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  • Economic figures of sour cherry production at national level of Hungary
    107-109.
    Views:
    157

    After the political changes of 1989, economical processes impaired heavily the Hungarian fruit growing branch, more particularly production of sour cherry. Paralleling with the increasing mass of production, producer’s prices dwindled drastically. At present, Hungarian growers cannot cover the costs of production, nay, hardly raise income. My purpose was to analyse the cost and income relations of the sour cherry branch during the period of 2002-2009 years in order to find out what are the decisive features, which reveal the trends to be considered. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of economics of the branch.

  • The fertilization problems of cultivated red- and black currant varieties in Hungary
    38-40.
    Views:
    119

    Small fruits have a modest share in the fruit production of Hungarys. Red currant was grown traditionally in home gardens 60-70 years ago. Commercial production was established only in the surroundings of some town. The black currant was unknown until after Wold War II. An important change occured in small fruit production in the 1950s. Socialist countries, which had cheaper labour power, made efforts to meet these demands. In this time we produced 25.000 t.

    Presently the country produces 13-15.000 tons currant fruit yearly 60% from this is black currant, which has a better market. It is our own interest to make our currant production more profitable. The currant is the second most widely cultivated soft fruit. Our product is disposed mostly on EU markets.

    There was no breeding activity in this field in Hungary earlier. Cultivars used were mostly of foreign origin (W. European; Boskoop Giant, Silvergieter, Wellington XXX, Russian; Altaiskaya Desertnaya, Neosupaiuschaiasya, N. European; Brikltorp, Ojebyn). Besides well-known advantageous this cultivars have also some defects mainly unfavourable—adaptation to climatic conditions, which caused fertilisation problems, reduced the fruit set and uneven growth with decreased yields (Dénes & Porpáczy, 1999). About 140 black currant cultivars were investigated during the last four decades in our variety trials and only four of them were introduced with satisfying yielding capacity (3.5-5.5 t/ha).

  • Healthcare values and potential uses of the new Hungarian apple varieties on the basis on fruit analysis
    25-28.
    Views:
    179

    Biological active compounds and valuable characteristics of some apple varieties and candidates were measured in our trials. Fruits of ’Rosmerta’, ’Hesztia’, ’Cordelia’ and ’Artemisz’ are recommended to enrich the Hungarian assortments for fresh consumption and choice of new tastes. Based on examined parameters it can be assumed that novel Hungarian resistant varieties are suitable for juice and fruit concentrate production, and due to high pectin content of their remaining pomace these varieties can be raw material of pectin production as well as they are also suitable for jam production mixed with other fruit species. Furthermore, functional food industrial product having high quality can be produced by using novel resistant varieties because of their high pectin and polyphenol content. Beside of their high market value their suitability for growing among orchard conditions is confi rmed by lower costs of production because of less plant protection treatments.

  • Adaptation of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries II. General characteristics, Hungarian experiences and possibilities
    5-11.
    Views:
    399

    The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temperate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.

    For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.

    To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.

  • Climate change impacts and product lines
    79-83.
    Views:
    191

    This paper summarizes the main effects of extreme weather events on agricultural production and demonstrates their economic consequences. For cost-benefit analysis of economic impacts and for determination of risk levels simulation models are needed that contains the relationship between product line levels and elements. WIN-SIM model is developed for this goal, specialized for wine production. The model is suitable to analyze the market share, the cost and income relations as well as the relation structure of the product lines. The four levels of the model (site, vine growing, wine production and wine market levels) have individual values added from the aspect of end product, where the product line sets out from the site level and gets through the levels up to the consumer segments. Theoretically, all elements can be connected to any element of the next level and sublevel, but there are “prohibited contacts” because of professional, regulation or production practice reasons.

  • The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer and harvest time on the productivity of Thymus vulgaris L.
    43-46.
    Views:
    226

    The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer applied in 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha dosages, as well as the time of the harvest carried out in full flowering and early fruit set stages were studied on the herb and essential oil production of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The small plot experiment was installed in the Experimental Field of Tarbiat Modarres University near Teheran, under sandy loam soil conditions. On the basis of the results the nitrogen-fertilizer had a significant effect on the dry-matter production of the species: the herb yield, calculated on one hectare, increased from 671.88 kg up to 1021.00 kg value as a result of 150 kg nitrogen dosage. The essential oil yield proved to have a similar tendency because neither the accumulation level of essential oil, nor the ratio of thymol were effected by the nutrient supply. Analyzing the effect of harvest time changes in both dry-mass production and essential oil accumulation were observed. The highest herb yield (1238.20 kg/hectare) was obtained in early fruit set, when about.50 per cent of fruits reached their full size in the inflorescence. The accumulation level of essential oil also reached its maximum at the sane development stage, showing 0.75 per cent value, which is about two fold higher comparing to the accumulation level was measured at the time of full flowering (0.41 %).

  • Flower characters and self-fertilization capacity in relation to the bee pollination at sour cherry cultivars
    121-132.
    Views:
    147

    Detailed studies and comparisons were carried out on those flower characters of sour cherry cultivars that may affect bee pollination of flowers. Flower characters of sour cherry are fairly similar to other temperate zone fruit tree species. Their relatively small flowers distinguish the Cigánymeggy-types of cultivars from the flowers of tart cherries cultivars that are conspicuously larger, almost as large as the sweet cherry flowers. The relative position of flower organs was much more variable according to the season than according to the cultivars. So the differences were rather the consequences of seasonal effects than of variety features of sour cherry cultivars. As far as individual cultivars are concerned differences in the nectar production and the sugar concentration are revealed rather between groups of cultivars than between individual cultivars. The pollen production of flowers was extremely changeable in consecutive years. Most honeybees collected nectar at sour cherry flowers; pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees were half as frequent but differences among the behaviour of honeybees according to cultivars cannot be stated. The fidelity of honeybees to sour cherry is less expressed than to some other fruit tree species. Accordingly, it is very strongly suggested to take the competitive effect other plant species (weeds) flowering in and around the orchard carefully into account when organizing additional bee pollination in sour cherry plantations. Several sour cherry cultivars possess more or less self-fertilization capacity but this is greatly changeable according to the season. It has been proved that self-sterile sour cherry cultivars are sensitive even on the partial restriction of the effective time of bee pollination and it is to be stressed too that even in the case of partly self-fruitful cultivars bee pollination is also vital in yield formation because medium or strong restriction of the effective bee pollination period is of a definite negative effect on their fruit set and yield. In years with unfavourable weather the yield can dramatically be reduced sometimes down to nil. However, very high fruit set is also unfavourable because a negative correlation was detected between the final set and the mean mass of fruits.

  • Effect of life cycle on the production of mullein (Verbascum phlomoides L.)
    123-125.
    Views:
    134

    Aim of the present investigations was the optimalization of the production of the annual cultivar `Napfény' of Verlxiscum phlomoides L. Quantitative data on morphology (growth, leaf and flower size, branching) yield and content of active materials (mucilages, flavonoids) were studied at six sowing times.

    We established, that sowing time may be one basic factor in the production of the annual variety. The major yield was obtained by sowing either late autumn (end of October) or early spring (middle March). At these plots the fresh mass of the flowers was 257-288 g/plant, the drug mass 28-29 g/plant, by 45-70% more than that of the mean of other treatments.

    It was established, that under optimal cultivation conditions the annual form of mullein may reach higher individual yields than the plants of the indigenous wild growing population.

  • The effect of spring frosts on the nectar production and the bee visitation of fruit trees
    86-89.
    Views:
    150

    Fruit tree species suffered very strong spring frosts in 1997 in Hungary. This caused partial or total damages at buds and flowers depending on site and time of blooming. It was demonstrated at a number of experiments that frost and cold weather also strongly affected the nectar production of surviving flowers. No or very little amount of nectar was measured in flowers first of all of early blooming fruit tree species (apricot) but also of pear and apple in some places. In spite of this fact intensive honeybee visitation was detected in the flowers of fruit trees that suffered partial frost damage only at those sites where honeybee colonies were placed in or at the experimental plantations and the lack of sufficient amount of nectar did not affected bee behaviour seriously on fruit flowers. This means that bad nectar production failed to affect bee visitation of fruit trees definitely. The reason for this was the fact that not only fruit trees but another early bee plants (wild plants, too) suffered frost damage. Accordingly, in lack of forage bees intensively searched for food at blooming fruit trees with some living flowers. Consequently, there was an acceptable yield at those plantations where bud and flower damage was not complete. Accordingly, intensive bee visitation (that is moving additional bee colonies to overpopulate fruit orchards with honeybees) can be an effective tool to decrease or eliminate the detrimental effect of spring frost on the yield of fruit trees where bud or fruit damage is not too high.

     

  • Nectar production and pollination in peach
    123-126.
    Views:
    222

    Observations were made at two growing sites, Siófok and Szatymaz, in the years 1998 and 1999, on 16 peach varieties. The production of nectar was measured, the foraging behaviour of bees, fruit set and the effect of exclusion of bee visits for different periods were observed systematically.

    Production of nectar confirmed earlier data, 9.09 mg per flower in average. There was large variation due to variety and date of observation. Bee visits were relatively abundant. At favourable weather, 1 to 30 visits/flower/day occurred in the average. Artificial hand pollination increased fruit set, substantially. Open pollination yielded superior fruit set than self pollination, without bees. Supplementary bee pollination can be regarded to be beneficial to peach production as well.

     

  • Pruning and incidences of diseases and pests in environmentally oriented apple growing systems: some aspects
    24-29.
    Views:
    221

    In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally oriented growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. The main factor in creating such systems is the establishment of a system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection based on production technology. Therefore, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and pests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.

    Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leueoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under "strong" and "weak" pruning techniques. Our results showed that, compared to integrated production, the pathogens and pests infected the trees more in the organic system. The pruning technique affected mainly the cultivars susceptible to diseases and pests. In general, the "weak" pruning technique correlated with a higher level of damage caused by diseases and pests than the "strong" pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The reason that techniques should be carefully chosen is that shoots grow faster and more vigorously after employing the "strong" pruning technique. This supports a better preservation of the trees, as a result of reduced susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

  • International competitive analysis of wine producer small and midsize companies on enterprise resource management
    23-25.
    Views:
    154

    In our research using primary data sources we are searching for satisfactory evidences, that the impressive economical growth of China has a strong impact on Chinese grape and wine production, wine market. However grape cultivation has long tradition in China, modem grape wine and wine production has only started 20 years ago. During my research I have collected the very rare and unreliable information on this theme to make a picture of Chinese grape and wine production. Using primary sources describe the present situation of Chinese grape industry, verify the supposition that the rise of Chinese grape crop land includes the growth of the total size of wine grape plantations. After this verification I make a comparative analysis of Chinese and Hungarian grape cultivation costs, to confirm, that grape and wine producing is a more requital activity in China than in Hungary.

  • Ornamental plants in Hungary Part I. Protected cultivation
    102-105.
    Views:
    168

    Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growers had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.

  • Some aspects of reduced disease management against Monilinia spp. in sour cherry production
    50-53.
    Views:
    179

    The aim of this study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against brown rot of sour cherry, and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against brown rot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly brown rot incidence in the integrated field. However, brown rot incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.

  • Characteristics of fruit producing enterprises according to the data of farms taking part in the test farm system
    41-45.
    Views:
    107

    Fruit farming plays an important role within the Hungarian agriculture. The climatic conditions of the country make it possible to produce 20 temperate-zone fruit species, 14-15 of which are economically significant. The weight of the sector is high relative to the immobilised land, it is important in the field of employment and holding of rural population.

    I examined the enterprise form, production size, revenues and profit of farms dealing with fruit production relying on the data of the agricultural test farm system of 1999. The proportion of croppers and entrepreneurs is significant among fruit producers. Their revenue realising ability is low, which depends on the production size too. But the polarisation of these farmers has started and a new level is being formed that is considerable from the viewpoint of value production.

     

  • Role of organosilicone surfactant in apple scab control under scab conducive weather conditions
    23-25.
    Views:
    171

    Fungicides of integrated fruit production (dithianon, captan, and diclofluanid) and an organosilicone surfactant were compared in spray schedules from green tip until summer in order to control apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis and to evaluate their phytotoxicity on fruit. Sixteen sprays of 1.8 kg ha-1captan, 0.41 ha-1 dithianon, and 1.8 kg ha-1 diclolfluanid significantly (P=0.05) reduced the incidence of leaf or fruit scab compared to unsprayed products. All fungicides applied with organosilicone at 0.1% resulted in lower incidence of scab on young and older leaves as well as on harvested fruit, but these were not statistically always better than fungicides applied alone. In case of diclofluanid, the fungicide applied with organosilicone at 0.1% resulted in significantly lower (P = 0.001) incidence of scab on young and older leaves. Diclofluanid applied with organosilicone at 0.1% gave the best scab control on leaf and fruit. Treatments applied with fungicides alone had no significant effect on plant phytotoxicity compared to untreated control. All fungicides applied with organosilicone at 0.1% increased (P = 0.05) fruit damage compared to untreated control or fungicide applied alone, though these were not always significantly different. In case of percentage of fruit russet, treatment of dithianon 0.4 1/ha + 0.1% organosilicone significantly increased fruit russet, while fruit russet index significantly increased in the treatment of diclofluanid 1.8 kg/ha + 0.1% organosilicone compared to untreated control. In sum, application of surfactants can help to increase efficacy of scab fungicides; and consequently, to reduce the risk of fungus infection under high scab disease pressure. This fact may also be helpful in fungicide resistance management and reduced-spray programs with accurate scab warning systems.

  • Study on the micronutrient content of soil and leaf of an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary
    7-11.
    Views:
    160

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between micronutrient content of soil and leaf in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences at Pallag in an apple cultivar collection in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. The soil sampling was carried out twice per year, at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The micronutrient content of leaf of seven apple cultivars (Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri piros, Reka, Remo) was studied according to phenological phases of apple (April — September) to investigate the dynamism of plant nutrient uptake.

    It was found that results of leaf analysis correlated with the obtained results of soil. According to the data of July, manganese and copper content of leaf is in the 'favourable' but zinc is the 'low' range of nutrient supply category. Moreover, there were significant differences in the micronutrient content of leaf among cultivars. From our results it is evident that more reliable data were obtained for fruit nutrition by determining of micronutrient content of soil and plant and calculate their ratios as well.

  • Production of transgenic carnation with antisense ACS (1-aminocyclopropane44-carboxy late synthase) gene
    104-107.
    Views:
    165

    Dianthus chinensis and Dianthus caryophyllus varieties were tested for shoot regeneration from leaf and petal explants and transformed with Agrobacterium tuniefaciens strains (EHA 105 and LBA 4404) harbouring an apple derived ACS cDNA in antisense orientation in order to reduce ethylene production and influence the ethylene dependant traits in carnation. After transformation regenerating shoots were selected on MS medium containing 50-75-100-125-150 mg/1 kanamycin and supplemented with 1 mg/1 BA, 0.2 mg/1 NAA. Transgene integration was proved by PCR analysis with npt II spcific primers followed by Southern hybridisation of DNA isolated from green shoots on medium containing 150 mg/1 kanamycin. Several putative transformants were subjected to RT-PCR in order to examine the npt 11 expression at mRNA level. Both the transformant and the non-transformant plants were potted into glasshouse to observe the effect of changed ethylene production on flowering time, petal senescence and vase life.

     

  • Flower density and winter damage of apricot and peach varieties
    53-56.
    Views:
    223

    Hungary is located on the northern boundary of economical apricot and peach production. The present assortment of varieties and the actual, not adequately selected growing sites cause a permanent risk of winter and spring frosts in their cultivation. The field observations are performed at Debrecen, the Experiment Station Pallag, on 20 apricot and 21 peach varieties. The flower density among the varieties attained 3-4-fold differences. Three categories have been suggested for both species. The density was inferior in Hungary established varieties compared with the new varieties of foreign origin. The minimum temperatures of January 9, 2009 was –17,6 °C , and of December 21, 2009 also –17,6 °C. In some varieties the damage of buds attained 100%. For estimating the yield security, we need to consider also the flower density and the frost damage together. For a mediocre yield, we need a flower density in both species of at least 0.2 living bud/cm. The results confirm the statement that in Hungary, the revision of growing sites is indispensable in order to develop a profitable and competitive apricot and peach growing industry.

  • Branching features of apple cultivars in integrated and organic production technology
    11-14.
    Views:
    277

    In our study, vegetative characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were evaluated in environmentally friendly production systems. Numbers of the branches of the central leader in different high zones were shown. According to our results, number of the branches of the axis was probably larger in the integrated production system, compared to the organic one, which is related to the conditional status of the trees. Based on our experiences training and maintaining canopies in integrated system was easier, as relative more extensive canopies were needed in organic farming.

  • Flower production of apple varieties grown by different environmental technologies
    47-49.
    Views:
    148

    The flower production of four apple varieties have been observed grown in integrated and in ecological growing technologies during the spring of 2010. The trees produced in the last year (2009) nearly similar yields, so the effect of the technologies may causen differences in the production of flowers. According to our results, the ecological technology produced higher flower densities in the majority of variables, which was in relation with the vigor, branching and thickening of the trunks. The varieties observed displayed substantial differences in the appearance of fruiting structures of different age on the branches. This information may prove to be essential for the decisions to be made in timing and severity at the pruning operations.

  • Ecological diversity of Hungarian medicinal and aromatic plant flora and its regional consequences
    10-19.
    Views:
    161

    During the last century the medicinal and aromatic plant sector has became a successful part of the Hungarian Agriculture. Some of the national products have been accepted as a special Hungarian ones ("Hungaricum"), evaluated on the world market, respectfully. By the estimates the cultivation area of medicinal and aromatic plants increased up to 37,000-42,000 hectares and considerable amount — about 10, 000-15, 000 tonnes of dry biomass — are produced by utilisation of Hungarian indigenous flora, year by year.

    In the present work ecological requirements of 97 collected and 55 cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants are characterised. Based on the analysis of -Ts (temperature regime values) about 63 per cent of cultivated species came from Submediterranean and Mediterranean type of habitat, originally, while the majority of collected plants (61.8 per cent of them) prefer the deciduous forest conditions. The differences between collected and cultivated species are appreciable too, if the distributions of their characteristic water regime ('W' values) are compared. The majority of cultivated species require dry (moderate dry) and fresh (moderate fresh) habitats, while the amplitude of water requirement of collected species is much more wide-ranging.

    The regional specialisation of Hungary according to production of medicinal and aromatic plants is known from the beginnings of the 20th century. As a result of spontaneous process seven well-defined production areas were developed. The relationship between regions, their climatic conditions and spectrum of species produced there are analysed.

     

  • Comparative economic analysis of superintensive and intensive apple orchards
    45-48.
    Views:
    184

    The objective of thsi study was to compare economic aspects of superintensive and intensive apple production.
    According to our results, conclusions and recommendations regarding the establishment of superintensive orchards are the followings: A yield of 60 tons per hectare in the average of the mature years provide a quite late payback, in this way yield losses should be avoided in the plantation of such a huge capital requirement. When yield losses happen, which cannot be avoided or may be avoided only in a limited way, up to 65 to 70 tons per hectare yield should be reached even in good years, in order to yield the average 60 tons per hectare in the long run. In this case yield losses from production technological mistakes must not be arisen. Inputs and professional expertise should be used in a maximum way in order to reach yields ensuring profitable production. Investment subsidies may ensure safer return. The return of a superintensive orchard from totally own sources may be risky under the domestic marketing conditions and selling prices, it is strongly uncertain.

  • The future of the Hungarian sour cherry growing branch
    99-104.
    Views:
    191

    The present study deals with the actual situation of the Hungarian sour cherry production in order to outline the chances of the future and the trends of the development anticipated. The general conclusion accepted that on the long run Hungarian sour cherry production ought to be reorganised. The conditions of keeping the position on the international market are outlined: integration of small farms into large plantations (several times 10 hectares), introduction of mechanical harvest and high (15–20 t/ha) yields. For all that, adequate expertise should be developed on the cooperative farms, where the up to date technology could be applied with innovative initiatives. Small farms (up to 1–2 hectares) and home gardens have no chances to stay on the competitive market. The actual volume of sour cherry of 40–70 thousand tons per year cannot be increased in the future. The sour cherry area was 16 000 ha in 2001, the actual is around 12–13 thousand, and will decline during the following 5 years to less than 10 thousand hectares.

  • Down-regulation of ethylene production in carnation (Dianthus Caryphyllus L.) by an apple derived ACC-cDNA
    101-104.
    Views:
    127

    Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.