A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
The Buda Arboretum of the Szent István University is situated in the western-middle part of the city of Budapest. It contains 1640 taxa of woody plants on an area of 7.5 ha. The sheltered position and the urban micro- and meso-climate is favourable for warm-loving, even subtropical plants, of which many species not simply stay alive, but flowe...r, bear fruits and are spreading by seedlings in suitable spots. These instances call our attention to the possibilities that urban climate offers for landscapers, but also to over 110 species, which can be garden escapes in the future. Full list of plants, which tend to escape in the Arboretum is given in the paper.
The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.
The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.
Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.
To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).
The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flower...s (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.
In order to improve the post production quality of cut flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Baroness, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g LI. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or wit...hout sucrose at 50 g 1-I. l-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g in-3 for 6h.
The postproduction quality was improved as a result of using any chemical treatment comparing with untreated control. All the treatments of 8-HQS increased the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of rose cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was lorger when 8-HQS was combined with sucrose. The best treatment of 8-HQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS + 50 g 1-1 sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss compared to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucrose was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose was the best one. l -MCP treatment prolonged the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level compared with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was l -MCP at 0.5 g m-3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chid)) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than the control. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose gave the best results in this respect.
During the winter dormancy period of 1998-99, the differentiation process of xylem and the formation of annual and pseudo-annual growth rings was studied in sections of the central stem of Thuja orientalis of different age (1-14 year old), starting from the top (the tip of leader shoot) towards the bottom. In the apical 1-2 cm portion ...of the one year-old leader shoot, only the protoxylem was formed by the end of vegetation. The protoxylem elements appeared first in 6 bundles than gradually merged into 2 semiquadrangular (triangular) bands (each containing 3 protoxylem bundels) around the pith. In this stem portion, the pith was cross-formed first and became gradually flattened at the lower stem parts, following the generally flattened shape of the stem and the respective facial and marginal position of leaves. A continuous xylem ring (with formation of metaxylem elements) apeared 3-5 cm below the shoot tip. In fact, it was the stem part where a "real" annual ring was formed by the end of vegetation. The first pseudo-annual rings were observed 16 cm below the top. The "regular" annual rings were completely continuous all around the stem, consisted of strongly flattened in radial direction thick-walled latewood tracheids and had a distinct border (demarcation line) at the end of the year. The "pseudo-annual" rings formed incomplete dark rings or semicircular bands within the earlywood. They were composed of tracheids with thick cell walls but somewhat wider radial diameter than those of the "real" annual rings, and the border between their outside margin and the next earlywood was less distinct.
In the xylem of two year old stem portion, the innermost central annual ring appeared not at the transition zone between the current and the former years of growth, but about 2 cm lower. Above that, only the thick-walled bundles of the former years protoxylem were found. Down the stem, the older sections showed similar features: the next annual ring appeared always somewhat lower than the borderzone of the given and the former years growth. The "pseudoannual" rings (or more correctly the growth rings) continued regularly to appear in the lower (older) sections of the stem as well. They were found untill the age of up to 14 years (the bottom of the studied plants). Their number was 3-4 per year first, than (from the 5th annual ring counted from the centre) decreased to 3,2,1, and in the youngest outer part of the xylem there was no pseudo-annual ring at all. The development of pseudo-annual rings was usually more marked on the thicker (more branched) than on the thinner side of stem. Stems older than 14 years were not studied.
The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m<...sup>-3 for 611.
Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.
Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growe...rs had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.
Cut flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Suny Reagan were treated with different concentrations of 8- hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in order to improve the post production quality. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 O. STS was used at 0.2,... and 0.4 mM with or without sucrose at 50 g/1 1-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g/m3 for 6h.
All the treatments of 8-HQS prolonged the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of chrysanthemum cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was larger when sucrose not combined with 8-HQS. The best treatment of 8-1-IQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS without sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss comparing to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucroseas was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g/I sucrose was the best one. 1-MCP treatment increased the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level comparing with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was 1-MCP at 0.5 g/m3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chl.b) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than that of the control. The treatment of 1-MCP at 0.5 g/m3 6h gave the best results in this respect.
The chemical composition, amino acids and carbohydrates, of the pollen has been analysed in varieties grown in Hungary during the years 1993 at Kecskemet and 1995 at Cegléd and Pomáz. The distinction of 17 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates has been achieved. The aim of the study was to find criteria for the distinction of varieties.
The... total content of amino acids varied between 15.53 and 20.54 %. The highest ratios represented the asparagine and the glutamine acids. The relative content in other amino acids was between 2 and 7 % of the total. The less frequent were cysteine and valine.