental effects coding dominant hypersensitive reaction.

The general and specific defense reactions, the processes excluding the microbes attacking plants with compacting of cell growth and tissue destruction, which mean two opposite strategies, building on and regulating each other constitute the entity of resistance to plant disease.

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Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility of old Hungarian apple cultivars
Published August 12, 2005

The aim of the Hungarian apple breeding program started in the Department of Fruit Science was to find resistant apple cultivars against major diseases (scab, powdery mildew, fire blight). The outbreak of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in 1996 motivated us to search new resistant sources principally from old traditional apple cultivar...s. First of all, cultivars have been gathered since 1997 from Carpathia (Visk) and evaluated between 2001 and 2003. In this recent study evaluation of resistance of old Hungarian genotypes to fire blight collected from the English National Fruit Collection (Brogdale, Faversham) is presented.

13 old Hungarian apple cultivars in 2002, and 38 genotypes in 2005 have been evaluated. We used `Idared' and 'Jonathan M41' as susceptible controls and 'Liberty' and 'Remo' as resistant ones. Shoots of two-year-old potted plants were inoculated with a mixture of virulent E. amylovora isolates (Ea2, Ea60, Ea67) at a concentration of 5 x 108 cells/ml. Resistance of apple cultivars was evaluated weekly, four times after inoculation by disease severity of symptoms. Numbers of bacterial colonies in 1 cm length shoot were determined in the fourth week after infection.

8 cultivars in 2002 and 9 cultivars in 2005 displayed notable resistance to fire blight based on one-year data. Based on the coincident data of both years, out of the cultivars collected also from Carpathia ‘Pónyik', and `Sikulai' were found to be resistant and gene sources additional old Hungarian valuable apple genotypes could be selected: `Szabadkai szercsika' and `Tordai piros !davit'. The cultivar `Szemes alma' originated from Visk has proved to be recurrently resistant.

The number of bacterial cells in shoots of the investigated cultivars correlated with the severity of symptoms. With this method, which was introduced by us earlier, we can screen cultivars displaying weak visible symptoms, which cannot be proposed as a source of resistance because of their latent infection.

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Historical apple cultivars that display high level of resistance to fire blight
Published August 13, 2004

Following the first outbreak of fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. in Hungary, we have started research with the aim to screen domestic gene sources, mostly historical Hungarian apple cultivars, for disease resistance as part of an apple breeding program for multiple resistance. The present s...tudy was conducted with the aim to choose the most tolerant historical apple cultivars among 25 selected cultivars by screening their behavior towards fire blight under controlled conditions. Six cultivars were shown to be the most disease tolerant: `Batul', 'London pepin', Nemes Sóvári Alma', `Sikulai', `Szemes alma', Wilmos renet'. We evaluated these cultivars by investigating both morphological- characteristics under original environmental circumstances and fruit quality. The cultivars had a remarkable degree of fire blight resistance compared to the control cultivars. These were not competitive with the commercially grown 'Jonathan M40' during cultivar tests but on the basis of certain characteristics they could serve as genetic sources for breeding new varieties.

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The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): III. Important features of disease management (Review paper)
Published November 15, 2004

In the third part of this review, important features of disease management are summarised for brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilia polystroma). Several methods of brown rot disease management practices were collected and interpreted in five main chapters. In chapters, details are given about the legislative control measures, the cultural, physical, biological and chemical control methods. Chemical control is divided into two parts: pre-harvest and post-harvest chemical control. In addition, host resistance and fungicide resistance statuses are also included in this part of the review. Finally, future aspects of brown rot disease control are discussed.

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The effect of modified bacterial virulence to host-pathogen relationship (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola)
Published May 24, 1999

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola is one of the most expressive biogen stressors of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hungary. The chemical and agrotechnological defence is inefficient, so breeding is the only workable way. The conventional cultivars are susceptible to PS while most of the new industrial varieties ...have genetic resistance to the pathogen. The genetic background of resistance is, however, a complex system in the bean. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but this gene is not expressed in juvenile stage of the host. The pathogen species can be divided into different races. After inoculation with virulent strains, typical symptoms appeared on the leaves. To understand the details of host-pathogen relationships, there were carried out experiments using bacterial strains with altered virulence. Six transposon mutants of the PS were tested. Our main objective was to test these modified bacterial strains on bean cultivars of known genetic background. First we analysed the symptoms, and then the correlation between the symptoms and the multiplication of mutant bacteria. Three cultivars (Cherokee, Inka and Főnix) were tested.

The infection by the virulent PS isolate produced typical symptoms on the three cultivars tested. Mutant bacteria (except strain 756) did not cause any significant symptoms on the hosts. The mutant 756 induced visible symptoms on the cultivars Cherokee and Inka. On Cherokee there were small watersoaked lesions, and HR (hypersensitivity reaction) was detected on Inka, but this was restricted to some cells only (mikro HR). The rate of multiplication of the wild type strain was much higher than the multiplication of the mutants. Bacteria were detected in the cotyledons and primordial leaf, but there is not any substantial number of bacteria in leaves, except for strains 757, 1212 and 1213. The rate of multiplication of strain 756 was intermediate. These, and other experiments can help to understand the genetic background of resistance and the host-pathogen relationship in the Pseudomonas-bean pathosystem.


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First selections of the Hungarian apple breeding program for multiple resistance
Published August 13, 2004

The aim of the first Hungarian apple breeding program for multiple resistance started in the beginning of the nineties is to widen Hungarian apple assortment by good quality, resistant apple cultivars with excellent productivity and ecological capability to the most important fruit growing areas in Hungary. In the first years of seedling produc...tion we made early selection for susceptibility to apple scab in greenhouse. Alter this, field observation of susceptibility to powdery mildew, scab and canker and a yearly negative selection was carried on. From 1997, fruit quality was evaluated as well, and from 2001 the resistance of shoots to Erwinia ainylovora (Burrill/Winslow et al.) was examined using inoculations in greenhouse conditions. From the progenies of crosses in 1992 and 1993, six candidates were announced to national recognition out of hybrids examined for more than a decade. Descriptions of these selections from 'Prima' progenies and the most important data of their resistance, growing habit, morphological characteristics and fruit quality are shown in this article.

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Susceptibility of some traditional pear cultivars of Hungarian and foreign origin to the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora
Published August 13, 2004

Fire blight, a disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al., has been causing serious damage in Hungarian pear plantations since 1996. A prospective control measure could be the use of resistant cultivars. For that purpose ten pear cultivars have been tested under laboratory and greenhouse conditions for r...esistance to Erwinia amylovora strains collected in Hungary. Six of these cultivars are Hungarian ones of unknown origin, while four are traditional old varieties. Resistant cultivars should serve as germplasm for future breeding. Inoculations were made with a mixture of different pear isolates of the bacteria collected from various growing regions of Hungary (Ea 21, 23), at a density of 5x108 cells/ml. Susceptibility/resistance has been assessed on the basis of intensity of blight symptoms observed on shoots, flower parts and fruits. Cultivars were assigned to three susceptibility groups (low, moderate and high). Complete resistance was not found among the cultivars tested. The highest level of resistance was found in cultivar 'Kieffer', while the other cultivars displayed either moderate or high susceptibility to infection.

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