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European traditional food producers and marketing capabilities: An application of the marketing management process
Published December 30, 2009
41-46

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products, in order to analyse the market orientation of SMEs in the food industry. Following the theoretical approach of Market Orientation, our analysis is based on an assessment of the marketing management process. The methodology... refers to a survey developed through a questionnaire published on the web, and a sample of 371 firms based in Belgium, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic and Hungary was used in the analysis. Cluster analysis was applied to find the different levels of market orientation of the firms. The results revealed a certain lack of appropriate skills in marketing management in the firms of the sample, confirming the evidence found in economic literature concerning SMEs. Nevertheless, cluster analysis outlined a group of firms with good marketing capabilities and market oriented, and these represent a great part of the sample (40%). With regard to the stages of the marketing management process, the most problematic are those of planning and implementation, and control and evaluation, highlighting the difficulties SMEs encounter in carrying out coordinated marketing; which appears to be generally characterised by poor organisational capacity.

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65
13
Krishna consciousness in Europe: The way farming communities became the focal points of marketing
Published December 31, 2020

Krishna Consciousness is regarded as one of the most successful new religious movements in terms of marketing in the Western World. The aim of this research was to identify and analyze the marketing strategy the members of the Krishna-conscious community apply in Europe via content analyses, field research observations and in-depth interviews. ...The marketing mix of services marketing (7P) are often suggested to be applied by religious communities as well, however, this concept has boundaries due to the principles of the religions, which may not be altered for the sake of marketing. The research has shown that in Europe Krishna-conscious communities have overcome this problem by shifting the product from religion to a complex touristic product, which is realized in the form of farming communities, which have become an important rural tourist attraction in some countries. As the comparison of the websites of the different institutions has shown that rural and farming communities are the ones, which focus mainly on attracting people, who are not familiar with Krishna Consciousness yet, while the websites of the other institutions communicate mostly with devotees or people already interested in the religion or its certain aspect (cuisine, education), rural and farming communities were the institutions chosen to be analyzed more closely. The marketers of these tourist attractions are therefore free to make certain modifications in the marketing mix, as its focus is a tourist attraction, not the religion itself; while the transmission of knowledge about the religion happens in the touristic attractions only. Seven European farming communities of six different countries have participated in the research so far, which may be extended to further communities and continents on the future for a more thorough analysis.

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77
Efficiency evaluation of service marketing in a Hungarian Telecommunication Company
Published October 31, 2008
45-51

It is unquestionable that marketing is an essential promotor of the economy and commerce. With its diverse tools, it can influence consumers and also regulate supply by measuring needs and demands (Bauer-Berács, 1998). Although the roots of marketing go back centuries, it is interesting that the raison d’être of service marketing was disput...ed even in the 1960s and 1970s. However, by today it has developed into a substantive specialty. In this study, the inquiry service and the implemented marketing tools of a leading Hungarian telecommunications company were studied for four years. (The data was provided by the communication manager of the company. Being bound to secrecy, I will not disclose the name  of the company or the inquiry service.)

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62
6
Efficiency indicators in different dimension
Published May 30, 2009
7-22

There are several variations of efficiency definitions and of course ratios concerned with efficiency. A better understanding of the notion of efficiency is critical to dissolve ambiguity about it. Many confuse efficiency with other supposedly synonymous notions such as profitability, successfulness, competitiveness, liquidity or productivity. ...This ambiguity originates not only in subjective reasons, but the lack of hierarchical order among certain ideas. The primary driver in our research is, to systematize efficiency in general, and formulate a new categorical approach of the efficiency in corporate level.

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76
20
Analysing sporting goods manufacturers’ environmental management tools
Published September 1, 2015
23-29

Organizations around the developed world are facing pressure from governments, international agreements, society and various stakeholders, to improve their behavior towards the natural environment. The application of environmental management tools may be an important step towards sustainability and the preservation of environmental values, howe...ver marketing could be the key – with the help of information and communication technologies (ICT) – in publicizing and spreading these ideas thus forming customers’, stakeholders’ attitude in this respect.The aim of this study was to define the concept of environmental consciousness and environmentally conscious behaviour, then to present the shift the traditional marketing philosophy towards the sustainable marketing approach, finally to analyse two top sporting goods manufacturers’ (Nike, Adidas) environmental management tools with the help of data gained from their web sites, reports, case studies. Interpreting environmental consciousness is difficult without knowing the attitude to it. In spite of that it is important to distinguish between environmental consciousness and environmentally conscious attitude, because consciousness often appears in attitude influenced by other, outer effects.The environmental conscious attitude of companies in itself is not enough for making use of the advantages deriving from a positive environmental concern. They need to pursue more active communication, to „green” the whole of marketing activities. Thus marketing seems a possible means to naturalize and expand environmental protection both among customers and in company practice. According to the analysed companies, we need to say, that they are commitment with the environmental protection. They are used state-of-theart technologies to make their activity greener and introduce these with full particulars, examples e.g. ColorDry technologies, Better Cotton, The Framaprene ECO heel. Either Nike, Inc., or Adidas Group realised that ICT have the ability to improve efficiency and cut the use of material goods, thus reducing energy demands and the burden upon the environment.

JEL code: Q01

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96
42
Marketing characteristics of Tokaj wine specialities based on factor and cluster analyses
Published September 30, 2009
93-101

The marketing kind of analysis in the domestic and international markets of Tokaj’s wine speciality has not happend yet. The present research scientific method supportedly defines the consumers of Tokaj’s wine speciality and it determinates the overlay receipt. The basis of the questionnaire research at the wine consumers cirlce is a repres...entative sample of 1179 people. It confirms the truthfulness with factos and cluster dissection. On the hungarian market 5 sections can be devided, which has been determined by the earning category, the wine savvy and the referene price interval. Tokaj Wine Specialities named “late vintage” are also available. This name can be confusing for the consumer, some do not understand in what they differ from other Tokaj Wine Specialities, as actually all Tokaj Wine Specialities are late vintage wines; particularly, wine is harvested later than usual, occasionally in October or November. The findings obtained during the research can beutilised in practice, too. In accordance with the results and conclusions, we have several practical suggestions. Our methodological suggestion is that the result of the cluster analysis based upon a large number of representative sample should be cross-checked with focus group tests; what is more, upon justification and verification, a detailed analysis of the given segments can also be performed better with this method. It would be worth studying the exact reasons for the popularity of wines with the name ”late vintage”. Such types of Tokaj Wine Specialities should be given higher priority in marketing terms. My suggestion is that the type of wine accepted and liked by consumers should be kept count of as TokajWine Specialities officially, too. The future marketing strategy has to be developed by knowing the sections and by it’s further research which has to integrate to the strategy of Tokaj’s wine region.

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72
31
The marketing strategies of Serbian honey producers
Published September 30, 2013
27-31

Serbian honey producers are exposed to the increased international competition of recent years. To face up to the new changes, producers are progressively using diversification strategies, such as direct sales and production diversification. The direct sales strategy allows the producers to increase the product added value, while diversificatio...n aims to offer new products to the consumers. The aim of this paper is to analyse the honey marketing strategy of Serbian honey producers. The first part of the paper analyses the structure of production costs, production performances as well as the determinants of the honey supply. In the second part of the paper, analysis is focused on the determinants of direct sales. Finally, in the third part of the paper, diversification strategies are discussed. The data for this research has been obtained on the basis of a representative sample consisting of 84 Serbian honey producers interviewed in 2011 and 2012. The results show that the Serbian honey producers operate with more or less similar production costs and with production performances that do not differ significantly. They use direct marketing for two reasons: firstly, it affords personal contact with consumers, and secondly, they aim to decrease the transaction costs, thereby keeping a higher share of the product’s final value. Offering new products to consumers is an attempt to create additional product demand.

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72
16
Analysis of consumer habits and attitudes on the Hungarian beef and rabbit market
Published May 30, 2009
67-70

As a consortium partner the authors took part in a research project aiming at the development of high added value, healthy and environment friendly animal products. From among the products developed by the consortium (rabbit meat, omega3-fatty acid enriched beef, goose liver from non forcible feeding, selenium-, vitamin-E and natural color enri...ched eggs) the present study describes the results concerning beef and rabbit meat. The given products are chosen because they are produced in and exported from Hungary in considerable quantities and their competitiveness can be further improved. In order to able to map the consumer preferences a 300 count nationwide, representative, questionnaire based survey was designed and performed. Actual products were tested by focus groups and professional interviews. Beside the specific features of the products a common character is that the marketing strategy focuses on the distinctive nutritional benefits and other quality parameters that seem to be of crucial importance for the targeted consumer segment. Their unique character and health protecting effects make their branding and using community labeling easy. Their positioning points toward the prestige products therefore consumers tend to accept higher prices. In marketing communication the image building advertisement can be a common goal.

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76
28
Defining the strategic objectives of Hungarian mutton product chain and elements of marketing strategy in the beginning of the second decade of the century
Published September 30, 2014
119-132

The sheep sector is regarded to be a “black sheep” in Hungary, both in terms of economy and marketing. On one hand, the sector is not easily traceable as available relevant data are partial and infected by the effects of black market or underground economy; on the other hand, there are no clear, concrete statistical data or surveys on consu...mption either.
The present study attempts to dissolve the above anomalies and present findings by fact-based model calculations and actual marketing surveys. The fact-based model developed and used for more than 200 variables verifies the correctness of economic calculations. Original examinations were performed by Béla Cehla, doctoral candidate, in 2000–2011. The marketing survey, although not in full accordance with statistical requirements, was carried out in 2012 and it processed relevant data authentically.
The main conclusions are the following: It is clear so far that genetic basis should primarily be evolved in the industry, as it is the factor that mainly contributes to profitability and price-type factors come only following it. Genetic modification is achievable by changing breeds or crossbreeding. The findings of product chain level sensitivity analysis have provided clues that the added value generated in the sector is already determined during slaughter lamb production and progeny influences this value in approximately 80%. Critical points are feed conversion ratio and the relating price of lamb feed, which influence added values by 2.7–2.9%. The remaining factors affect added value through feeding costs, although not considerably.
The following activities can boost interest in the market of sheep products:
• Comprehensive market research
• Stimulation of cultural development by product-tasting, exchanging information and recipes
• Development of supply in accordance with demand
• Identification of target markets, positioning products
• Diversification of product range
• Community trade mark to guarantee excellent quality and Hungarian origin
• Selection of credible poster faces, organization of advertising campaigns

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96
22
Sheep production in Hungary – is it a sustainable sector?
Published December 30, 2009
95-100

The question of sustainability of agricultural production especially animal production and events leading to its development can be dated back to the second part of the last century. Sustainability is a priority subject matter as it is a core element in our existence and in the survival of the forthcoming generations. The notion of sustainabili...ty comprises three aspects: ecological, social and political and economic target systems, which by now have been supplemented with cultural and regional elements including the protection of environment, local traditions, scale of values, cultural and historical heritage. The principles of sustainable development also include the improvement of human and animal health and the maintenance of vital rural communities. The priority notion of sustainability of agricultural production refers also to animal husbandry and especially sheep production. Sheep have contributed substantially to the grassland-based agricultural production in Hungary for centuries. Sheep sector is important in rural areas as the tool of sustainability of animal production. It should also be highlighted that contrary to numerous efforts, the globally difficult process of sustainable development poses almost unsolvable problems for implementers even on local and regional levels. This paper will review briefly the levels of sustainability in the Hungarian animal production with a special regard to sheep production and their content and then points out the most significant economic issues by the application of “SWOT” – analysis, “problem tree’and “structure of objectives” methods, on the grounds of the received findings.

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75
13
The direct and indirect costs associated with food hypersensitivity in households: A study in the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain
Published August 1, 2016
107-117

Background: Recent studies show that food hypersensitivity, such as food allergy or food intolerance, has the potential to affect direct, indirect and intangible economic costs experienced by individuals and their families. This research assesses the direct and indirect economic costs of food hypersensitivity at the household l...evel in the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain.
Methods:  A self-administered postal survey was conducted (n=1558). Respondents with food hypersensitivity were clinically diagnosed cases recruited through clinical centres in Poland and Spain. In the Netherlands, food hypersensitivity cases were recruited through hospitals, patient organisations and advertisements. The controls formed the baseline sample and were obtained from households in which none of the members had food hypersensitivity. The monetary value of indirect costs, forgone time, was calculated using the opportunity cost method. The indirect and direct costs were expressed in purchasing power parity. Analysis of co-variance on the cost items was used to test the within-country differences between respondents with food hypersensitivity and respondents without food hypersensitivity, as well as across the three countries.
Results: The average total direct and indirect costs across all countries for families with food hypersensitive family members are not higher than for households without food hypersensitive members. However, the intangible costs for food hypersensitive individuals appear to be higher than for individuals in the control group.
Conclusions: These results do not support the hypothesis that all food allergies incur high costs to the individual. However, being hypersensitive to foods may have a negative impact on quality of life compared to people who are not food hypersensitive.

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99
30
Determinants of consumers’ purchase intention for local organic food in Urban Sri Lanka
Published June 30, 2020

Organic food marketing has currently become one of the most developing markets around the world, including Sri Lanka. Thus, the main aim of this study was to recognize the determinants of the purchase intention for local organic food among urban Sri Lankans. A consumer survey was conducted covering capital cities of six urban districts in Sri L...anka; Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Kandy, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura using a sample of 600 consumers, from December 2016 to May 2018. Out of the 600 consumers, only 114 were purchasing organic food by that time, and those 114 consumers were chosen as the sample for this study.  Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and multiple linear regressions were used as data analysis techniques. According to the results, majority of the respondents belongs to the 31-45 year age category. While most respondents had an education up to GCE Advanced Level, significant percentages of respondents were educated up to graduate and post-graduate levels.  Also, most of the respondents received a monthly total income in between Sri Lankan Rupees 85,001 and 162,000 (approximately US dollars 473 – 900). Although one-fourth of the consumers are purchasing organic food at that time, a higher number is willing to buy them in future. As per the principal component analysis, health and environment consciousness, certification of organic food, marketing aspects of organic food, common parameters of organic food, awareness on the value of organic food, and market availability of organic food were the extracted determinants. The results of multiple linear regressions revealed that market availability, common parameters of organic food, and health and environment consciousness are the dominating variables of the purchase intention of organic food consumers. Thus, expanding the market conditions for organic food, establishing a better marketing system, conducting effective food awareness programs, and value addition for organic food are the identified timely essential recommendations.

JEL CODE: Q13, Q19

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87
Exploring the value of brands on the montenegrin bottled spring water market
Published September 30, 2013
39-41

The branding strategy is based on future goals relating to clients, aimed at increasing awareness of the brand, creating a positive brand image and establishing a preference for the brand and ensuing brand loyalty. A brand is a very important factor for competitiveness and establishes a leadership position in the market, given the major impact ...that this form of intellectual property has on the perception of consumers and the success of innovative products on the market. The bottled water market has increased by about 35% in the last five years on the global level, dictated by young consumers who are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of proper nutrition in maintaining health. The research presents qualitative information on the market value of bottled water brands, the general characteristics of retailers, as well as on their target customers. The main task of this paper is to confirm the usefulness of marketing research in modern business as well as to present the benefits of brand value measurement to current or future brand owners. It is to be hoped that the results presented in this paper may serve as a good basis for upgrading marketing activities, based on a better understanding of target customers and their particular needs, through better communication for the purpose of stronger corporate branding.

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69
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The responsibility of marketing and legislation in childhood obesity
Published December 31, 2012
85-90

The purchasing power of youth is considerable; they are the market of the future. , the young generation is the most influenced and vulnerable segment of the economy. The greatest problem of the influencing of our children is the rising cost of childhood obesity. The health care system cannot keep up with the pressure of obesity. Today, the ris...k of obesity is a bigger problem than smoking or alcoholism. The greatest problem is that youth underestimates the cost and risk of consumption of foods with high levels of fats, sugar and/or salt.

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78
26
New types of tourism and tourism marketing in the post-industrial world
Published December 30, 2010
41-45

At the end of the 20th century in the most developed countries economy and society went through profound transformation. The emerging post-industrial society can be characterised by the dominance of service industry, more leisure time of the population, higher disposable income and more conscious consumers. These conscious consumers are more an...d more quality orientated and reject undifferentiated mass products. New customers of tourism and hospitality industry are not only more affluent – so less price conscious – and more quality orientated but they are also seeking activity, participation, fantasy, and experience. These new types of tourists are interested rather in aesthetic aspects of life and are seeking highly differentiated, personalised experience. In the following article the authors, professors of the French ESSCA business school overview theoretical aspects of new, post-Fordist tourism demand and present examples of the new tourism and hospitality products having emerged in the developed countries during the last years.

 

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63
75
Marketing opportunities of local products in the catchment area of Csíkszereda town
Published January 13, 2021

Agriculture plays an outstanding role in Romania, since there are nearly three and a half million small farms operating in the country, accounting for almost 90% of the total number of farms, and scarcely more than 32% of the available farm land is cultivated by 35% of the population. In the settlements found in the catchment area of Csíkszere...da, the majority of farms consist of family farms smaller than 5 hectares. The marketing of good quality products made from local raw material by traditional methods contributes to the sustenance of the family farms. Researches show that as a result of the education of the farmers on a local level more and more processed products appear in the markets of Csíkszereda town. Farmers involved in the local market intend to expand their farms on the long run. The respondents consider that “a piece of land can be sold only once”, that is why the sustenance of the farm became the main goal of multi-generational effort. Younger farmers are usually more educated and more open to innovation. The vast majority of farmers under 45 find it important to market their products through rural tourism and they are also more eager to join producer groups. Young farmers need to merge traditional methods and knowledge inherited from previous generations with modern opportunities and methods that facilitate production and marketing. Knowledge gained this way makes it possible for small farms to market their products through short supply chains.

JEL code: Q12,Q13

ARTICLE IN PRESS!

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137
New types of tourism and tourism marketing in the post-industrial world
Published December 31, 2011
33-37

At the end of the 20th century in the most developed countries economy and society went through profound transformation. The emerging post-industrial society can be characterised by the dominance of service industry, more leisure time of the population, higher disposable income and more conscious consumers. These conscious consumers are more an...d more quality orientated and reject undifferentiated mass products. New customers of tourism and hospitality industry are not only more affluent – so less price conscious – and more quality orientated but they are also seeking activity, participation, fantasy, and experience. These new types of tourists are interested rather in aesthetic aspects of life and are seeking highly differentiated, personalised experience. In the following article the authors, professors of the French ESSCA business school overview theoretical aspects of new, post-Fordist tourism demand and present examples of the new tourism and hospitality products having emerged in the developed countries during the last years.

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115
101
Urban consumers’ attitude towards organic food in Sri Lanka
Published June 30, 2020

This research investigation aims to examine the urban consumers’ attitude towards organic food, and the factors affecting for their attitude. A consumer survey consisting of a sample of 600 consumers was conducted, using a pre-tested questionnaire, in major cities of six main districts of Sri Lanka during November 2016 - May 2018. Data were a...nalyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results revealed that majority of the consumers were married females. Most of them were of 18-40 years of age category and were educated up to the GCE advanced level. The sample’s monthly income ranged from Sri Lankan Rupees 58000 – 85000.  Although the majority of the consumers (75.2%) were aware of organic food, only 11.5% possessed a good knowledge about them. As per the mean analysis, the consumers had a positive attitude towards most aspects of organic food. According to factor analysis, four factors (environmental factors, quality factors, health factors, and marketing factors) were extracted as they are influenced to the consumer attitude for purchasing of organic foods. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed a positive relationship between consumers’ attitude and the extracted four factors which were based on the consumers’ attitude on purchasing of organic foods. Main problems faced by consumers in buying organic food were the high price, unavailability of organic food, lack of trust, and lack of market information on organic food. It can be concluded that by providing the necessary conditions such as arranging better marketing facilities with useful market information, a continuous supply of organic foods with reasonable price levels, and enhancing consumer knowledge, will motivate the consumers to purchase more organic food. As relatively low is known about consumers’ purchasing pattern of organic foods in Sri Lanka, findings of this study would be beneficial to the traders and policy makers to formulate effective strategies designed to marketing of organic foods in the country.

JEL CODE: Q13

ARTICLE IN PRESS!

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184
Liquid bio-fuels in Hungary: effects and contradictions
Published October 31, 2008
89-94

The increase of living standard requires ever more energy, despite energy saving measures. Domestic growth was 100 PJ between 2000 and 2006, and 77% of the total utilization was importe (Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2008).Sustainability was endangered not only in our energy and commerce policy. Our domestic natural conditions are suita...ble for plant production; however, the stagnation of the domestic population and decreasing livestock numbers restrict in land marketing. Therefore, significant surpluses from year to year had to be stored and sold abroad, and the fact that the interventional purchase of corn and the expected stringent new EU regulation of the sugar beet sector, make the strategic significance of these branches uncertain. The difficult marketing opportunities make the better utilization of our opportunities in producing liquid bio-fuels possible from marketing aspects, while environmental issues and realizing the EU directions enforce to do so in a longer term. Over the short term, agricultural and competitive aspects will determine its spread, which cause different effects in Europe in comparison with the developing countries. According to Nábrádi-Ficzeréné Nagymihály, 2008, one of the breaking points of Hungarian agriculture lies in the utilization of alternative energy sources. During the past period, many contradictory opinions came forward relating to economies, agricultural effects, food risks as well as the energetic and environmental efficiency of bio-fuels. One thing is certain: these fuels are already used today and their significance has been increasing. Although due to technological development, spread of new products and processes (cellulose-based bioethanol, bioethanol, biogas, hydrogen, biomethane) will obviously have to be expected in the future, at present biodiesel and bioethanol are determent among bio-fuels, thus I deal with these as well as their energetic and agricultural effects in my study.

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60
7
Marketing aspects of consumption of Hungarian pork meat
Published December 30, 2009
109-114

The most important aim of authors’ study is to get to know the Hungarian pork consumption in our days. Our aim is set to estimate pork meat consumption and purchasing habits of consumers who are living in Eastern part of Hungary. The pork section is influenced negatively by several factors nowadays, which have a clear effect on the pork consu...mption and cause its declination. During the research work a questionnaire survey was made in 2007 and 2008. 1089 persons in different locations of Eastern Hungary were altogether asked. The data were evaluated by statistic hypothesis testing. Based on the evaluation a clear picture was got about the consumers’purchasing and consuming habits, and their ideas, opinions about the Hungarian pork as a food and as an item wearing a kind of national behaviour. Through many questions the volume of consumption was explored, and the pork’s proportion was compared to the rest of other meat types. It is verifiable that the pork consumption can be handled as a national habit, which is not the same by different age groups and educational qualifications. The importance of some factors during purchasing was also examined. Exceptionally important factors are: quality, the appearance, the origin and the price, that were mostly considered by the customers.The effect of pork promotion advertisements and its evaluation by the customers were surveyed too, which in connection with the efficiency showed a fairly stable picture both in 2007 and in 2008. The examination of price elasticity showed that this figure is influenced not just by the product group itself, but the purchasing power of the costumers, as well.

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71
9
Segmenting Hungarian people based on healthy eating
Published December 31, 2019
65-72

Relying on customer trends healthy eating, which is one aspect of healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular. The aim of this study was to understand the healthy eating style of Hungarian adult consumers. An online empirical research with a sample of 1563 respondents (58.7% females and 41.3% males) was conducted in November 2018. Consi...dering healthy eating two factors, namely the choice of healthy foods and the avoidance of unhealthy foods could be distinguished. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to segment consumers. Four groups of consumers were identified: unhealthy food avoiders (20.3%), rejecters (11.8%), neutrals (26.2%) and healthy food choosers (14.7%). Unhealthy food avoiders are seniors. Rejecters are blue collar workers and have financial problems. Healthy food choosers live in families with children over 10 and do not have weight problems. This study is useful for the health sector and the government since targeted marketing programs can be planned to change eating behavior. To decrease overweight and obesity is the goal of all society, especially in developed countries. To increase the well-being of people and their quality of life educating social marketing campaigns are necessary with the aim of raising their awareness and explaining the basic principles of a healthy diet.

JEL Classification: 112, M30, M39

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131
93
The elements of strategic and marketing planning applied in the case of Avital company
Published September 30, 2009
111-112

Presently, the environment that is characterized by rapid changesinallsocialspheres,thechallengesofrapidadaptation and survival in the market, the ability of thinking and acting in front of ‘’time’’is one of the key factors of success. Every day we have witnessed a large decline of the number of companies, poor implementation of many pr...ojects, poor implementation of governmentreforms, and life challenges of people to find work. On the other hand, there are individuals, organizations and companies that face challenges and changes very fast in all world markets and societies. Question that could be asked based on this is ‘’Why and how some companies manage it and the other not?"

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54
20
Interventions to encourage sustainable consumption
Published August 1, 2016
51-58

Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal. Based on self-determination theory it is arg...ued that this motivational conflict presupposes extrinsic motivation for sustainable behaviour. Based on self-regulatory styles, the present paper identifies and illustrates four types of intervention strategies that can cater for extrinsic motivation for sustainable development among light users. The underlying mechanisms of these interventions suggest that the transition from external to internal regulation is catalysed by social feedback.

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265
123
Luxury wine: analyzing motivations of luxury wine buyers in the US market
Published December 31, 2019
51-58

The purpose of this research study was to describe motivations and demographics of luxury wine buyers in the US market. An online survey was completed by 1081 US wine consumers, of which 473 were designated to be luxury buyers based on price spent on wine. Standard demographic and wine consumer scales were utilized for profiling. Results show t...hat the luxury wine buyer is more likely to be male, aged 30 to 50, with a higher income and education level. Motivations of the luxury wine buyer are different than the non-luxury wine buyer, and reasons for purchasing luxury wine go beyond mere collecting. This research is one of the first to analyze the luxury wine consumer in the US market, and provides useful information for wine marketers and researchers on the profile of the luxury wine buyer in America.

JEL Classification: M31

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160
156
Analysis of time management and self-management work practice by leaders – a focus group study
Published December 31, 2020

Nowadays excellent leadership is one of the foundations of high organizational performance. Leadership excellence is a complex topic but efficiency and effectiveness are important components of it. These are closely linked to self-management and time management. In our focus group research, we asked senior executives about how they organize the...ir average workday. We used two theoretical models: the Blue Ocean model and the Franklin Covey time-matrix. According to the participants the key component of effective self-management is the time management. In their leadership practice they often use a digital task manager, a workshop, an informal meeting as a tool and they find knowledge sharing also very important. They try to approach their employees empathetically. They would like to reduce the administrative tasks, spend less time on correspondence, travel and “small talks”. They would like to spend more time on automation and communication, further training and team work and dealing with the employees. They think that strategic planning, market analysis, sales, knowledge development and transfer should require more planning.

JEL code: M12

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