During 2000 and 2007, rootstocks of different vigor have been tested in a high density sweet cherry orchard with 'Vera '® and 'Axel'® cultivars at 4 x 2 meter row and plant distance. Trees are trained to Hungarian Spindle with permanent basal branches; in the alley way naturally grown grass is managed by mowing. The first considerable fruitin...g was in 2004. Every year we measured trunk and canopy parameters of the trees, productivity and fruit size. Our conclusion is that the rootstocks considerably affected the growth, precocity, as well as tree and orchard productivity, fruit weight of sweet cherry cultivars, but these rootstock effects are modified by cultivars, except for growth vigor. According to our results Cema, SL 64, and Bogdany are vigorous rootstocks, moderate vigorous are MaxMa 97, Pi-Ku I , and Tabel® Edabriz, Gisela® 5 and Prob are dwarfing rootstocks. Besides the precocious Gisela® 5 also mahaleb rootstocks CEMA, Bogdany and SL 64 showed considerable precocity, which can be explained by the larger bearing surface to the time of turning to bearing, and a similar or relative large density of burse shoots on fruiting branches. Cumulative yield of 'Axel'® was the highest on Bogdany and on Cerna, contrary to Gisela® 5, which produced only 50% of the previous ones. Cumulative yield of 'Vera'® was the highest on SL 64, and no significant difference was found, compared to trees on rootstocks Cema, Bogdany and Pi-Ku I . Cumulative yield production of trees was smaller on Gisela® 5, Prob, Max Ma 97 and Tabel® Edabriz rootstocks. Corresponding to the literature data of yield efficiency calculated on TCSA basis was highest on Gisela® 5 rootstock. but the efficiency calculated on canopy volume of 'Axel•® trees was similarly high on CEMA and Bogdany, and that of 'Vera'® trees relatively high on CEMA, Bogdany, SL 64 and PiKu I rootstocks. When calculating orchard efficiency al spacing 4 x 2 meters (1250 tree/ha), we received highest yield values on Bogdany, CEMA, SL 64, and PiKu I rootstocks, with large fruit weight. Rootstocks also affect fruit weight. We measured the largest fruit weight on trees on Bogdany.
The first nine years' results of sweet cherry rootstock trial from Hungary are presented with the aim to select efficient rootstocks for the local ecological conditions. The trials were established in 1989 with 'Van' and 'Germersdorfi óriás' cultivars on the following rootstocks: mahaleb Sainte Lucie 64, Colt, MxM 14, MxM 97. All the trees we...re headed at 80 cm and trained to a modified Brunner-spindle system. Tree size and yield was measured every year, and the cumulative yield efficiency was calculated.
Based upon the results, mahaleb cherry SL 64 is a vigorous rootstock with good compatibility and productivity. In comparison to SL 64. the trunk cross-sectional area and canopy spread of the 'Van' trees decreased by 10-15% on rootstock Colt, while the trees of 'Germersdorfi orias' on Colt roostock grew even larger than on SL 64. Considerable 30-40 % reduction of tree size was achieved on trees grafted on M x M hybrids. Trees of `Germersdorfi óriás' showed a similar tendency without significant differences. The cumulative yield efficiency of `Van' trees after nine years was highest on rootstock MxM 14, followed by Sainte Lucie 64. Trees on Colt and MxM 97 rootstocks showed low productivity. `Germersdorfi óriás' produced the highest cumulative yield efficiency on SL 64, followed by MxM 14 and Colt and last MxM 97. Biennial bearing index of heavy cropping 'Van' trees was smaller than that of `Germersdorfi óriás'. The trees of 'Van' on MxM 97 showed higher biennial bearing index, while 'Germersdorfi orias' on different rootstocks showed similar tendency, but without significant differences.
MxM 14 and MxM 97 rootstocks reduced the crotch angle of the shoots on both sweet cherry varieties which is disadvantegous to spindle training. Slight suckering (1-3/year) of the rootstocks Colt, MxM 14 and MxM 97 were observed during the first few years.
The demand of natural and medicinal products has been increased for the past years. These products are often made from herbal and medicinal plants, and recently the mushroom products are much called. Nearby some well known species (like Lentinula edodes or Ganoderma lucidum) some not respected biomedicines are availab...le in Hungary. Agaricus blazei (Murrill) is a Basidiomycota fungus, with almond-like taste and nice texture. This medicinal mushroom proved to be useful in cancer therapy and against some bacterial and viral diseases. In our experiment we tested 8 Agaricus blazei strains on fermented mushroom compost. The yields, average mushroom size, productivity and biological efficiency of the species were measured. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to get fruit bodies less than 2 months, and strain "837", "2603" and "MaHe" are suggested for further experiments. These strains gave the highest yield and efficiency in the cultivation.
Explants excised from adult shrubs were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium in the presence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) at different concentrations. A high multiplication rate of 7.2-fold was achieved every four weeks on MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM BA, 0.49 μM IBA and 0.58 μM GA3. Rooting wa...s achieved with 73% efficiency within 2-4 weeks on agar-gelled MS basal medium free of PGRs. Rooted plantlets were gradually acclimatized to field conditions over 5-6 weeks with 65% efficiency. For in vitro selection for salt tolerance, MS medium was supplemented with increasing concentrations of NaCl ranging between 25 and 1000 mM. This study has demonstrated that in vitro shoots could tolerate up to 600 mM NaCl with optimal growth at 200 mM, while higher concentrations of NaCl affected growth negatively. Growth and shoot number decreased with increasing NaCl concentration with all plantlets died at 1000 mM NaCl.
The effects of kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection and co-culture temperature ranging from 22 to 28 °C upon eggplant transformation efficiency were evaluated. Both morphogenic pathways, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, were adopted using cotiledonary and hypocotyl explants, respectively. Somatic embryos were recovered in the prese...nce of both antibiotics, although lesser escapes were observed in hygromycin-supplemented medium. Indeed, selection provided by this antibiotic was more efficient compared to kanamycin, nevertheless, shoot regeneration was not observed with hygromycin. Significant difference on the frequency of cotiledonary explants displaying callus (FEC) was observed as embryogenesis was concerned, although a higher number of embryos was observed in hygromycin selective media. The frequency of explants presenting callus (FEC), embryos (FEE) and shoots or buds (FERG) did not differ statistically for the tested co-culture temperatures, although higher regenerant number was observed at 24 °C.
Factors affecting rhizogenesis in vitro and acclimatisation of three rootstocks of cherry, i.e. Mahaleb, Maxma-14 and Weiroot -10 were investigated.
Rooting was easily achieved within 2-4 weeks on MS-based liquid or agar-gelled media containing auxins IBA at conc. 0.49 or 2.45 pM or NAA at conc. of 0.49 pM. On liquid media with... 2.45 pM IBA, a maximum rooting efficiency of 95-100% was obtained. However, high concentrations of auxin delayed the time of root initiation for 3-5 days.
Rooted plantlets were transplanted into pots with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) peat:perlite and acclimatised gradually to field conditions with efficiency of 60%.
In the present study, g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida coding for 2-pyrone synthase which contribute for fungal and insect resistance was used. The aim was to work out an efficient approach of genetic transformation for apple cvs. ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘MM111’, ‘M26’ rootstocks for improving their fungal resistance... using genetic engineering techniques. Adventitious shoot formation from leaf pieces of apples studied was achieved using middle leaf segments taken from the youngest leaves from in vitro-grown plants.
Optimum conditions for ‚direct’ shoot organogenesis resulted in high regeneration efficiency of 0%, 95%, 92%, 94% in the studied apples respectively. Putative transgenic shoots could be obtained on MS media with B5 Vitamins, 5.0 mg l-1 BAP, or 2.0 mg l-1 TDZ with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA in the presence of the selection agent “PPT” at 3.0-5.0 mgl-1. Shoot multiplication of transgenic shoots was achieved on: MS + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg l-1 BAP + 0.3 mg l-1 IBA, 0.2 mg l-1 GA3+1.0 g/l MES+ 30 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l Agar, with the selection agent PPT at 5.0 mg l-1 and were subcultured every 4 weeks in order to get sufficient material to confirm transformation of the putative shoots obtained. Six, seven, one and six transgenic clones of the apples studied respectively have been obtained and confirmed by selection on the media containing the selection agent “PPT” and by PCR analysis using the suitable primers in all clones obtained for the presence of the selection” bar gene (447 bp) and the gene-of- interest “g2PS1” (1244 bp), with transformation efficiency of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.1% and 0.3% respectively. These transgenic clones were multiplied further in vitro in the presence of the selection agent ‘PPT’ and rooted in vitro. Rooted transgenic plantlets were successfully acclimatized and are being kept under-containment conditions according to the biosafety by-law in Syria to evaluate their performance for fungal resistance .
In this study we were studying the question whether walnut production under domestic natural and economic circumstances shall be considered a profitable activity or not. Our partial objective is to determine, what level of natural inputs and production costs are required for walnut production, what yield level, selling price and production valu...e can be attained, what level of profitability, rentability and efficiency may production have, is the establishment of a walnut orchard profitable on the entire lifespan of the plantation, and the production of which is more efficient: the dry shelled walnut production requiring postharvest activity or the raw, shelled walnut without postharvest activities. In this study, comparison of two systems is conducted. First version: producer establishes a walnut plantation and sells walnut raw and shelled. Second version: producer also invests into a drying facility, and in this case the end product is the dry, shelled walnut. If the producer sells walnut right after harvest in a raw bulk, total production costs in productive years reaches 974,011 HUF/ha. Attainable yield is 2.63 t/ha with 396.3 HUF/kg selling price, therefore the profit is 138,258 HUF/ha with 14.19% cost-related profitability. In the case when the producer sells dried, shelled walnut, production costs are 25% higher compared to that of raw walnut due to the cost of drying. By calculating with the postharvest loss, average yield is 1.84 t/ha, however, its selling price is way higher (882.84 HUF/kg), therefore the profit per hectare reaches 475,496 HUF with 39.01% cost-related profitability. Thus it can be stated that walnut production in an average year may be profitable even without postharvest, but efficiency is improved significantly when the producer sells the products dried. Investment profitability analysis revealed that production of raw, shelled walnut is not economically viable, since the plantation does not pay off on its entire lifespan (30 years), while walnut production with postharvest is efficient and rentable, since both net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) showed more favourable values than in the previous case, and the orchard pays off in the 21th year after establishment.
Cotyledon protoplasts were isolated from 16-18-day-old in vitro grown seedlings of 9 Brazilian and 3 Hungarian pepper varieties and hybrids. Large numbers (average 9.59 X 106 protoplasts g 14 fresh weight) of highly viable (average 87.0%) protoplasts were released using a pectocellulolytic enzyme mixture. Protoplasts were cultured in... K8p mediuni using an alginate disc embedding method. The osmotic pressure of the medium surrounding the alginate-embedded protoplasts was reduced by replenishing the liquid medium at K8p:K8 ratios of 1:0. 2:1, 1:1 in the first. second, and third week, respectively. Initial plating efficiency (IPE) average was 38.5% and after 21 days protoplasts reached microcolonies (15-20 cells) stages. Microcolonies were transferred after 3-4 weeks to a MS-based medium supplemented with 1.0 mg I-1 zeatin, 3.0% (w/v) sucrose, 0.24% (w/v) phytagel and pH 5.8, whereupon they formed callus. Final plating efficiency (FPE) average was 0.29% at a plating density of 1.0 x 105 protoplasts Protoplast-derived calli were cultured on a range of MS-based media supplemented with either BAP, IAA, TDZ; and zeatin. No morphogenic response was observed in any genotype investigated.
By the strengthening of environmental protection and food safety efforts in Hungary, integrated and especially biological pest control methods should increasingly put forward, for which a solid knowledge on the life course and efficiency of natural enemies applied against certain pests is necessary. Pepper has distinguished significance in dome...stic vegetable forcing, and the profitability of production is determined primarily by the efficiency of the control of thrips pests. This is why we attached great importance to study what results may be expected by introducing arthropod predators (Amblyseius cucumeris, Orius laevigatus) to control thrips species under domestic conditions on rock wool in a long vegetation period pepper culture. We also liked to find out what kind of role the cultivars play in the change of phytophagous and zoophagous populations. The A. cucumeris predatory mite introduced in late January proved to be effective in controlling thrips pests until mid-April. Despite repeated introductions, the predatory bug O. laevigatus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) did not proliferate. Among the three pepper cultivars (Hó, Keceli, Titán) grown at Ráckeve, thrips species proliferated in the highest number on cultivar 'Hó', while the population of predatory mites was lowest on the cultivar 'Titan', compared to the other two cultivars.
The major part of the pepper growing farms in Hungary operate as family enterprises with areas varying between 1,000 and 3,000 m2. As a result of the small size, their profitability is greatly dependant on the technological level and market circumstances. Most of these farms are characteristically affected by the lack of capital, the...refore, they are unable to implement any further developments with their own forces. Greenhouse pepper production on rockwool had already been subjected to analysis earlier in our research, however, those calculations were directed solely at the profitability and efficiency of production. Based on the data from 2004 in 2005 yet another and more profound analysis was set as the objective. Besides the methods already applied before, several dynamic indicators have been introduced which could also be useful for practical applications. The graphs can permit growers to monitor the temporal distribution of the costs incurred and revenues earned during production. Thereby it is easier to plan the costs and more simple to distribute them more rationally over the production period. Our experiences suggest that this sort of analytical method is applicable only in cases where a very careful and precise collection of data is ensured and the results obtained can not be generalised as being valid only for the single farm analysed. Experiences and results, however, make us consider the dynamic economic analysis as being very useful both for beginners and practicing horticulturists.
In this study I investigated the cost and profit conditions and the efficiency of intensive, qualitative apple production on the basis of a data collection carried out in ventures of high standard production. I concluded that the intensive apple production has an extremely high cost requirement, the production costs are approximately 1500 to 16...00 thousand HUF per hectare. In an average case, a production value of 2000 thousand HUF per hectare may be reached, which may fluctuate in a wide interval during the years. Considering the above mentioned, a net profit of 400 to 500 thousand HUF may be realized in one hectare. It should be highlighted that regarding the present marketing conditions, realizing the appropriate profit may be expected only by producing 30 to 40 tons per hectare yields and 80 to 90% food quality ratio.
Our main objective in this present study is to evaluate the profitability and efficiency of sour cherry production by a complex economic analysis of its technological process. We concluded that the per kilogram prime costs range between 80 to 90 HUF/kg in case of sour cherry for industrial purposes. On this basis, it is clear that the 50 to 90...HUF/kg regular selling prices of previous years do not make profitable production possible. Under the present market conditions even considering per hectare average yields of 10 to 15 tons the establishment of sour cherry orchards is not economical, the internal rate of return is below the interests of money-market and the recovery will not be happened even during the whole life-time of the orchard. In this way the domestic enterprises should not only raise the yields but realize technological changes (e.g. mechanic harvesting) in order to decrease the production costs in a significant way and to maintain a profitable sour cherry production. It is expected that the enterprise farming on great land (several ten hectares), being settled for mechanic harvesting (subordinating everything to this), reaching yields of 15 to 20 tons per hectare, producing on high technological and input levels, having specialized knowledge will stay on the sour cherry market far in the future.
A rootstock trial planted at the Szigetcsep experimental station in 1989 involved the study of two cultivars- `Germersdorfi FL 45' and 'Van' -grafted on four different rootstocks — 'Colt', `MxM 14 — Brokforest', `MxM 97 — Brokgrow' and 'Saint Lucie 64' as a control. The trees were trained to the "Modified Brunner-spindle" system and came...into bearing in 1993. The yield per tree, fruit weight and fruit diameter have been measured each year since then. The refractivity, the acid content of the fruit juice, fruit cracking after four hours' dipping in water and stone weight ratio have also been measured since 1995. In 1997 and 1998 these parameters as well as fruit cracking after 24 hours' dipping were measured. Fruit firmness and fruit colour were also estimated. In almost every observed parameter significant differences were found between the scion cultivars. Yield efficiency was significantly higher on 'NUM 14' and 'Saint Lucie 64' than on the other two rootstocks. As regards fruit weight, in both cultivars and over an average of six years, it was found that trees on low yielding tree on 'Colt' rootstock had the highest fruit weight values and on heavy producing `MxM 14' the smallest. Soluble solids content was higher on 'Colt' and `MxM 97'. No significant differences between the rootstocks were found in acid content of the fruit juice. There were significant differences between the rootstocks in fruit cracking after 4 and 24 hours' dipping in water. Seemingly with respect to cultivars and rootstocks the year has a considerable effect on fruit cracking.
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
The profitability of the Hungarian apple production considering firms producing on high standard is not lagged behind significantly from that of German firms, moreover in certain cases it reflects a more positive situation. It is unfavourable, however, that this statement is true only for 8 to 10% of our whole apple plantation surface. The resu...lts of the investigations highlighted the fact that in comparison with Germany our farm business advantages manifest in three factors: in 70 to 80% lower wages, in 15 to 30% higher investment and subsidy intensity and in the fact that at present we cannot neglect the ice safety system which is rather expensive. By the increasing wages, the narrowing subsidy opportunities and incidentally the appearing harmful weather phenomenon, these advantages may be continuously ceased. Our definite disadvantage appears in the level of marketing price, considering the fact that producers in Hungary realize 30 to 35% lower marketing price, which is in connection with the probably much lower level of organization among farmers, in the market and in the logistical background.
In this present study the efficiency as well as the farm economic advantages and disadvantages of elderberry production are examined. Our objective is to determine the fact that under what conditions the elderberry production may be profitable regarding the present economic and market situations. Our analysis was carried out by a simulation mod...el based on a farm-level data gathering in production enterprises. The total investment cost of an up-to-date, elderberry orchard of traditionally cultivated without irrigation is between 1000 to 1700 thousand HUF per one hectare and turning to productivity is expected within 4-5th years. These orchards are able to produce yields of 8,0 to 9,0 tons per one hectare in the average of the productive years, which makes reaching a revenue of 800 to 1000 thousand HUF possible regarding a per kg average selling price of 80 to 110 HUF. By this a net profit of 200 to 400 thousand HUF may be realized in case of a per hectare production cost of 600 to 700 thousand HUF. At the end of the lifetime of the orchard (12-15th year) an internal rate of return of 10 to 4%, an NPV of 1500 to 2000 thousand HUF per one hectare are typical in an average case, and the payback may be expected in the 6th to 8th year. From the farm economic aspect the elderberry may be considered as an extensive sector, which advantages are low capital and labour need, early recovery, good-acceptable profit on capital and cost to profit ratios, but its disadvantage is low per hectare profit comparing to intensive fruit species and orchards. In this way in general farms of capital-extensive and avoiding risks choose elderberry production.
Aphids were collected by Moericke yellow pan traps placed in the potato fields. The cumulative vector intensity is an index that describes the vector abundance and their propensity to transmit PVY (3). The vector intensity was obtained as the number of known PVY vector species caught and multiplied by their relative vector efficiency v...alue. Cumulative vector intensity for the season was calculated by accumulating species-specific vector intensity values at each trapping date. In those places where the number of PVY vectors caught by yellow pan traps were the highest (1194, 1495 and 663, 570, respectively), the cumulative vector intensity was also the highest (322 and 570, respectively). This high vector intensity resulted in high progeny tuber infection 21 and 31 %, respectively. In those years when the cumulative vector intensity did not reach the value of 10 until the end of June and the beginning of July the proportion of PVY infected progeny tubers met the requirements of the standard, it was less than 5 %. The cumulative vector intensity seems to be a reliable way to forecast virus threat to seed potato. Both seasonal variation and vector abundance is reflected in cumulative vector intensity, above all propensity of different vector species is included in the calculation. As the virus translocation from leaves to tubers takes 12-14 days. Therefore it is imperative that immediately after weekly trap catches cumulative vector intensity values are calculated, as when values reach around ten growers in seed potato growing region will have 12 days to execute killing leaves and stems of seed potatoes.
Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.
Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MYKL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.
We assessed the cost/income conditions of forced tomato production and return conditions of the growing technologies by investment-profitability analysis. Horticultural sectors generate significant added value and employ a large number of workers per unit area; however, these sectors cover only 4% of agricultural areas. Regarding the use of cap...ital and labour, forced vegetables are the most intensive horticultures with several development potential and reserves to gain better quality and a more efficient farming. One of the most prominent forced cultures is table tomato produced under different types of forcing equipment in Hungary: traditional, low-height plastic tunnel; large-atmospheric, block-based plastic tunnels and various greenhouses. The prime goal of my thesis is to specify the economic efficiency of each type and to choose the most efficient one by the complex economic assessment of plastic tunnels, block-based plastic tunnels and greenhouses with the most advanced technologies. Results of the economic analysis suggest that the most efficient production method is the modern, Dutch greenhouse technology; however, this statement is not backed by every indicator: each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Regarding the future, the installation of such types or even (in the technical sense) more modern growing technology may be considered as a prospect for capital intensive and larger businesses.
The plantation of intensive growing orchards and steady increase in yield is essential to return the growing cost by sale. Seasonal crop fluctuation of pear is increased by the frequently occurrence of drought and climatic changes. This study reviews genetic and growing factors determined the alternancy of pear and present the new knowledge con...cerning on water saving irrigation techniques. Use of dwarfing rootstocks, root pruning, branches pruning and new water saving irrigation make the changes in vegetative and generative growth that successfully improve the alternancy of pear growing. According to publications BA 29 of clonal quince rootstocks exhibited the best protection mechanism against to drought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) applied during rapid shoot growth and slowly fruit growth result a decrease in shoot growth and 60% of water saving in pear orchard while there was no influence on harvested yield. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) microjet irrigation applied in pear orchard result 23-52% of decrease in water use, however concerning explorations are contradictory. Further investigations need to improve the efficiency of new irrigation technology adapted pear varieties based on monitoring of soil water status and measurement of stem water potential as stress indicators of plants.
Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fer...tilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.
The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina ...m>using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.
In vitro cultures have widely been used in horticulture for rapid multiplication of new varieties and clones as well as to produce pathogen-free stock material. To improve efficient hardening and transfer in vitro grown grapevine plants were multiplied by cutting them into single-node internodes with the whole leaf. Microcutti...ngs including the shoot tips were rooted in granulated perlite moisted with tapwater under sterile conditions. After 2-3 weeks the rooted microcuttings were supplied by nutrients and hardened by gradual opening and finally by complete removal of the lids of jars or plastic boxes used for growth. Using this method microcuttings of Vitis vinifera cvs. „Chardonnay", „Cabernet franc", „Riesling" and „Sauvignon blanc" and the rootstock varieties Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea cv. „Barrier" and Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris cv. „Richter 110" formed new roots and shoots and 100% of the tested plants survived the acclimatization procedure. Similar results were obtained when perlite was replaced with rockwool-, or pit-pot blocks. This method may highly increase the efficiency of producing pathogen-free propagating material and new transgenic lines.
The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coeffi
Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.