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  • Alternate bearing of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summered' apples
    77-85.
    Views:
    203

    The aim of the present study was to study the effect of biennial bearing (irregular yields) on the generative production of apple cultivars 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' on M.9 rootstock. The observations were made at Nagykutas in West-Hungary for four years. The authors have studied the flowering time, flower density, fruit density, fruit drop, seed content, yielding and fruit quality in the on-year and off-year. Based on the results, it can be stated that the alternation does not cause a significant change in the flowering time of cvs. 'Golden Reinders' and `Summerred': the difference between the flowering time of trees in the on-year and off-year period was 0-1 day. However, there were significant differences in the flower density. 'Golden Reinders' proved to have a weaker tendency to alternation similarly to the statements of the literature. Alternation (off-year) was observed only in three years from the studied four years. While in the case of `Summerred', strong alternation was observed in all four years. In fruit density, there were differences among the cultivars and among the different cycles of biennial bearing. Fruit density (and its opposite, fruit drop) changed inconsistently in the period between flowering and harvest. In the case of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' 2 and 4 fruit drop periods were detected, respectively. In the off-year, the different periods were less distinct, in most cases they were overlapping each other. The dynamics of fruit drop was related to seed content per fruit. The lower the seed number was, the higher the degree of fruit drop was. In both the high- and off-year cycles, the number of seeds in fruits on the tree and on the ground increased with time. In the yield parameters (fruit number, fruit load, yield efficiency), the differences were greater among the yields of trees in the high- and off-year cycles for 'Summerred'. The fruit quality parameters were greatly influenced by the fruit load of the trees in the different alternation cycles. In general, it can be stated that fruit mass, diameter and height were lower on trees in the on-year. A similar trend could be observed in flesh firmness, cover colour and dry matter content, but the differences were smaller. 'Summerred' was more sensitive to the differences in fruit load.

  • Production data of wine grape gene bank (Vitis spp.) of University of Debrecen, east Hungary
    32-36.
    Views:
    199

    National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acidic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).

  • Investigation of the Relationship between the SO2 Production of Different Yeast Strains and Thiamine Concentration
    57-62.
    Views:
    137

    Our general conclusion was that the thiamine amounts of 0,6 and 3,0 mg/1 added prior to wine fermentation, resulted in higher free-S02 level in comparison to the control. Furthermore, among the yeast strains examined in our experiments, Uvaferm BC strain produced the highest free-S02 content under the conditions mentioned before. As regards the dynamics of reductone and SO, production, the concentration of the previous one was practically identical in the middle and at the end of the fermentation while the SO2 content — both free- and total — was lower at the end. Thiamine addition did not cause any difference in the organoleptic properties of wines as proved by sensory analysis.

  • Historical background and constraints of a grapevine germplasm foundation in Hajdú-Bihar county, Eastern Hungary
    11-17.
    Views:
    245

    The historical background of Debrecen linked to viticulture and wine-making stands mainly on the lack of drinkable water, the necessity of drinkable liquid during wartime and epidemics. The special character of the city evolved together with the changing lives of citizens and the increasing trade importance of the city. Period of Turkish occupation gave impetus to the formation of the 11 vine gardens of the settlement. After the devastation of rootmite and peronospora ‘Kadarica’ and ‘Nagy burgundy’ (‘Blaufrankish’), in smaller proportion - on lower sites – ‘Cabernet’ were planted. As white varieties ‘Ezerjó’, ‘Olasz Rizling’, ‘Kövidinka’, ‘white Mustos’, in smaller proportion ‘Szlankamenka’, ‘Erdei’, ‘Szilvaner’, ‘Mézesfehér’, ‘Bakar’, ‘Veltelini’ (red), ‘Fehér burgundi’ (? white burdunder), ‘Rajnai rizling’, ‘Red Tramini’, ‘Furmint’, ‘Muscat Lunel’, ‘Járdovány’ and ‘Juh-fark’ were planted. After the Trianon treaty in 1920, 2/3rd of Hungary was cut away. Érmellék wine region was also cut in two, thus Debrecen broke away from its wine region. Legal regulations after the World War II. (1959) referred back to variety application advised in 1924 for “place suitable for good wine production, not included in any wine region”, like Debrecen listing ’Ezerjó’, ’Mézesfehér’, ’Olaszrizling’, ’Bánáti rizling’, ’Furmint’, ’Hárslevelű’, ’Kövidinka’, Kecskemét virága’, ’Piros szlankamenka’,’Pozsonyi fehér’; ’Kadarka’, ’Oportó’ and ’Kékfrankos’ (Blaufrankish). The political changes of 1990 and Hungary’s admission to the Eurepoean Union almost annihilated the wine production of Debrecen. However little gardens conserved historic varieties which could date back even to many centuries. Through a local magazine a collecting work was announced pointing to gather ancient local (Vitis vinifera conv. pontica) varieties forming a genebank, established on the experimental station of the University of Debrecen. In 2014, about 112 items were collected (accessions). As a 2nd round of the work, with a more detailed and precise work, further 81 items were put into the reservatum. The latter represent single stuck collection, whereas the first ones are to be studied az mixed items. Most notable accession names (ACENAME) of the work are: ‘Fehér gohér’, ‘Veres gohér’, ‘Fekete gohér’, ‘Kék gohér’, ‘Erdei’, ‘Ezerjó’, ‘Kűbeli’, ‘Rizling’, ‘Mézes fehér’, ‘Dinka’, ‘Madling’, ‘Bakator’ and ‘Kadarka’. Simulteneously with the strenghening and morphological description of conserved stucks genetic identification of the items is being elaborated. Database comprising FAO/IPGRI multi-crop passport descriptors and OIV Primary descriptor priority list are to be published on-line in between the development of the platform.

  • Role of hydrogen peroxide and Pharmaplant-turbo against cucumber powdery mildew fungus under organic and inorganic production
    39-44.
    Views:
    411

    Cucumber leaves have been sprayed with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202) or Pharmaplant-turbo combined with organic or inorganic fertilizers under plasic house. Under the influence of H202, leaves exhibited resistant against Podoshaera fusca fungus, the causal agent of cucumber powdery mildew. H202 (15 mM) was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 12% in two experiments conducted in two seasons. Pharmaplant-turbo (Turbo) is new chemical compound and used as an antifungal compound. Turbo in 1 ml/L was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 11.5% in the both experiments as well. Both of H202 and Turbo were combined with organic treatment (compost + compost tea + seaweed extracts) which showed significant effect against cucumber powdery mildew fungus and strongly suppressed it as compared to control leaves. Organic treatment produced higher vegetative growth characters and greater early and total yields as compared to inorganic treatment, also organic fruits produced the lower nitrate content and the higher ascorbic acid content as compared to inorganic fruits. Our study have indicated that, H202 and Turbo combined with organic fertilizers play a role in the resistance of cucumber against powdery mildew by decreasing the disease severity. We suggest to give more attention to the direct application of H202 in low concentration and Turbo against powdery mildew diseases and other plant diseases.

  • Economic aspects of aged apple plantations in Hungary
    13-16.
    Views:
    127

    Being competitive is a goal all over in the EU. Competition is free and getting closer among the competitors of the apple industry. In Hungary, one of the most important issues of apple industry has been what are the prospects for aged plantations, which account for 50% of crop land. Based on our results, 80% of those apple plantations on the down-grade yielding apple, the ones only for processing, do not meet the criteria of competitive production. For those plantations in better shape that yield 30-40 t/ha, of which at least 20-30% are for fresh production, it can he profitable. Because of the future trend in technology and economy, however, even the latter ones can not be considered being competitive in the long run.

  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) anatomical, physiological, biochemical and production responses to drought stress - A mini-review essay
    40-45.
    Views:
    784

    The cultivated plant climate association in agricultural yields is getting expanded consideration with regards to changing climatic conditions. Abiotic stressors can lead to morpho-anatomical, physiological, and biochemical alterations in harvests, resulting in a significant loss of profit. A comprehension of ecological elements and their communication with physiological cycles is critical for improving agricultural practices. Drought stress is among the main natural factor affecting plant development, growth, and yield measures. Assessing the impact of environmental change and atmospheric variability on tomato crop output will require a thorough understanding of this stress element. The physiology, development, improvement, yield, and quality of the tomato crop are all affected by dry season stress. This mini-review essay presents the most prominent features about the effects of drought stress on tomato crop plant physiology and production, with specific highlighting for the complex relationship between drought stress, and nutrients uptake.

  • The future of the apple growing branch in Hungary
    91-98.
    Views:
    197

    The present study deals with the actual situation of the Hungarian apple production in order to outline the chances of the future and the trends of the development to be anticipated. The general conclusion is accepted that on the long run Hungarian apple production ought to be reorganised. The conditions of keeping the position on the international market are outlined. The main concern is the aging of the plantations, i.e. 40%of them being more than 25–30 year old, and produce apple being suitable for processing only. Organisation of growers is rudimentary, export markets are limited, and buyer’s market is everywhere dominant and is getting more severe. All those circumstances anticipate the reduction of the apple growing branch from the present 35 000 hectares to 15–20 000 hectares within a period of less than 10 years.

  • Sweetcorn production from transplants
    45-48.
    Views:
    152

    In our trial we tried to find out how the time of propagation and transplanting influenced the growing season of sweet corn along with some major properties relevant to quality. The following technological variations were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening): transplanted plants with floating row cover (with 2 planting dates); transplanted plants with no row cover: direct seeded plants with no row cover. The 21 day transplant growing period reduced the growing period by 16 to 20 days, compared to the technology used in the existing practice of production. Earliness had a negative influence on ear size, nonetheless it is worth while to attempt since the market is not so exacting with new products in the early period. Covering the seedlings in the early season was clearly beneficial, as the floating row cover provided protection for plants against lower night temperatures which are common in this period.

  • In vitro plant regeneration from immature embryo axis and cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
    93-97.
    Views:
    127

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important economic species within the genus Phaseolus. It is grown in all parts of the world. Genetic improvement by conventional breeding has met considerable success, although production of hybrids between species within the genus has been limited due to sexual incompatibility. Recent advances in tissue culture have offered the opportunity to produce cultivars, which could not be obtained by conventional breeding methods. The use of tissue culture and genetic engineering is viewed as a logical approach to improve bean production. Gene transfer techniques will have a great impact on legumes. Although the concept of cell totipotency is widely proved, in vitro morphogenesis has not yet been achieved for a large number of cultivated beans. Regeneration protocols are strongly influenced by the genotype. In tissue and cell culture of beans, the factors controlling shoot morphogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are still unknown. The reported data suggest a possible way for future research.

  • Training and maintaining spindle crowns in cherry production
    51-53.
    Views:
    218

    In cherry production all over the world, intensification of the technology is the main objective of research. Small crowns and high planting densities are aimed to attain high yields per hectare and easier harvesting. Rootstocks of reduced vigour for cherries are more difficult to find than in other fruit species, and the rejuvenation of fruiting structures by pruning is aggravated by the reduced vigour. Intensity of the technology ought to be achieved by a thoughtful application of the technological elements (timing of pruning by various intensity) moreover, by finding different policies for individual varieties. Sweet cherry varieties dominating the assortment proved to be very variable regarding their growing habits. In our experiment, we dealt with the slender spindle and free spindle forms, and how to train the trees to develop and to maintain the desirable form depending on the respective variety in order to achieve the right load of flower buds and yields repeatedly. In this paper, we examine the most important practical issues with the training and maintaining of the crowns of cherries with circular projection and central axis grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks

  • Goals and results in improvement of biological background of medicinal plant production
    20-27.
    Views:
    143

    The choice of varieties among medicinal plant species is relatively small, compared to other horticultural crops. In Hungary, only poppy (Papaver somniferum) and mustard (Sinapis alba) have several cultivars. Recognising the problem, in the recent years breeding activity has been intensified all over the world, in spite of financial, technical and legal difficulties. The article reports on the results of breeding at the Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Szent István University, 11 varieties of which has been officially registered till 2000. Main goals of genetic improvement are: increasing of the production capacity of utilised plant organs, enhancement of active material accumulation capacity, improvement of sensory quality and technological properties. The most often applied methods are selection, and recently, cross breeding, the results of which can be measured on new materials of caraway (Carum carvi), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), poppy (Papaver somniferum), etc. Efficacy of breeding work is established by additional, regular research on the genetics, physiology, floral and reproductive biology, chemosyndromes of medicinal plant species.

     

  • Improvement of the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’ by the selection of new clones
    57-63.
    Views:
    164

    Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.

  • Characterization of sunburn damage to apple fruits and leaves
    15-20.
    Views:
    405

    The specific conditions of the formation of three different types of sunburn (sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis, and photooxidative sunburn) have been recently characterized on apple fruit. However, no information is still available on leaf damage. Therefore, the aims of this study were i) to extend the knowledge on fruit damage, ii) characterize leaf damage and iii) find relationship between fruit and leaf damage. The observations were made on 586 apple accessions in a gene bank orchard located in Hungary. The incidence of the three different types of fruit symptoms were recorded and based on the visual symptoms, two different types of leaf sunburn (sunburn yellowing and sunburn necrosis) were characterized. The most frequent type of fruit sunburn observed was sunburn browning. Photooxidative sunburn was found for less number of accessions, and only some accessions were affected by sunburn necrosis. Fruit were far more susceptible than leaves; (>60%) of the examined accessions were affected by fruit damage and (<3%) by leaf damage. Although a large number of accessions were affected, the percentage of fruit damaged within accessions was not that excessive; ~6% of the fruit assessed showed the symptoms of sunburn browning. Significantly fewer fruit were damaged by sunburn necrosis (~1%) or photooxidative sunburn (~1.4%) than sunburn browning. The percentage of leaves damaged within accessions were simlarly very low (~1%). Close relationship between fruit and leaf damage was found. Accesions with relatively heavily sunburned leaves usually had severe fruit damage as well. Leaves showing sunburn symptoms were usually closely located around those fruit which were sunburned severely. Leaf damage of sunburn was found on spur leaves in a great majority of the accessions damaged, shoot leaves did not seem to be susceptible to sunburn.

  • Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters
    61-63.
    Views:
    227

    The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
    between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.

  • Impact of potassium fertilizers with different active ingredients and dosages on potato yield in experiments in the Nyírség region
    71-74.
    Views:
    158

    A five-year experiment was carried out in the Nyírség on its characteristic soil type, brown forest soil to investigate the impact of three types of potassium fertilizers (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and Patentkali) in three different dosages (80, 160, 240 kg/ha K20), under non-irrigated conditions applying the same dosages of N, P in all treatments (the applied amount was different between years) in 10 treatments including the control on 50 m2-parcels with 3 or 4 replicates. The test plant was cultivar Desiree, Kondor, Agria and Pannonia in 1998 and 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. The obtained yields were analyzed by an analysis of variance. Based on the five-year results, the highest yields on the acidic sandy and sandy loam soils were obtained in the treatments with 530-800 kg/ha Patentkali containing 30% of K and 10% of magnesium active ingredients in addition to the same amounts of N and P applications. The dosage of 530 kg/ha Patentkali contains 160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients, while the dosage of 800 kg/ha Patentkali contains 240 kg/ha K+ 80 kg/ha Mg active ingredients. It can be concluded that the potassium chloride fertilizer (KCI) was the least effective as regards yields and Patentkali proved to be the most effective fertilizer, it had higher yields than even those of potassium sulfate, the difference in the 160 kg/ha treatments was 17.7%, which was a significant difference. Based on the results of the multi-year experiment, we recommend to apply 530 kg/ha Patentkali fertilizer (160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients) for the fertilization in potato under non-irrigated conditions on the acidic sandy and sandy loam forest soils of the Nyírség, which proved to be the most effective treatment and with which we could obtain 30 t/ha yield in the average of the years (with the simultaneous application of N and P).

  • The situation of horticultural family farms in Hajdu-Bihar County
    105-108.
    Views:
    138

    The main aim of this research work is to study horticultural farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, that mobilize labour and capital for the sake of agricultural production, namely family farms. During this study work we tried to chart the main characters, the conditions of functioning, their profitability and its use possibilities, their external contacts and the resource of information of these farms, beside this to investigate the relationships between these parameters. Parallel to this we tried to compensate the relatively high deficiency of information by empirical research work. This deficiency is the characterization of farmers and the inducement of farming and its conditions both on the level of county and state. By our empirical research work we have made a comprehensive position paper that shows the conditions of farms and farmer populations, as well. Two hundred questionnaires were evaluated. The percentages of horticultural farms were 25% from all questionnaires. Above all this paper is looking for the answer to the following questions: How and by which sources do farmers develop and extent their farms? How do farmers see their own future, what kind of aims do they have?Who will stop and who will go on producing? The collected information on the whole may help to make much more flexible legislatives and administrative regulations, although the survey covered only one county.

  • Industrial-scale plantlet production by seed priming and nursery tray seeding method in Sida hermaphrodita L. Rushby
    71-74.
    Views:
    197

    Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.

  • Morphological examination of Hungarian apricot rootstock varieties
    59-63.
    Views:
    177

    Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the trueness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.

  • Agroclimatological properties of growing sites assigned to apple and pear production in Hungary
    95-97.
    Views:
    170

    Apple and pear growing sites in Hungary are classified into four regions according to the Hydro-thermic Coefficient: dry, moderately dry. moderately humid and humid. Most of the plantations of apple and pear are located in regions considered as moderately dry and moderately humid. Within that category, the two respective species have different preferences, i.e. the ecological features of Hungary give different opportunities for apple and pear growing. Apple is grown almost everywhere in the country, successfully. The selection of cultivar-regions is needed mainly for increasing competitiveness on the market. Main apple growing regions are listed in 3 large groups. For the definition of cultivar-regions, mainly the configurations of soil and precipitation, i.e. conditions of the soil and opportunities of gaining water were decisive. Market factors are also considered. The area assigned to pear is much less than that of apple, in Hungary. Some well known and popular varieties would require high air humidity which cannot be presented in most of Hungary. Therefore, the possibility to establish regions for pear varieties is restricted, we have to create a particular micro-environment. Two groups are potential. The first one comprises sites where the annual precipitation is 700 mm, at least. There, apple and pear production would compete each other. In more dry habitats (less than 700 mm annual precipitation), micro-environments should be found and only drought-resistant, mainly summer-ripe cultivars should be chosen with, preferably, low tendency of sclereid formation. In that case, neither irrigation could help to produce adequate quality in varieties sensitive to low air humidity.

     

  • Effect of hydroponic and peat-free media in transplant production of Rudbeckia hirta varieties under different photoperiodic lighting and their photosynthetic parameters
    110-117
    Views:
    366

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of varieties, different light conditions (short day, long day, natural short day with light pollution), and different growing media (perlite, peat-free, peat-based, aeroponics system) on Rudbeckia hirta plant production under controlled conditions (greenhouse). The morphological effects of each treatment (photoperiodic lightings and media) on different Rudbeckia varieties determined at 11 weeks-old ’Napfény’, ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ and 16 weeks-old ’Napfény’. Plantlets received 12 hours daylight did not initiate flowers, remained stage of the leaf rosette in case of all varieties. The 14 hours light treatment in the aeroponics system and the same treatment in perlite and control (natural short day with 14 hours light pollution) plantlets had developed inflorescences or flower buds. The inflorescence axis of ‘Napfény’ was appeared at 13 weeks under long-day conditions, with 1.7 (perlite) - 2.7 (aeroponics) flower buds in 16 weeks. ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ varieties developed inflorescences at 8 weeks, 14 hours aeroponics system resulted in the most of flower buds (’Toto Gold’: 6.5, ’Autumn Colors’: 3.25,’Prairie Sun’: 4.8 flower buds) at 11 weeks. Long daylight manipulation could be minimized crop times and achieved flowering potted plants at 11 weeks. The peat-based and peat-free media effect was observed on ‘Autumn Colors’. The number of leaves of peat-free ‘Autumn Colors’ transplants (16.8-20.3) was significantly higher than peat-based media (13.5-15.5). Other morphological parameters were not affected by the media treatments.

  • The impacts of different habitats on the development of Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg.
    31-32.
    Views:
    169

    Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg. is a 100-150 cm high bushy perennial, which has yellow flowers and smells good. According to the descriptions (Farkas, 1999), it can be detected in two smaller areas within Hungary, namely in the Bükk hills and on the Szatmár-Bereg Plain. By the time of writing this paper, the population around Tiszabecs has already got extinct. Therefore, it is a protected relict species. It is named in honour of Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania.Within the frame of the experiment, the Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg. was planted to places differently illuminated (sunny, semi shadow, shade), then the morphological changes brought about the various light conditions were investigated. The experiment was launched with a stock sown in October 2008. The seedlings were planted to three beds with diverse light conditions. The area of each bed was 1 m2, and ten seedlings were planted per m2. The parameters investigated are as follows: the length of leaf blade, the width of leaf blade, the length of petiole, the number of leaves per plant, and the alterations of leaves. As a result of our research, we can state that semi shadow is the optimal habitat for the plant. Under such ecological conditions the highest leaf production was observed, the leaves were species specific, healthy and big. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 16.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 13 cm, while the mean length of petiole was 14.2 cm. In the shade the plants grew poorly and the size of leaves were smaller. The mean number of leaves per plant was 4.1, the mean length of blade was 8.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 7.1 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 9.4 cm. In the sunny habitat a similarly high leaf production was observed as in the semi shadow; however, the leaves had brownish spots, they shriveled, feel rough, so they revealed a reduced aesthetical value. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 17.8 cm, the mean width of blade was 11.3 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 13.1 cm.

  • Some relationships between soil and nutrient requirements and nutrient supply of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with respect to types grown in Hungary
    93-105.
    Views:
    158

    Exports and local marketability of both pepper protected cultivation and open field pepper production depend on whether we succeed in the near future achieving developments capable of bringing about significant improvement of yield and quality, as well as enhanced yield security. Results from experiments and surveys carried out on farms involved in production suggest that nutrient management is one of the factors whose development could considerably improve the marketability of pepper. Technological improvements in the field of nutrient supply are also urged by the more and more demanding environmental regulations, so it is inevitable to introduce a balanced system of nutrient supply system for pepper as well. The article is a collection and summary of the relevant results of 30-year experimental work in Hungary.

  • Relaco: a product to reduce water shoot formation around pruning wounds in pome fruit trees
    30-31.
    Views:
    105

    Larger cuts made during the winter pruning of pome fruit orchards a number of serious problems: the wounds serve as entrances for several branch-infecting pathogens, the numerous water shoots formed around the cut edges consume assimilates, shade the developing fruits, make the canopy dense, reduce the effectiveness of the pest management and cause extra work during next seasons pruning work. These problems can be eliminated by using proper wound protectants, like Relaco, a new Romanian wound protectant to cover larger pruning cuts of apple, pear and quince trees.

    The treaments by Relaco resulted in a significant decrease in both the number and total length of water shoots formed around the cut egdes.

  • Ornamental plants in Hungary Part II. Open-ground cultivation
    143-147.
    Views:
    143

    The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flowers (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.