An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 %... and 0.6 %) and zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.6 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.4 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.
The first nine years' results of sweet cherry rootstock trial from Hungary are presented with the aim to select efficient rootstocks for the local ecological conditions. The trials were established in 1989 with 'Van' and 'Germersdorfi óriás' cultivars on the following rootstocks: mahaleb Sainte Lucie 64, Colt, MxM 14, MxM 97. All the trees we...re headed at 80 cm and trained to a modified Brunner-spindle system. Tree size and yield was measured every year, and the cumulative yield efficiency was calculated.
Based upon the results, mahaleb cherry SL 64 is a vigorous rootstock with good compatibility and productivity. In comparison to SL 64. the trunk cross-sectional area and canopy spread of the 'Van' trees decreased by 10-15% on rootstock Colt, while the trees of 'Germersdorfi orias' on Colt roostock grew even larger than on SL 64. Considerable 30-40 % reduction of tree size was achieved on trees grafted on M x M hybrids. Trees of `Germersdorfi óriás' showed a similar tendency without significant differences. The cumulative yield efficiency of `Van' trees after nine years was highest on rootstock MxM 14, followed by Sainte Lucie 64. Trees on Colt and MxM 97 rootstocks showed low productivity. `Germersdorfi óriás' produced the highest cumulative yield efficiency on SL 64, followed by MxM 14 and Colt and last MxM 97. Biennial bearing index of heavy cropping 'Van' trees was smaller than that of `Germersdorfi óriás'. The trees of 'Van' on MxM 97 showed higher biennial bearing index, while 'Germersdorfi orias' on different rootstocks showed similar tendency, but without significant differences.
MxM 14 and MxM 97 rootstocks reduced the crotch angle of the shoots on both sweet cherry varieties which is disadvantegous to spindle training. Slight suckering (1-3/year) of the rootstocks Colt, MxM 14 and MxM 97 were observed during the first few years.
Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed recently. Thanks to the favourable selling prices many new plantations were established in the last years. In the new orchards mainly spindle canopy are trained, although many type of crown forms are used all over the world. In our study slender spindle and bush canopy were evaluated with three... cultivars (‘Petrus’, ‘Vera’, ‘Carmen’) grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock. Vigor of the 3-4 years old trees showed spectacular differences. The highest vigor with Spanish bush was found for cv. ‘Vera’, but on slender spindle canopy the thickness values were medium. Meanwhile cv. ‘Petrus’ showed the highest trunk thickness with spindle canopy, but the lowest with Spanish bush. On spindle canopy cv. ‘Carmen’ presented the highest ramification ability, but its 2-3 years old twigs started to bald very early, which can be considered an unfavorable phenomenon. Bush canopy still can be described with strong vegetative growth on 3-4 years old trees, as vigor of spindle trees are more moderate.
The aim of the study was to fi nd out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. Three technologies have been tested in the regions of Siófok and Debrecen-Pallag. The antifrost irrigation proved to be the most advantageous. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, w...hich are thrifty and do not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be suffi cient. By means of a detailed analysis served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0°C near the fl owers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to –8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used anti-frost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. The Frostbuster represents a new technology developed for the same purpose of frost defence. It uses butane burning and produces high (80-90°C) temperature with a strong blast of air. On the protected area sensors have been distributed for measuring temperature and relative humidity. The means of the measurements proved a rise of temperature, which was suffi cient to save the fruit trees until the difference is less than –3–3.5 °C. Our analyses stated that paraffi n candles avert the frost until –4 °C. Its success depends largely on the intensity of air movements. A small wind would be enough to frustrate the effect. The results show clearly the utility of Frostbuster and paraffi n candle combined is approved.
Thirty-one old Hungarian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars were investigated on 7 microsatellite loci to characterize them, to separate the cultivars from synonym names, and to confirm parent-offspring connections. Conculta (group of cultivars or bud sports) members, such as `Goher' and Tajor' representatives, we...re studied to find a suitable locus for the separation. Synonyms, conculta members, subcultivars and clones of Turmine, which was the most important cultivar of Tokaj, were also analyzed to separate the members of the different taxonomic levels. Pedigree of 'Kiralyleanyka' was examined to find the missing ancestor, because the parent-offspring connection between the natural hybrid and `Koverszolo' is questionable.
Most of the risk in Hungarian fruit growing is the damage caused by late spring frosts. The frequency of late frosts seems to increase nowadays. The aim of the study was to check this contention: what is the real probability of the damages. Based on earlier experiences, the physiological LT50 function has been elaborated for new fruit varieties..., which are eligible to moderate the danger when being threatened by frost. By means of this technique, the probability of freezing is distinguished between frost susceptible, frost resistant and medium frost resistant fruit species and varieties around their blooming time. The degree of frost damage depends on the duration and severity of the low temperature and not at least on the frost tolerance of the plant. For that purpose, the frequencies of frost damages were studied at two Transdanubian and two Trans-Tisza fruit growing sites by means of a meteorological database for the 60-year-long period 1951–2010. Being aware of the LT50 values changing during the phonological phases of the fruit trees from budding, bloom, fruit set and fruit growth, the number and date of critical (frosty) days could be settled. An important role is attributed to the orographic relief and the height above the sea level of the site, as 20–30 m differences and expositions may become decisive within the same plantation. The spatial distribution of damages is also dependent on the air circulations within the Carpathian basin. At the southern and northern borders of the country, especially valley bottoms represent additional risks of frost. Most spring frost damages are experienced in April 20–22, and cause heavy damages by temperature minima between – 3°C and – 6°C. The severity of damage depends largely on the temperature of the preceding few days. The earlier bloom the heavier damage is expected. The study is emphasising the importance of the varieties. Frost tolerance of some varieties may lower the risk of spring frosts by 40–50%, as experienced on the plantations. The quantifi cation of the risks based on data raised during the last years will be suitable to defi ne the security of yields of each growing site successfully.
The effect of salicylic acid on reducing brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa infection in postharvest apricot fruit Prunus armeniaca L. Freshly harvest Jumpo Cot fruit were treated with water as control treatment and other group treated with salicylic acid 2 Mm as induced resistance treatment, Fruits were infected by M. laxa (1 × 10-3spores ml-...1) and incubated at 25 oC for 2, 4 and 6 days. Treatment fruits with salicylic acid resulted in direct effect on mycelial growth as in the salicylic acid treatment the growth reached to 45% after 6 days of incubation while in the control treatment it reached to 100%.
The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8t ha-I for spring sown and 1.9 t ha-I in summer-sown plants without i...rrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5t ha-I was reached twice in the case of spring sowing and only once in the case of summer sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature every day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterize the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value may cause 90-130 kg/ha yield loss.
The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.
According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishabl...e phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.
An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.
The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.
The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.
The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.
In the trial the... following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.
From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.
The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.
The aim of the study was the study of winter frost damages, especially their changes expressed in temporal frequencies on the main fruit growing regions of the country. In our earlier paper, we introduced the calculation with the term LT50 as the quantitative expression of temperature threshold, when the lethality halves the survival of plant o...rgans, buds or cells causing 50% death rate. The damage is highly dependent on the temperature and on its duration (length of time), but not at least on the frost tolerance of the fruit trees. The incidence and severity of damage is analysed according to the apricot and peach varieties of their different susceptibility or tolerance too. Four fruit growing regions, two of the in Transdanubia and two belonging to the regions east of the Tisza river have been selected to trace the incidence and severity of frost damages. For that purpose, we analysed the history of the past 60 year period, 1951–2010, utilising the database of the network of 16 meteorological stations of the countrywide service. Being aware of the values of LT50 during the rest period and afterward, the compulsory dormancy caused by low temperature, the number of days, the probability of frost damage could be predicted. The role of the orographical profi le, the height above sea level and the exposition of plantations are also decisive. Within the same plantation, 20–30 m difference of level may cause large diversity in temperature and frost damage. Air circulation and regular incidence of winds within the Carpathian basin modify the occurrence and severity of damages. Lowlands near the southern and northern country borders are particularly exposed to winter frosts. Most damages are reported in February, as temperatures below –20 °C especially if the fi rst part of the winter was mild, or in January was a warm period. With the end of the physiological rest period of the trees, the frost-susceptibility increases signifi cantly, and a cold period of –15 °C may cause heavy damage. This study proves that tolerance of varieties infl uence the damages substantially. By planting frost tolerant varieties, winter frost damages could be diminished by 40–50% at the same growing sites. Present results may also offer a tool to estimate the risk of frost damages and express the security of yields at a given site based on the data accumulated in the database over many years.
In a two-year study, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of four plum cultivars to two fungal pathogens of plum (Stigmina carpophila and Polystigma rubrum) in two training systems with tree spacings of 4 x 1.5m and 6 x 3m. Results showed that shothole symptoms were not detected on cvs ’Bluefre’ and ’Stanley’ in Au...gust, 2016. Disease incidence was above 50% in the case of ’Čačanska lepotica’ in both training systems in 2016. There were no significant difference between the two training systems. Shot hole incidence was lower in the 6 x 3m spacings compared to the 4 x 1.5m spacings on cv ’President’ in 2016. Cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ showed the highest incidence of Stigmina carpophila in the 4 x 1.5m spacing in 2017. Disease incidence of Stigmina carpophila was significantly lower in the 6 x 3m spacing compared to the 4 x 1.5m spacing. Shothole incidences on cv ’President’ were similar to the values in 2016 ranging from 40% to 60%. Leaf disease incidence was higher in the 4 x 1.5m spacing compared to the 6 x 3m plot. Low disease incidence (below 10%) was observed on cv ’Stanley’ in 2017 and only in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. There were no visible symptoms of blackhorn dotty in 2016 due to inadequate weather conditions for the Polystigma rubrum fungus. However, all the four cultivars were infected by Polystigma rubrum in 2017. The most susceptible cultivar was cv ’Čačanska lepotica’ with the highest disease incidence in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. Disease incidence of this cultivar was lower in the 6 x 3m spacing which was significantly less than in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. The least susceptible cultivar was ’Bluefre’ and symptoms were observed only in the spacing of 4 x 1.5m. The disease incidence of cv ’President’ was similarly low to cv ’Stanley’ in both spacings.
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a mechanism of induced defense that confers long-lasting protection against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Salicylic acid (SA) is the signal molecule which is required for induce SAR and is associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins, which are thought to contribute to resistance. SA ...paly vital role in some related resistance gene expression in plant cell which have direct or indirect effect on pathogen growth as SA has direct toxicity for pathogen and in the same time has stimulation effect for some enzyme related to reduce the oxidative burst.
The aim of this study was the estimation of blossoming of 14 apricot cultivars in Boldogkôváralja in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons. And this will help growers to select appropriate varieties to their weather conditions. For this target the blooming period of 19 apricot varieties of different origin was observed in three subsequent years. There ...was no large difference in the beginning of blooming in the different years, and the greatest variation between the start date of flowering was about 1 to 3 days as the place of experiment site near to northern border and also, length of flowering period of apricot trees is also inversely related to date when blooming started. The little differences in flowering dates and flowering periods due to the high temperature through the three seasons of study.
Two strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi were isolated from Forsythia sp. and Nerium oleander in Hungary in 1997. The effects of growth regulators produced by the bacteria were studied in different experiments. The strains were co-cultured with Sorbus redliana in vitro shoots without being in contact with the plant on solid media. ...Further culture filtrates in different concentrations were added to the culture medium. The growth regulators presented in the agar caused knot formation on the shoots and on the leaves in both kinds of culture. There were significant differences in the cultural and physiological characters, auxin and cytokinin activity of the strains of different origin.
Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.
The aim of this study was to measure the solar radiation conditions in the tree and around the tree of pruned (summer pruning) and unpruned trees in an intensive apple orchard. When observing the daily trend of global radiation measured, there was a great reduction at midday hours due to the shadowing effect of the canopy. The reduction reached... 70-75% before pruning, while after pruning it was only 20-25%. The relative radiation supply of the canopy space on cloudy days in the morning and late afternoon hours was higher than that of the sunny days. Mean differences between the day and night temperature reduced greatly in the period of intensive fruit colouration in August and September both in the plant stock and outside the plant stock.
This work was conducted at private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate during 2006 and 2007 seasons to investigate the possibility of using grape manufacture waste compost (GMWC) and farm wastes compost (FWC) in ornamental and vegetable nurseries as partially or totally replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing mediu...m and also to find out the optimum media of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. Castle Rock) and Cockscomb (Celosia plumosa) as comparing to a mixture of CP and V (1:1 v/v). The authors used a ten mixtures as followed: 1- Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), 2-GMWC (100 %), 3- GMWC +CP (1:1 v/v), 4- GMWC + V(1:1 v/v),5- GMWC +CP + V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 6- FWC (100 %),7- FWC+ CP (1:1 v/v), 8- FWC+ V (1:1 v/v), 9- FWC+ CP+ V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 10- GMWC+FWC+CP+V (1:1:1:1 v/v/v/v). Data recorded as seedling height, No. of leaves, total pigments, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of tomato and cockscomb. Both seedlings grown in medium contain a mixture of GMWC+CP+V displayed quality traits similar or better as to those of recorded from the control treatment.
Differences were demonstrated in esterasei coenzyme pattern of some essential oil producing plants belonging to the Apiaceae family — fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), caraw...ay (Carum carvi L.) — as well as differences between two varieties of fennel seed by using isoelectric focusing. That method provides quality control in essential oil plants and is suitable to describe isoenzyme pattern characteristic for taxons.
Based on our findings, isoelectric focusing seems to be suitable for identification and differentiation of different plant samples, providing an easy tool for further processing as well as for breeding.
Our further aim is to apply that method to differentiate among samples belonging to the same species according to their value of inner content.
The aim of this study was the estimation of storability of 10 apricot varieties in regard to percentage fruit weight loss, firmness, acidity and T.S.S in fruit during storage periods from one week to 4 weeks. All the variety gave the same trend as all of them loss weight, firmness decreased, acidity and T.S.S decreased but the differences were ...not the same in all varieties. in case of some varieties the percentage of fruit weight loss reached to about 9 % after 28 days also the differences between varieties in two seasons refer that this character is determined by genetic factors beside effect of environmental and agriculture factors.
Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realizati...on of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.
Nowadays one of the most important issues of greenhouse vegetable production in soilless media is the protection of the environment, in particular, the selection of the root medium to be applied. The objective of the trial was to test the applicability of baked (expanded) clay granules in hydroponic pepper growing with special respect to the gr...owing pot (plastic tubes and buckets with bottom and lateral holes). From the result of the experiment it can be concluded that baked clay pellets, similarly to rockwool, are a suitable medium for providing root anchorage for pepper, however, it is necessary to examine some technological issues (e.g. fertilization, irrigation) prior to starting a large scale commercial cultivation. Relative to the three growing containers tested, it can be concluded that with the 4-8 mm crushed clay pebbles cultivation can be carried out successfully both in the white plastic tube and in the bucket, with the latter it is recommended to locate the drainage holes on the side of the growing container (at 6 cm from the bottom of the bucket).
Immature in vitro leaves showed similar structure of the mesophyll tissue to the immature field-grown (in vivo) leaves of Prunus x davidopersica `Piroska'. Mature leaf anatomical characteristics of in vitro plantlets differ from the field-grown plants. The mesophyll tissue of in vitro plantlets were thinner than the in vivo plants and consisted... of only one layer palisade parenchyma, the shape of the cells and the structure of spongy parenchyma basically differed from the field-grown plants. In the case of Sorbus rotundifolia similar anatomical differences were found both in vitro and in vivo as in the case of Prunus x davidopersica `Piroska'.
Cotyledonary segments of the casaba type muskmelon variety "Hógolyó" were used to induce organogenesis. Fifty different hormone combinations were applied to enhance the induction of shoot formation on the edge of the segments. The phases of organogenesis were followed with light- and scanning electron microscope. Shoot induction was achieved ...with high frequency. The shoots were transferred to hormone free media for root induction. The rooted plantlets were planted out to soil.
NAA was feasible and the method can be applied in transformation experiments.
The aim of this work was to report preliminary results on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars (cvs. ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) in multi-row system in the early bearing years of the orchard. Trees were planted in spring of 2015 in double row design (3.5 m+1.4 m x 1.0 m) with planting density of 5357 tree/ha. According to... our results cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented more vigorous growth, than cv. ‘Galiwa’. Trees of cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached 2.7 m in the third year, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could reach only 1.95 meter. Due to late spring frost 100% yield loss was observed in the second year. In 2017 cv. ‘Galiwa’ produced 5.3 kg/tree (25 fruit/tree), while cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented 7.7 kg/tree (50 fruit/tree). Average yield was 28.4 t/ha for cv. ‘Galiwa’, as ‘Story Inored’ reached 41.3 t/ha in the third year. Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ reached the required fruit size (79.1 mm), but its coloration was weaker (43% fruit surface color). Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ can be described with smaller fruit size (69 mm) and higher percentage of surface color (93%).