The demand of natural and medicinal products has been increased for the past years. These products are often made from herbal and medicinal plants, and recently the mushroom products are much called. Nearby some well known species (like Lentinula edodes or Ganoderma lucidum) some not respected biomedicines are availab...le in Hungary. Agaricus blazei (Murrill) is a Basidiomycota fungus, with almond-like taste and nice texture. This medicinal mushroom proved to be useful in cancer therapy and against some bacterial and viral diseases. In our experiment we tested 8 Agaricus blazei strains on fermented mushroom compost. The yields, average mushroom size, productivity and biological efficiency of the species were measured. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to get fruit bodies less than 2 months, and strain "837", "2603" and "MaHe" are suggested for further experiments. These strains gave the highest yield and efficiency in the cultivation.
Vitamin D is essential for the human body and mushrooms are one of the natural sources of it. Many research works are aimed at enhancing the vitamin D2 content of mushrooms with UV irradiation in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. The subjects of most of these studies are...different kind of post-harvest cultivated mushrooms. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest oyster mushrooms were treated in the growing room with UVB and UVC light. UVB and UVC lamps (operating on 312 and 254 nm) and 6 time periods of irradiation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 and ergosterol analysis. Data showed considerable increase (from 0,67 μg/g to 3,68 μg/g, f.w.) in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in case of both wavelengths.
In this study I compared the nutritional composition of the commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with three of the most important cultivated mushrooms: white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus LANGE/IMBACH), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp. JACQ. P. KUMM.) and shiitake (Lentinula edodes BERKELY/PEGLER). I compared the energy content and some...mineral values (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and selenium), as these play a major role in the nutritional value of mushrooms. The focus was on the vitamin B group and the vitamin D content in mushrooms, which is especially important due to the fact that fruits and vegetables do not contain this vitamin. Nowadays one of the main research and experimental topic is finding possible ways for enhancing the vitamin D content in cultivated mushrooms by UV-light. The Corvinus University of Budapest is running a project in this research area as well. Based on the data presented in this study we can say that mushrooms and therefore the cultivated mushrooms have an honourable place within the group of functional foods.
The king oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus eryngii) is more and more popular amongst the producers due to its excellent taste and relatively easy cultivation . In the course of our work we collected 15 king oyster mushroom strains from various habitats in Hungary in order to get a better picture about the growth of the vegetative mycelia of...the species and its different strains. In the in vitro experiments we investigated the growth of the strains at various temperatures and pH. incubated them in light and darkness and in aerobic and anaerobic atmosphere. In addition to these we measured the weight of dry mycelia produced in a given time by the strains. Our results showed that the above mentioned environmental conditions resulted in a very different growth rate of the vegetative mycelia of the various P. eryngii strains. These results may provide valuable data about the vegetative phase of the cultivation.
Our research led to the gathering some relevant information about the growing technology of the Pleurotus eryngii. In some European countries this mushroom is quiet favourable. The detail of the growing technology has not been determined in detail yet. These partial results led us to carry on with the research towards a development of...covering technology. With some new series of experiments and with the use of some new covering mixtures and their application of different thickness we are hoping to clarify the details of the technology.
The Spent mushroom compost means the remained soil without sporophores after the productive.period. The leftover can't be used for mushroom growing again (Gy6r1i, 2001). Unfortunately spent musnroom compost still has bad judgment, as it would be garbage, but on the contrary it is a significant and valuable material, which is full of organic res...idue, a perfect soil structure improver, nutrition supplement and propagating medium. In our experiment we took the following mediums: control material with 50% flat moor peat and 50% high moor peat (Novobalt) content, 100% spent compost, 50% spent compost and 50% control medium, 25% spent compost and 75% control medium. On the day of plantation and after the forcing experiment we took sample from the control medium and from all mixtures.
Our experiments aimed at comparing the yields of the oyster mushroom hybrid Pleurotus HK 35 with those of the species Pleurotus sajor-caju on wheat straw. No data concerning the yields of the "Indian oyster" has so far been published in Hungary. The objective was, on the one hand, to discover what "phoenix" yields could be exp...ected on 100 kg substrate, and on the other hand, to compare the yields with those of Pleurotus HK 35 which plays a dominant role in commercial production. We were also curious to know the amounts of harvest losses with the two mushrooms when picked with cut stems. It would be advisable to make progresses in developing production technology, especially in increasing yields. Considering that in its native place this species is able to provide yields even at temperatures of 22-28 °C, it seems possible that in hot summer months, as a shift from the hybrid HK 35, the production of the "Indian oyster" could be more economical.