The Steps (Dissertations the fruit growing troll) on front-page of volume are visible ruins and stairway of the famous Machu Picchu. Five selfdetermined head stands the volume, essentially the author yet career one - one station, which the plant sexuality, the fruit cropping and sure environmental and plant health problems searching is compr...ising reached results engaged on 310 page, with 130 tables and 79 figures. The volume is brandnew notification shape in Hungarian and international scientific literature.
71-76.Vol 12No 32006
The plum traditional fruit species in Hungary, several local cultivars was born in the different grower's districts. The author that investigated, that are morphological differences between an odds find self-fertile, self sterile (with functional stamens) and male sterile plum cultivars. For it thought about main questions of a scientific debate s...own up and the study this way gave reactions totalize. There were in three fertile groups 8-8 type of feature plum cultivars in periods of 1992-2001, respectively 1993-1999. It was founded by author big odds found the troops on the basis of 9 traits between. Pistil length of self sterile cultivars very typical, such as sesquipedalian flower peduncle of the self-fertile plums and the hypoandry of male sterile cultivars. The relative stamen number and the pollen viability as well significant odds gave. The average fruit mass and sharka infection of self-fertile plums this troops extreme work. According to cultivar's averages the shark symptoms standard the right correlation the singular traits, but those one part of her with each other not shown connection. The annuity potencies underdeveloped the troops behind and the troops within cultivar's differences had case significance. The results usable the male sterile cultivars and progeny further its investments.
147-152.Vol 12No 22006
The author post few years organizes the plum breeding program. He uses up earlier elaborated morphogenetic and productive characteristics and traits, already on such basis their selected 21 cultivars in the pomological garden at Cegléd. The Hungarian plum assortment and offer very specific and tight, thus that they endeavor, that the selection be...fore then flare. There are indicating already only the perspective cultivars in present paper on basis of gathered data one decade underneath. Paralleling control was three type of used (Besztercei szilva Bt. 2, Green gage and Stanley). 12-sort trait according to were compared the cultivars. The productivity-biological standpoints without, the open pollination and pollen germination, over and above that the ripening on date big differences appear. The near future the 'C. 1501' (Yellow Besztercei), 'Ontario' and `Mirabelle de Nancy' (yellow plums), the yes untimely `Precoce di Guigno' (red plum), the very well abundant 'C. 940' and Victoria (lilac plums), over and above that 'Beregi datolya', ‘Révfülöpi’ and `Szarvasi' (blue plums) cultivars setup suggest. The demonstrated cultivars out of further give for deputize value the Precoce di Giugno, as earliest ripening and the 'Beregi datolya' but the at the latest ripening.
Since the early eras of human history, the gathered products (roots, shoots, crops, fruits etc.), the environmental conditions of the preservation of the animals caught and the fishes; and accidental observations have been born new methods. Under cold and moderate climates, the effect of permanent frost, the use of ice as a means of curing as in d...ry, desert areas is the drying or exsiccation and the dehydration of salt. For convenience reasons, some of these methods have been forgotten, but the resurfacing of different fruits seems to resume. The short review gives an overview of the methods of drying used in the Carpathian Basin, especially among the Hungarian ethnic groups, which by the Hungarian ethnology thoroughly explored. The author attaches outstanding importance to the fruit-drying industry, because dried-ups at industrial scale are not equivalent to traditional low-fat lime scales. Excellent drying products are much better in terms of eating habits, with modern methods and small-scale production relatively easy to produce.
73-79.Vol 11No 12005
The author dealt with plum species representing different eco-geographic areas by their genetic adaptation and their hybrids, as European (P. domestica, P. italica, P. cerasifera), Asian (P. salicina, P. simonii, P. ussuriensis), American (P. americana, P. besseyi, P. munsoniana, P. tomentosa). The rootstocks of the trees examined were seedlings o...f C. 679 myrobalan with the exception of Laroda and Santa Rosa II, which were grown on three different stocks: seedlings of C. 174 myrobalan, C. 449 bitter almond and C. 471 sweet almond. The size of peduncle, length of pistil, stamen number per flower, relative stamen number (SN/PL) have been suitable for description and distinction of varieties. Similarly shape of leaves, length of petiole, length and width of blade helped the identification. The ratio of the dimensions of leaves, length of petiole and of leaf blade, also contributed to the distinction of European, Asian and American plum species, notwithstanding their relations with ecological conditions as well as historical, technical properties, pomological features, etc. Computed indicators (relative stamen number and shape-index of leaves) also have been useful data. Significant correlations have been found between colour of nectaries and mean values of variety-groups. The potential values of non-European varieties for purposes of commercial production could be forecasted from the point of view of quality, ecological, pomological as well as market value. It is important, however, to know the effect of the rootstock and growing site as well as their interaction, on the one hand, whereas the resistance or tolerance of the varieties as limiting factors, at least to the sharka (Plum pox) virus, Xanthomonas pruni, on the other hand (cf. Surányi & Erdős, 2004a and 2004b).
35-50.Vol 22No 3-42016
The herbaceous plants organic characterize Ellenberg et al. worked out (1991), well-use system, which is updated with herbaceous and woody plant in the Hungarian flora species, so Soó (1964-1985), Zólyomi et al. (1967), Précsényi (1986) and Simon (1988) also addressed by different aspects of this problem circuits. The author is the first exten...ded-Borhidi –Ellenberg’s system of wild fruit species (Surányi 2000, 2006) and cultivated of fruit (Surányi 2014) as well. Additional considerations there were aspects of the study of fruit varieties, these biological indicators following open pollination, frost tolerance, resistance of Sharka virus and disease susceptibility for. Firstly, we introduced a system for improving it a plum species and cultivars (Surányi 2015). In this case we used the new system among species and varieties of apricots, because diversity was able to express significantly. Especially the SB, WB, NB, and the relative biological value figures showed the variety. RB (reaction figures) fluctuated only slightly among the 463 varieties, but the dynamic difference between the 11’s was an indicator for the characterization of apricots. If the comparison performed plum and apricot variety’s level anyway justified the use of 11 kinds of organic and biological indicators.
The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera), Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. a...mara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums: 1/ unfavorable environmental conditions 2/ lack of irrigation and 3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices. A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.
37-53.Vol 21No 3-42015
The study was conducted to compare historical plums, gene collections, and is currently cultivated and recent perspective varieties from the author. The object of the study was the relative ecological Borhidi’s figures and classification of varieties under the new definition, as the relative biological values. There were 11 figures no one in par...ticular affect the data of the plums grown in importance as TB, WB, RB, LB, and the values are relative biological value (OP, FR, SS, and DR). The specificity of each indicator was different, but in general the importance and specific breeds was associated with. The SB (salt figures) is not proved informative, partly because small data in the literature, on the other hand, had little to their own observations as well. The gene bank of Cegléd is now third-generation (1951–1972, 1973–1991, since 1992) kind of collection, during which many aspects have changed climatic conditions: cold winter eased the strictness, but has increased the threatof spring frost advection. The relative biological scores markedly influenced around flowering extreme weather (dry, windy weather and so flowering in within 2-3 days), optimal conditions of the plum pox virus vectors and of course the presence of fruit and foliage harmful fungi. It see to be, in the case of semi-wild and wild fruit species – are possible with similar comparative analyzes, and hopefully will in feral forms, culture – as we have seen previously (Surányi 2000 and 2006). In the continuation analysis of the natural vegetation and cultural context of the complex multifactorial factors will be carried out more easily, according to the relative value figures, as well as rootstock effects and plantation’s habitat studies, and even the most phytotechnical evaluation of interventions.
The percentage of dark staining pollen grains was higher in spring of 1996 than in the previous year. Data in 1998 resemble those of 1995, concerning the large amount of medium staining pollen grains in the majority of clones. Some clones produced excellent quality pollen also in the third year. whereas there were significant differences in other ...clones in various years. The warmer February-March period in 1995 induced an early blooming, and frost affected the orchard not only in winter months, but also immediately before and during blooming. Thus, frost was the possible cause of weaker quality pollen this year. In 1996 warming began a bit late, but it was not broken by drastic falls in temperature, except for the middle of April, when a smaller frost affected the orchard. It is likely that this frost did not influence pollen quality of `Besztercei' and 'Early Besztercei' plum clones significantly. In 1998 warming was continuous and steady, the orchard was not affected by frost immediately before blooming. In March, however, there was frost almost every day, according to daily minimum temperatures.
43-52.Vol 19No 3-42013
20–22 and 5–7 years of kind collection of 100 cultivars studied phenology and fl oral morphological basis of characteristics in 1994–1998 and 2009–2011. The varieties were collected 3–5 trees in the gene garden, all were on C. 359 myrobalan seedling. Detecting differences between the test cultivars are suitable for stamps, and also show ...that relatively short-term observations are useful for describing the comparison, to distinguish varieties. The taxonomic ordination of cultivars and groups of fruits suitable to distinguish colors shown that the fl owering and ripening time, the nature of the reproductive organs and even Sharka-rate sensitivity is associated with those groups. Differences between the age of trees mainly sexual organs and fertility were shown. Affecting rate of climatic effects was not as large as the first line of erratic rainfall, air temperature spikes or possible values would be expected. The results of the breed, a gene bank of perception, in particular, the localization of hybrids, clone-type variants are useful in the analysis. Among other things – this is due to late-maturing, relatively well-stored temporarily, and not-blue plums, Sharka-infected tolerant or resistant varieties selection (cf. SURÁNYI 2013a-c) and will be disseminate in Hungary.
50-52.Vol 6No 12000
During the period of 1968-1972 nine sweet cherry varieties were investigated by the author on mazzard seedling rootstock, moreover cv. Germersdorfi óriás and cv. Münchebergi korai sweet cherry cultivars grafted on mahaleb, cv. Korponai and cv. Sukorói cherries were observed on rootstocks of cv. Cigánymeggy sour cherry seedling, too. Yet, t...here are other relations between the different parts of sweet cherry flowers too, which perhaps indicate the effect of rootstocks in Cerasus scions. The flower structure shows feminine character on mahaleb, the effect is intermediate on mazzard, however, the sour cherry rootstock strengthens the male character. Four sour cherry varieties as cv. Cigánymeggy C. 404. cv. Érdi nagygyümölcsű, cv. Meteor korai and cv. Pándy C. 101 were studied on three rootstocks: mazzard, mahaleb and Cigánymeggy C. 215 seedling rootstocks between 1976 and 1980. The pistil length, stamen number and relative stamen number diverged significantly on different rootstocks. The results revealed a close negative correlation between the pistil length and stamen number, furthermore noticing that, in the self-fertile cv. Meteor korai and cv. Újfehértói fürtös presented increasing of the relative stamen number, so the fertility decreased, while in the case of self-sterile varieties the change was favourable. Summing up the results, it is obvious, that the fertility of flowers can be modified by rootstocks and the ecological factors cause sex reversions on different combinations.
7-10.Vol 25No 1-22019
In the gene bank variety collection, 15 plum varieties were examined based on morphogenetic and pomological traits. Most cultivars of self-fertilizing or pollinating partners were well-cultivated. In addition to Queston, Stanley, Valor and Verity, towards 11 new cultivars have been experienced in this paper. From the observations, it seems that t...he growth and plantation of Valor, Presenta, Topfive and Bellamira can increase. However, the Top Sugar and Valor fruit sizes are best suited to market requirements. The role of Stanley may be reduced, but there is no reason to replace it. However, the questions of local varieties of domestic origin fall into a different category, and raw materials for quality products are difficult to replace with other varieties.
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