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  • Ornamental plants in Hungary Part II. Open-ground cultivation
    143-147.
    Views:
    143

    The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flowers (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.

     

  • Floral biology of tree fruit rootstocks
    153-161.
    Views:
    152

    The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.

  • Book review: Little Hungarian Fruit Growing
    70-71.
    Views:
    195

    There is a part in the history of agriculture that deals with all the past issues of fruit growing, which also deals with the material and intellectual values of fruit species. Just as history is a science, so historical fruit-growing works in so many ways, so does frontier science…

    Presumably, different issues are important to today’s fruit growers than those dealing with the past and historicity of fruit growing. The distinction between historical fruit production and the history of fruit production is justified because of differences in aims and methods. However, examining and explaining certain issues can yield economically useful results.

  • Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry
    49-52.
    Views:
    182

    Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

  • Utilisation of subsurface waters for soilless vegetable forcing in the Southern Great Plain region of Hungary
    43-45.
    Views:
    144

    For soilless vegetable production of the Southern Great Plain region in Hungary, there is enough water available, however, the origin and chemical composition of it are decisive from the point of view of practicability. The ground water is everywhere accessible, although its sodium and chloride content is almost always significant, moreover, human pollution may occur (e.g. nitrates and phosphates). A further unfavourable moment is the seasonal variation observed within the area of the same community. The abundant supply of water in the Quaternary strata are located in more than half of the cases within the upper 50 m region. As by the expected changes of the climate, a strategic increment of the importance of subsurface waters is anticipated. Their composition is relatively stable, and the prognoses are reliable for the same settlement. Salt content of the majority of water resources bearing hydrocarbonates is low, however, streaming of the subsurface waters tend to increase their sodium content and to diminish their calcium and magnesium, whereas the pH increases (mainly by ion-exchange). Water quality is decisive not only because of the interaction with the plants but also from the point of view of the distribution of water. Some micro-elements, mainly iron and secondarily manganese may cause problems, therefore, irrigation water ought to be prepared carefully. Production technology should be completed by a technical equipment using aeration for the elimination of ironinfluence of yields on rate of return of investment; (3) the role of increasing of added value content of products. Importance of the utilisation of alternative channels of distribution and the formation of producers' cooperatives are underlined, being based on calculation of return of investment.

  • The effect of climatic anomalies on the nutrient supply of fruit plantations (Minireview)
    111-116.
    Views:
    220

    Climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water stresses. Nowadays, we have to know the dark side of the weather events because it is causing more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary. The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake following climatic anomalies and response. These problems are: (i) water supply problems (water-stress); (ii) drought and frost as temperature­ strees. Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:

    • Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
    • The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
    • When developing a fruit orchard, three factors should be taken into consideration: "Location, Location, Location".
    • Moreover, proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of climatic anomalies.
    • Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
    • Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as modifier factors.

    Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees.

    Another solving is groundcover of soil means a potential opportunity to temper or even avoid climatic anomalies.

  • Foliar Nutrition and Post-Harvest of Onion Seed: Effects of storage temperatures, storage period and foliar nutrition
    29-47.
    Views:
    202

    The aim of onion bulb storage is to meet consumer demand for extended availability of onions whilst maintaining product quality. The principal biological factors leading to onion bulb deterioration are respiration, resumption of growth and pathogen attack. In onion bulbs a dormant period, when sprouting and rooting cannot be induced, is followed by a period of internal changes that prepare the bulb for breaking of dormancy and subsequent growth. Out of storage, the bulb then proceeds towards flowering and seed production. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on yield and yield components of onion seeds and storage The seed yield of each commercial compounds plot from previous experiment was divided into two groups, storage under room temperature and 5°C. Seeds transferred immediately after drying to Increasing Export Competition of Some Vegetable Crops Project Laboratory located in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. The effects of storage temperature, storage period and foliar with some commercial compounds on onion seed quality were considered. Storage in 5°C had the higher germination percentage than storage in room temperature. Results indicated that as storage period increased the germination percent decreased. The treatment with boron or amica in the first season had the highest germination percentage. While, the treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer or amino X had the highest germination percentage in the second season. Storage in 5°C resulted in higher moisture content than storage in room temperature. Regarding the effect of storage period on moisture content, the water content was significantly increased with prolongation of storage period. The lowest values of water content were recorded for treatments with union feer, shams K or boron in the first season, and union feer, shams K, boron, magnesium, shetocare or hummer in the second one. Catalase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. The treatment with shams K, boron, shetocare or amino X had the highest catalase activity in both seasons. Peroxidase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. Foliar application with boron had the highest peroxidase activity in both seasons. Seed stored in room temperature had the higher malondialdehyde content than those stored in 5°C in the second season. The malondialdehyde content increased as storage period increased. The treatment with magnesium, caboron and the control in the first season, and the treatment with magnesium and the control in the second season had the highest malondialdehyde content.

  • Freeze Susceptibility of Fruit Buds in 67 Apple cultivars in Hungary
    29-35.
    Views:
    120

    Frost damage is one of the most important risks of apple production. Outstanding importance has been attributed to the frost resistance of flower-buds as decisive sites of fruit production. Browning of plants parts and tissues exposed to natural weather adversities are considered as effects of frost. In Hungary, frost damage on flower buds of both the market and new cultivars has not been assessed earlier. Observations referring to the consequences of frost damages of over four critical years, marked by their peculiar winter and spring frost hazards. Parallel observations have been made in four sites of the growing area in the Great-Plain region. 67 apple cultivars have been assessed. Each cultivar was represented by 3 trees, which were sampled at about 1-1.5 m height over ground, where the buds or inflorescences were picked for the purpose to assess the injury. The buds and flowers are cut longitudinally and rated visually according to the extent of browning of the organs and tissues. Susceptibility of different organs of the flower (pistils and anthers) were rated separately. According to our results, most resistant to spring frosts are the following cultivars: 'Gloster', 'Granny Smith' and appreciable tolerance is attributed in 'Gala' and 'Jonathan' with derivatives. Preliminary results that among the scab resistant cultivars, `Baujade', 'Rewena', 'Liberty', `Resi' and 'Renora' are rather frost resistant. Information, lacking hitherto, is obtained upon 'Reka' and 'Reglindis' as for their increased susceptibility.

  • Fungicide resistant Trichoderma strains causing compost infection in shiitake production
    67-70.
    Views:
    118

    Trichoderma infection represents the major problem of shiitake production in the growing house of the Research Institute at Kecskemet. Heavy infections occur mainly on the compost before spawn run. All the isolated strain belongs to the species Trichoderma harzianurn, but morphology of the colony indicates that there are more strains liable for the infection. Source of infection remained unclear but the Trichoderma strains can be considered as weed moulds rather than true pathogens of shiitake. All the Trichoderma isolates showed unusual high degree of resistance to fungicides.

  • Evaluation of the vegetative and generative performance of new apple cultivars in the Nyírség region
    39-44.
    Views:
    220

    In this paper we examine apple varieties, which are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of the Western- European countries, but about its production characteristics we don’t have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in their origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. Under the Hungarian climate which tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experiments is located in the Nyírség representing adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be adapted easily in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties (’Gala Venus Fengal’, ’Gala Decarli-Fendeca’, ’Galaval’, ’Jugala’, ’Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, ’Red Cap Valtod (S)’, ’Early Red One’, ’Jeromine’, ’Crimson Crisp (Co-op 39)’, ’Red Topaz’, ’Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’, ’Red Idared’, ’Fuji September Wonder’, club cultivar) we found significant differences. The ratio of the thickness of trunk and the main branches showed that the trees have an optimal canopy structure in accordance with the Zahn principles, so they are in harmonious growing balance. The ‘Gala’ sport trained to slender spindle produced the highest yields, while the ‘Fuji’ and the ‘Red Delicious’ sport trained to super spindle can be described with the lowest values. All the cultivars reached the eating quality (65-70 mm), from which the ’Red Idared’, the ’Red Jonaprince’ and the ’Red Cap’ produced outstanding fruit size (81-85 mm).

  • Possibilities of blossom and twig blight management in organic stone fruit production
    103-105.
    Views:
    197

    In this study, possibilities of environmentally-benign plant protection against blossom and twig blight were summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then cultivar susceptibility to blossom and twig blight was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods were selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotechnical, biological, and other non-chemical control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials).

  • Role of nutrient supply in yield increase and quality improvement of spice pepper
    83-86.
    Views:
    110

    Hungarian spice pepper powder is a unique product, a real hungaricum with its flavour and aroma compounds and seasoning effect. Its competitiveness with foreign spice peppers is ensured by its high biological value deriving from the specially Hungarian production and processing technology. Besides the traditional and highly manual labour intensive processing technology, there are some modern industrial technologies as well, where high quality can be guaranteed only by producing excellent base material (raw pepper pods). This is the reason which necessitates the rational development of the elements of the production technology, such as nutrient supply. Our objective was to offer a contribution to this aim by our trials in plant nutrition.

    Experiments on the nutrient supply of spice pepper were set up in the 2003 growing season in order to decide whether yields and fruit composition parameters of pepper could be increased by means of increased K fertiliser doses with lower N:K ratios. Several forms of potassium were used, as well as applying microelement top dressings in the single treatments. It was found that the increase of N:K ratio from I:1 to 1:6 did not increase yields, but resulted in higher pigment and dry matter content. Microelement top dressing had a yield increasing effect at each N:K ratio. Higher potassium doses did not accelerate ripening.

  • The effect of rootstock on the nectar production of apple cultivar `Idared'
    15-25.
    Views:
    128

    Approaches based on the daily rhythm of apple flowers provide a new stage in nectar research, where the synchronous functioning of sexual organs is studied. In the flower biological studies the insect attraction of flowers was also studied. The two most important factors of insect attraction are the pollen- and nectar production of the flowers. From 1993 to 1998 we studied the food, that flower had to offer for the pollinating insects at different times of the day.

    Studies were carried out on 'Idared', one of the hybrids of 'Jonathan' apple cultivar. The fruit of 'Idared' is bigger than the fruit of `Jonathan'. It is bright red, transportable, has a bigger productivity and is not subject to Jonathan-spots. Concerning its inner characteristics, it is juicy, the flesh consistency is better than that of 'Jonathan', but its acid/sugar ratio is worse (Sansavini et al. 1981).

     

  • Pre-scaling up evaluation of banana technology under irrigation conditions in Abergelle District, Wag-himra Zone, Ethiopia
    39-44.
    Views:
    544

    The study was conducted to compare the improved banana technology against the local production technique to enhance demand-driven banana technology up-scaling and diffusion. Data were collected at the field and farmers' levels. Descriptive and inferential statistics, cost-benefit analysis and matrix ranking were employed for analysis. The result revealed that the average yield (38.40 ton ha-1) of improved banana technology had a significant yield advantage (47.24%) over the local practice (p<0.05). Despite the higher cost of production, its net return was by far higher than the local practice. The benefit-cost ratio also displays that 9.49 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) profit per 1.00 ETB investment in an improved technology package. The overall farmers' perceptions were laid under strongly agree and agree categories, and 95% of them believed that the improved banana technology was appropriate for their area and hence accepted with full confidence. The respective organizations working on rural livelihood improvement are therefore advised to up-scale the improved technology for the wider community based on the irrigation potential.

  • Economic analysis of up-to-date sour cherry or in Hungary
    89-94.
    Views:
    158

    In this study cost-profit analysis is carried out to up-to-date Hungarian sour cherry orchards. These orchards cover only 1 to 3 thousand hectares from the sour cherry territory of 16 thousand hectares. In a many-year-average a yield of 15 tons per hectare may be reached in up-to-date sour cherry orchards cultivated under high standard conditions. Per hectare direct production costs take up of approximately 1000 thousand HUF, from which the major portion (60%) is accounted for the personal cost of harvesting. Regarding the above mentioned average yield and a selling price of 100 HUF per kilogram a revenue of 1 500 thousand HUF may be realized, which results in a per hectare contribution of 500 thousand HUF. To sum up, regarding the present extremely unfavourable selling price only reaching an average yield of 15 to 20 tons per hectare may lead to appropriate profit.

  • Disease progress of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis in environmentally friendly growing systems
    56-62.
    Views:
    185

    Progression of apple scab epidemic in six apple cultivars, including two current and susceptible (Gala Must, Elstar), two old (Egri Piros, Darusóvári), and two resistant cultivars (Relinda, Releika), were described and analysed in a two-year-study, in two environmental-friendly growing systems (organic and integrated). Curves of disease progress, linear regression analysis of transformed disease incidence data and Area Under Disease Progress Curves (AUDPC) were used to characterise the epidemic processes of the selected cultivars. Cumulative disease progress curves showed continuous but asymmetrical scab development on the moderate or highly susceptible cultivars Gala Must, Elstar and Egri Piros, and on the tolerant or resistant cultivar Darusóvári and Relinda, in both systems. The cultivar Releika showed no symptoms either on fruit or leaf. In linear regression analysis, the best linearisation was given by logistic transformation. Adequate parameters leaf disease incidence rate, of obtained from a regression equation, were higher in the organic system than in the integrated system. Values of AUDPC showed great differences in leaf disease incidences among cultivars and between growing systems. AUDPC gave more differences for comparison of progresses of disease epidemic than growth rate of disease in different systems of disease control. Moreover, the obtained results were compared with similar studies on different pathosystems, and biological interpretations of the analyses are discussed below.

  • Eicosapentaenoic acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum under different culture condition
    133-136.
    Views:
    117

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640 strain of microalgae was screened under different culture conditions for their capacity to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In our experiments, the effect of sodium chlorid, nitrogen source, phosphate, initial pH, as well as the CO2 content of the medium on production of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by P. tricornutum were investigated. The EPA content of biomass was enhanced by the low pH of the medium, with increased concentrations of B17 vitamin and nitrate, and also with decreasing concentrations of sodium chlorid. The EPA is most likely associated with polar (membran) lipids and the role of EPA appears to be involved with membran permeability in microalge. The synthesis of phospholipids, enhances the EPA content of the cells, as expected. The maximum EPA yields were observed under optimum culture condition 43 — 48 mg/g of dry cell weight.

  • Quality improvement in viticulture and winery
    55-62.
    Views:
    121

    The author determines the development of the grape and wine production branches as a very cogent common task. Because of its importance this sector enables the livelihood of 100-150 thousand families and also of $ 80-100 million export income. A state subsidy is indispensable to the realization of that project. In the author's opinion on round 100 000 ha plantation area yearly 4-4.5 million hl wine can be produced, therefrom the export may amount to 1-1.3 million hl.

    Yearly 3000 ha vineyards should be planted in order to maintain the present production capacity.

     

  • Scheduling of irrigation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) using canopy temperature
    89-94.
    Views:
    130

    The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8t ha-I for spring sown and 1.9 t ha-I in summer-sown plants without irrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5t ha-I was reached twice in the case of spring sowing and only once in the case of summer sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature every day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterize the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value may cause 90-130 kg/ha yield loss.

  • Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato
    17-20.
    Views:
    176

    The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

  • Economic figures of apple production at national level of Hungary
    103-105.
    Views:
    240

    Apple is the most important fruit in Hungary, despite of that, it is a paradox that during the last years, apple growing was the most unsuccessful enterprise among the prosperous ones in the country. The real cause of regression was unequivocally the low price, which could be obtained and the inadequate structure of apple varieties. A heavy problem is still the overweight of the quality doomed to supplying the processing industry instead to the fresh consumption. In order to improve the conditions, we aimed the economic analysis of the five year long period, 2005-2009, to trace the changes involving values and costs of production, income and all conditions combined with this activity. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of that branch in economics.

  • Evaluation of hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) varieties for green pod yield and quality under rain fed production at Teppi, South Western Ethiopia
    45-49.
    Views:
    199

    The trials were designed with three replications in a randomized complete block design in order to evaluate the phenological, growth and yield potential of hot pepper varieties such as ‘Mareko fana’, ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Melka Awaze’, ‘Melka Shote’ and local check. Significant difference was observed between growing year and used varieties. The varieties also performed significantly different (p<0.05) for most of the considered traits in the study. The result revealed that varieties ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Mareko fana’ and ‘Melka Awaze’ were scored highest green pod yield of 8.39, 8.71 and 11.39 ton per hectare, respectively. However, ‘Mareko fana’ variety was susceptible to disease attack as compared to other varieties. Therefore, promoting both ‘Melka Awaze’ and ‘Melka Zala’ varieties for widespread production for Teppi and the areas with similar agro-ecological conditions could contribute to boost the productivity of hot pepper. ‘Mareko fana’ could also be used for dry pod purpose due to its attractive color.

  • Real-case application of mycorrhizal inoculums on Capsicum annuum L. var. longum cv. Szegedi and Kalocsai
    75-79.
    Views:
    175

    The aim of this study was to test the use of commercially available arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculant Symbivit, a mixture of six species of Glomus spp., in spice pepper field cultivation. The inoculants containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was able to establish a symbiosis in the rhizosphere of pepper plants and mycorrhizal inoculation increased fresh and dry weights of shoots of spice pepper cv. Szegedi and only fresh weight of Kalocsai type. There were no significant differences in the root weights due to treatment only in fresh weight of Kalocsai pepper type. Treated plants of both variants exhibited an increase in cumulative crop production compared with control non-treated plants and the growth response of pepper was higher for var. Szegedi than var. Kalocsai. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a great positive effect on external hyphal length of AMF also showing differences in that between Kalocsai and Szegedi variants. The root colonization showed seasonality by treated and non-treated plants. The lowest degree of colonization was observed in June in general and colonization percent increased during vegetative development and there was a slight decrease at harvesting. In conclusion, it can be stated that inoculation with Symbivit containing mycorrhizal fungi could be an integral part of spice pepper production.

  • Study on the mushroom species Agaricus blazei (Murill)
    45-48.
    Views:
    177

    Nowadays, Agaricus blazei is known all over the world as a mushroom species with unparalleled medicinal properties besides its culinary delights and therefore its regular consumption is recommended in the first place for the prevention of various cancers. For the past decade researchers have been active in the study of its therapeutic properties. Its production started only a decade ago and there are a number of questions yet to be answered. At the moment, the most widespread technique is to grow it using composts similar to those of the button mushroom. In contrast to the common button mushroom, its production differs markedly from that of the button mushroom in that it develops fruiting bodies only in light and requires that the compost temperature be high, around 25 °C, also in the fruiting period and has a much higher need for fresh air. It is also sold in fresh form but mainly as a dried product, in powdered form or as capsules or pills.

  • Organic and mineral fertilizer effects on the yield and mineral contents of carrot (Daucus carota)
    69-74.
    Views:
    411

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.