The choice of varieties among medicinal plant species is relatively small, compared to other horticultural crops. In Hungary, only poppy (Papaver somniferum) and mustard (Sinapis alba) have several cultivars. Recognising the problem, in the recent years breeding activity has been intensified all over the world, in spite of fin...ancial, technical and legal difficulties. The article reports on the results of breeding at the Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Szent István University, 11 varieties of which has been officially registered till 2000. Main goals of genetic improvement are: increasing of the production capacity of utilised plant organs, enhancement of active material accumulation capacity, improvement of sensory quality and technological properties. The most often applied methods are selection, and recently, cross breeding, the results of which can be measured on new materials of caraway (Carum carvi), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), poppy (Papaver somniferum), etc. Efficacy of breeding work is established by additional, regular research on the genetics, physiology, floral and reproductive biology, chemosyndromes of medicinal plant species.
Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period... of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced from North America to Europe, at the beginning of the 17th century. Its unprecedented fast spread is due to its high-grade adaptability, drought-tolerance, abundant and frequent seed crop, excellent sprouting ability, fast growth and relatively high timber yield.... Other advantages are, that it has scarcely any fungi or insect pests. This review is a short summary on black locust improvement in Hungary, giving guidance for specialists who are interested in black locust management.
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
Climatic and soil conditions are highly suitable for most temperate fruit species and promise profitable yields with good quality. An accurate choice of the growing site is, however, decisive because of the wide range agro-climatic variation an soils within the country. One of the most important factors is the annual precipitation which does no...t exceed, in general, 700 mm. The aims of irrigation practices are, succinctly speaking, the improvement of quantity and security of yields and the guarantee of quality. The relative importance of those criteria changes according to the fruit species. In up to date apple, pear and cherry production, micro-irrigation systems are mainly considered. According to recent experiences, the micro-jet type of water distribution should be preferred to the dripping system. In cherries, the choice of the method is motivated by the need to prevent fruit cracking. Most of the peach and apricot plantations are located on the dry and moderately dry regions of the country. Because of the late freezes, the improvement of security is crucial. There the investment of irrigation systems should concentrate to the possibility of anti-freeze sprays. High water requirements of plums are met in Hungary by irrigation where the method should be decided at the plantation and adapted to the harvesting procedure which could be mechanised or (in high density plantations) picked by hand. Sour cherries are perhaps the less dependent on watering under Hungarian conditions. Yields in small fruits: currents, gooseberries, raspberries and strawberries could be increased by irrigation to 40-50 % and may improve quality too. In those cultures the system of moving flexible wing tubes are considered to be the best irrigation technique.
Hungarian spice pepper powder is a unique product, a real hungaricum with its flavour and aroma compounds and seasoning effect. Its competitiveness with foreign spice peppers is ensured by its high biological value deriving from the specially Hungarian production and processing technology. Besides the traditional and highly manual labo...ur intensive processing technology, there are some modern industrial technologies as well, where high quality can be guaranteed only by producing excellent base material (raw pepper pods). This is the reason which necessitates the rational development of the elements of the production technology, such as nutrient supply. Our objective was to offer a contribution to this aim by our trials in plant nutrition.
Experiments on the nutrient supply of spice pepper were set up in the 2003 growing season in order to decide whether yields and fruit composition parameters of pepper could be increased by means of increased K fertiliser doses with lower N:K ratios. Several forms of potassium were used, as well as applying microelement top dressings in the single treatments. It was found that the increase of N:K ratio from I:1 to 1:6 did not increase yields, but resulted in higher pigment and dry matter content. Microelement top dressing had a yield increasing effect at each N:K ratio. Higher potassium doses did not accelerate ripening.
The world industry of ornamental plants is under wide transformations regarding the changes in the cultivation, management, postharvest technologies and the use of new (bio)technologies to assist the improvement and development of new varieties. This industry worth more than US$ 20 billion, but Brazil shares only 1% of this value. To compete...at this market with permanent technological innovation, the country needs to be tuned in with the progresses in the biotechnologies applied to the productive chain of ornamental plants. In this revision, we analyze the Brazilian and world ornamental market emphasizing the role of the biotechnologies in the modernization and increase of the competitiveness of the sector.
Storage of fresh fruits and vegetables prolongs their usefulness. The principal goal of storage is to preserve the commodity in its most useable form for the consumer. The extension of storage life and the improvement of quality of fresh fruits and vegetables can be supplied by harvesting at proper maturity, control of post-harvest diseases, ch...emical treatments, refrigeration, controlled and modified atmospheres. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds and storage under controlled atmosphere. The germination percentages were 85.50, 86.85, 83.75 and 82.15 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. Water content of onion seeds was significantly increased with decreasing storage temperature in all controlled atmospheres. Water content values were 4.48, 4.40, 4.55 and 4.54 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. There were significant decreases in water content with increasing exposure periods. The lowest water content was recordednfor the exposure periods of 120 and 240 days. Catalase and peroxidase activities were decreased with the decreasing of storage temperature, whereas malondialdehyde content was increased. The exposure for 120 days recorded the highest catalase activity. The highest value of peroxidase (11.72) was recorded for CA2. Peroxidase activity increased as exposure period increased until 120 days and then decreased. Cold storage temperature (5°C) showed the highest malondialdehyde content followed by room temperature. The CA2 showed the lowest malondialdehyde content compared with other controlled atmospheres. The exposure period of 120 days had the lowest malondialdehyde content.
Mandarin fruit sugar content can be increased when subjecting the satsuma mandarin tree (Citrus unshiu MARC. var. satsuma) to moderate water stress by mulching during the period of active sugar accumulation, thereby fruit quality improvement can be realized. In the frame of the precision agriculture production system, a non-destructive measurin...g method development became necessary based on remote sensing, field spectroscopy and image analysis, to be able to measure the degree of water stress. Large amount of visual information have been recorded at ground level, in near infrared, red and green channels by a false color digital camcorder designed specially for remote sensing applications. A method have been found to be able to calculate the absolute reflection of mandarin leaf surface by comparing leaf reflectance with known reference target reflectance, thereby established the basis of further studies in this topic. Leaf absolute reflection can be measured reliably, under variable natural illumination at field conditions. Functional correlation can be searched between visual information and leaf water potential measured by PMS pressure chamber.
Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important economic species within the genus Phaseolus. It is grown in all parts of the world. Genetic improvement by conventional breeding has met considerable success, although production of hybrids between species within the genus has been limited due to sexual incompatibility. Recent advanc...es in tissue culture have offered the opportunity to produce cultivars, which could not be obtained by conventional breeding methods. The use of tissue culture and genetic engineering is viewed as a logical approach to improve bean production. Gene transfer techniques will have a great impact on legumes. Although the concept of cell totipotency is widely proved, in vitro morphogenesis has not yet been achieved for a large number of cultivated beans. Regeneration protocols are strongly influenced by the genotype. In tissue and cell culture of beans, the factors controlling shoot morphogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are still unknown. The reported data suggest a possible way for future research.
In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.
Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties...started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.
In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.
In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.
In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.
In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.
Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.
The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The respons...e of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.
However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.
The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.
Integrated research aimed to intensify the practices of afforestation especially of white poplar and grey poplar woods. A new, simplified tending procedure has been developed to substitute earlier models considering the target diameter by right spacing as a tool to achieve adequat quality of logs. The practice-oriented model may help the qualit...ative improvement of white poplar growing technology in Hungary as well as in Serbia.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a valuable stand-forming tree species introduced to Europe approximately 400 years ago from North America. Today it is widely planted throughout the world, first of all for wood production. In Hungary, where black locust has great importance in the forest management, it is mainly propagated by...seeds. But since the seed-raised plants present a great genetic variation, this type of propagation can not be used for Robinia’s improved cultivars. In the Hungarian black locust clonal forestry, propagation from root cuttings can be used for reproduction of superior individuals or cultivars in large quantities. However, this method demands more care than raising seedlings from seeds and can be applied with success in well-equipped nurseries.
The aims of our work were to answer the following questions: 1. Diquat dibromide at different concentrations is a contact or systemic herbicide? 2. if translocation occurs what is the extent and direction of it. 3. by what concentration it is translocated in hydroponics. It has been stated that diquat dibromide at different dilutions (40-5%) ha...d systemic effect in Robinia pseudo-acacia in the fields. Its translocation has been occurred apically first, and later basipetally. The extent of translocation depended on the concentration. In hydroponics diquat dibromide has crytallized on the leaf surface of Galinsoga parvif lora and all concentrations (40-0.078%) proved lethal. Recognition and application of systemic characteristics of diquat dibromide is reported here for the first time. Improvement of application method is in the focus of our future work.
Hungary possesses very good agroecological conditions even in a European comparison. Agriculture and food production is highly important despite its decreasing relative economic significance, since providing high quality and affordable food for the population is a basic social necessity and one of the decisive factors in quality of life. The de...velopment of vegetable and fruit production is of great importance both from a healthy nutrition as well as from a comparative advantage (cheap labour, expertise, production traditions, favourable climate) point of view.Vegetable and fruit consumption per capita is lower than in developed countries, which is a decisive indicator of healthy nutrition, but improvement is continuous and desired. Appropriate quality and quantity in production is a requirement to meet customers’ needs in a highly competitive market from one year to the next. Hungary can only be competitive if production results are improved while risks are reduced. Fruit production is a sector with high capital requirements, risk assessment is very important from a production, investment as well as from a national economy point of view. Our examinations will focus on production risk, which is present in the annual fluctuation of average yields, especially as a result of extreme weather factors.
The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.
The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.
Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.
To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).
The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars... can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.
Research in sweet cherry production is intensely stimulated worldwide. The programs started also in Hungary to develop technologies and to find suitable varieties for the purpose of intense cultivation. It means that dimension of crowns should be smaller, with higher number of plants per hectare. Understocks, which let grow the trees slower, ar...e scarce in this species. On the one hand, the braking effect of the respective stocks is insufficient, they get old pretty soon, loose ramification, yield too small fruits and do not comply with the aims of intense cultivation. Experiences prove the necessity of stocks for intense culture, which are vital, growing, easily regenerating, and freely branching. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb), a strong growing stock, is still suitable. Further improvement is expected from the contribution of technological elements and the choice of variety. In the present paper, a 9-year old plantation is shown with trees trained to (slender) spindle, and the yield and fruit quality of the year 2009 has been analysed with 6 varieties involved.
The author determines the development of the grape and wine production branches as a very cogent common task. Because of its importance this sector enables the livelihood of 100-150 thousand families and also of $ 80-100 million export income. A state subsidy is indispensable to the realization of that project. In the author's opinion on round...100 000 ha plantation area yearly 4-4.5 million hl wine can be produced, therefrom the export may amount to 1-1.3 million hl.
Yearly 3000 ha vineyards should be planted in order to maintain the present production capacity.
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an old tuber crop with a recently renewed interest in multipurpose improvement. It is a perennial tuberous plant rich in inulin and is a potential energy crop. During food shortages in times of war Jerusalem artichoke received more attention by scientists and farmers because of its multiple uses...as a vegetable, medicinal plant, forage plant and source for biofuel. The energy crisis of the 1970s motivated research on Jerusalem artichoke for biofuel as the aboveground plant biomass and the tubers can be used for this purpose. There are different methods to propagate Jerusalem artichoke using tubers, rhizomes, slips (transplants derived from sprouted tubers), stem cuttings, seeds and tissue culture. So, this review was presented to highlight on propagation of Jerusalem artichoke via in vivo and in vitro techniques.
Exports and local marketability of both pepper protected cultivation and open field pepper production depend on whether we succeed in the near future achieving developments capable of bringing about significant improvement of yield and quality, as well as enhanced yield security. Results from experiments and surveys carried out on farms involve...d in production suggest that nutrient management is one of the factors whose development could considerably improve the marketability of pepper. Technological improvements in the field of nutrient supply are also urged by the more and more demanding environmental regulations, so it is inevitable to introduce a balanced system of nutrient supply system for pepper as well. The article is a collection and summary of the relevant results of 30-year experimental work in Hungary.
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) has been long regarded to be a health-promoting fruit. Although it is mainly consumed in processed form, its relatively heat-stable polyphenolics were confirmed to be responsible for most of the beneficial effects. This review aims to show basic nutritional information on quince fruit such as carbohydrate, fibre,...pectin and mineral element contents. In addition, vitamin and polyphenolic contents and composition as well as the physiological effects of quince consumption were also surveyed. Information on presumable protective effects against several diseases including infl ammation, atopic dermatitis, ulcers and cancer is summarized. Potential antibacterial effects of quince polyphenolics were also considered. Polyphenolics are supposed to be responsible for the major part of benefi cial health-effects, and phenolic compounds predominantly accumulate in peel. There exists a considerable extent of genetic variation in phytochemical composition among cultivars, which might be exploited in designing future breeding programs for quince improvement and opening new ways for health-related uses.