Published After
Published Before

Search Results

  • Continuous and discontinuous nectar secretion in some pear cultivars

    Hourly nectar secretion was studied in five pear cultivars between 1997-1999. Some cultivars (e.g. ‘Csákvári téli') secreted nectar continuously during the whole day, offering both nectar and pollen for pollinating insects. Discontinuous secretion (e.g. cvs. ‘Viki', `Nyárig tartó 6/19') is less advantageous from the viewpoint of insect attraction. In some cases, however, discontinuity or continuity of nectar secretion varied even within a cultivar (e.g. 'Solymári cukor', ’Jó szürke’) in different years.

  • Sunburn incidence of apples is affected by rootstocks and fruit position within the canopy but not by fruit position on the cluster

    Authors investigated sunburn incidence of apples on the combinations of three different growth inducing rootstocks (M.9,MM.106 and seedling) and five varieties (‘Smoothee’, ‘Golden Reinders’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Jonagold Jonica’). Symptoms were classified as sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. The frequency of symptoms was recorded at various parts of the canopy (N, E,W, S, and lower canopy, upper canopy) and on the cluster (terminal, lateral). Cultivar susceptibility varied between 0.30 and 5.65% on M.9 rootstock, ‘Granny Smith’ seemed to be the most susceptible cultivar whereas relatively low percentage of damaged fruit was observed for ‘Gloster’. On MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, damage level was significantly lower than on M.9. Remarkable differences were not observed in the share of the three sunburn types between cultivars. The most common symptom observed was sunburn browning. Far less fruit was affected by sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. Photooxidative sunburn symptoms were not found on ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Gloster’ fruits on MM.106 rootstock. Latter cultivar did not show sunburn necrosis symptoms either. With increasing growing vigor of the rootstocks the share of sunburn browning increased. Fruits with sunburn symptoms were found in a great majority on theW quadrant of the trees. This was true for all cultivars. Remarkable differences in the location within the canopy of affected fruits between the three types of sunburn were not observed. Specific distribution of sunburned fruit was observed along the vertical axis of the canopy, too. Most of the damaged fruit were found in the upper canopy. This is particularly true for trees on vigorous stocks such as MM.106 and seedling. On M.9 rootstock, depending on cultivars 5.9 to 38.9% of sunburned fruit was located in the lower canopy. Most common symptom in the lower canopy was the sunburn browning, however symptoms of sunburn necrosis were not found at lower canopy level. Low rate of photooxidative sunburn was observed such lower canopy conditions. Sunburn incidence was very similar on king or side fruit. Significant differences were not found in the share of each sunburn types between fruit positions on the cluster. This was not influenced by rootstocks either.

  • Influence of various mineral supply on sweet corn root development

    Investigations into root strength have assumed particular importance with the emergence of American rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera-virgifera) as the number one pest, mainly as a result of monocultural production. Three treatments were applied in the trial: zero control treatment, treatment "A" (g/m2): 4, 47 N + 7, 89 P205 + 19, 74 K20 and treatment "B"(g/m2): 8, 94 N + 15, 78 P205 + 19, 74 K20. Measurements were made to find out whether the treatments had produced any significant difference between the root strength of the two varieties (normal sweet Puma F I and super sweet Dessert R75 Fl) at the two dates of measurement (tasseling, milk stage) in the year 2003. The treatments with a high phosphorous ratio resulted in an apparent increase in root strength with both varieties. There was a detectable difference in root strength also between the two points of measurement, suggesting that root development had remained stable. The treatments produced significant increase not only in the root strength but also in the yields of both varieties.

  • Impact of sodium-selenate on the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings in vitro

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other Eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although it is well known that some species among higher plants are able to accumulate selenium in their tissues, but others are not able to do so, and there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, meanwhile the question of essentiality of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. We aimed to study the in vitro growing and to characterise some physiological properties in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings treated with 0 to 200 mg/1 sodium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/1) concentration sodium-selenate increased the biomass as well as the total antioxidant capacity of seedlings. The seedling's selenium content showed linear correlation with the sodium-selenate content of the medium.

  • The effect of the method and the timing of the propagation on the growth, earliness and productivity of sweet corn

    Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sandy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.

    The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:

    1. Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
    2. SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.

    The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).

    1. The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
    2. Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
    3. The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.


  • Evaluation of the growing and fruit bearing characteristics of the ‘Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on rootstocks with different vigor

    Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realization of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.

  • Effect of Foliar Nutrition on Post-Harvest of Onion Seed under Sandy Soil and Saline Irrigation Water Conditions

    Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fertilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
    and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
    sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.

  • The importance of clonal selection of grapevine and the role of selected clones in production of healthy propagating stocks

    Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetical stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.

  • Effects of different pollination treatments in genotypes of Prunus salicina Lindl.

    The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.

  • 1-MCP and STS as ethylene inhibitors for prolonging the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers

    The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m-3 for 611.

    Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.

  • Effect of postharvest sodium benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest sodium-benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars (’Topaz’ and ’Florina’). Assessments were made at three times during storage: 17 November 2019, 20 December 2019 and 23 January, 2020. During every assessment dates, each fruit was observed separately, and determined the proportion of i) healthy fruits (%), ii) post-harvest fruit rot diseases iii) fruits with mechanical injury (%), iv) fruit with russetting (%), v) damage of codling moth and vi) Ca-deficiency symptoms. In addition, fruit weight (g) was measured at each assessment date. Sodium benzoate reduced the fruit decay and the proportion of healthy fruit was higher in this treatment compared to water treated fruit. This effect could be seen in all assessment dates and on both cultivars. Effects on other parameters were various according to cultivar and assessment dates. Loss of fruit weight was similar in both treatments and cultivars compared to control treatment.

  • Effect of the terroir and the harvest time on the Kékfrankos grape berries sensorial properties in Eger (Hungary)

    In this research the effects of the production site “terroir” and the harvest time on the most important organoleptic properties of the berries of Kékfrankos (Blaufrankish) grape variety were observed. The follow-up of the maturation process in a given parcel can effectively supplemented by the results of sensorial evaluations of the grape berries. In most cases, the tasters found significant differences in sensorial characteristics of the berries due to the harvest time, although the trends of each parcels were different. Significant differences were frequently found in the result of the observed terroirs.

  • Detemination of the time of pruning regarding the ability of developing flower buds and their frost tolerance in sweet cherry varieties

    In sweet cherry growing, intense technology is introduced as the up to date development. Among the elements of the technology are the choice of variety, planting design and pruning are the main elements. The methods, intensity and the timing of pruning are largely dependent from the growing habits of the varieties, the light demand of the parts of different age and their tendency of getting bald on the aging zones. One of the main limiting factors of production, the frost damages are outstanding. In choosing the site of plantation, we must avoid the places, where spring frosts used to occur, the next moment is the role of the variety and the technology applied. In Hungary, the late or spring frosts are considered, however, the winter frosts may also cause heavy losses, which depend also on the health and nutritional condition of the trees when being exposed to temperature minima. Our present study is based on a 9-year-old plantation trained to slender spindle as well as to free spindle crown. We observed the development of fruiting structures and their frost damage also in relation with the timing of the pruning operations during the winter or summer, and compared also the varieties with each other.

  • Feasibility of investments in Hungarian grapewine sector

    Investments in the vine growing-wine making sector can be characterised by a high level of' risk, and an important role of time, because there is a considerable time gap between the decision on investment and its consequences, whereas the ecological and economical factors should be considered as stochastic variables. Based on a real—life, typical vine—plantation project, the article analyses the profitability of vine growing-wine making sector as a function of different ecological and economical conditions depending on the added value content of products. Results of the investigations highlight: (1) the importance of subsidy for establishment of vine plantations: (2) the considerable influence of yields on rate of return of investment; (3) the role of increasing of added value content of products. Importance of the utilisation of alternative channels of distribution and the formation of producers' cooperatives are underlined, being based on calculation of return of investment.

  • Effect of dry and wet years on primary inoculum source, incubation period and conidial production of Venturia inaequalis

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of epidemics caused by the selected model-pathogen, Venturia inaequalis in relation to weather elements, with special respect to the increasing or decreasing effects of the specific weather elements. First, those weather elements are discussed which have a role in the development of scab epidemics. Subsequently, by accepting the thesis that climate change includes also weather extremes, an extremely hot and dry year (2003) and a colder year of higher than average precipitation (2004) were chosen as models. The presented examples verified that the variability of weather elements had had an undoubtable effect on the development of epidemics. The variability of weather elements manifests in the unusual behaviour of the pathogen, resulting in no or extreme disease epidemics. The extremities are well demonstrated by the fact, that in a year of drought an efficient protection can be achieved by considerably less applications than average, while in the next rainy year, the susceptible cultivar cannot be protected effectively even with such a high number of applications as is usual under humid Western-European climate conditions. It can also be noted, that the pathogen has a very good adaptability under unfavourable weather conditions. Consequently, more efficient management strategies should be developed for protection against the effects of extremities. However, it should be emphasized that it is very difficult to adapt to the variability and extremities of weather in the practice, because no long-term, accurate and reliable information is available about the variability of these elements.

  • Summer pruning of sweet cherry trees and an inquiry of winter frost damages

    One of the most demanded research projects is the intensification of fruit production. The use of dwarfing stocks is a moderate solution as their effect is scarcely satisfactory. Climatic conditions of Hungary are continental in Eastern Europe, where Atlantic and Mediterranean effects are interacting with the continentals in a kind of basin with characters of its own. Capricious meteorological episodes are often disturbing the security of development and fruiting of trees:
    • winter frosts are damaging the cambium and fruiting structures of trees
    • late spring frosts destroy cambium and flowers
    • early autumn frosts hurt the leaves
    • excessive precipitation impairs the growing fruits
    • drought periods during the summer caused water stress disturbing water husbandry.

    Vigorous stocks still prevail in the practice, and they ought to withstand challenges of weather hazards. The strong vigour of plants delaysthe process of senescence and the tendency of getting bald, and regeneration of plants is a sign of vitality. In present research, the trees have been trained on vigorous Prunus mahaleb stocks. Summer pruning was one of the important tools of intensive growing techniques. They were compared with traditional techniques and with plastic foil protected trees observing the vegetative as well as generative growth of them.

  • Variety specific integrated fruit production development in order to optimize inner content values

    In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals.  Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).

  • Apple powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha: some important features of biology and epidemiology

    In this review, some important features of biology and epidemiology are summarised for apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). In the first part of the review, the geographical distribution or the pathogen are discussed, then the morphology and taxonomy of the causal organism are described. Disease symptoms or apple powdery mildew are also shown and then host susceptibility/resistance is discussed in relation to durability of resistance. In the second part of this review, the general disease cycle of powdery mildew on apple are demonstrated and some basic features of powdery mildew epidemiology (such response of the pathogen to temperature, relative humidity, and rain as well as spore production, spore dispersal, diurnal patterns and temporal dynamics of the pathogen/disease) are also given on apple host.

  • The size of the canopy of sour cherry trees depends on the time of pruning

    The intensive culture of sour cherry is achieved by training of trees to form smaller canopies not by means of dwarfing rootstocks but by growth moderation techniques. The rootstocks traditionally used cause vigorous growth, and it is up to the technology to apply procedures less utilised earlier for that purpose. One of those techniques is the transfer of hibernal pruning to the estival period. The best term of the latter is the period of 1-3 weeks after fruit harvest.

    The prolongation of the period of favourable illumination and the reduction of the canopy size facilitate higher densities of planting (number of trees per hectare) and a better exploitation of the crown (specific yield). The regular use of summer pruning resulted also in a better quality of fruit.

  • Hungaricum as a quality of fruits and fruit products

    The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.

    The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.

    As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.

  • Changes in Some Quality Criteria During Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage of Peaches

    Intensive research has been implemented on different aspects of the bee pollination of pear in Hungary in the past decade, extending to the following topics: the effect of the opening sequence of the flowers within the inflorescence of pear cultivars on the effectiveness of bee pollination; the nectar production of flowers of pear cultivars; intensity of honeybee visitation and their foraging behaviour at the flowers of pear cultivars; flower constancy of honeybees to pear plantations; competition by weeds in bloom for bee pollination in flowering pear orchards; and some aspects to the bee pollination strategies of pear plantations (the effect of the limitation of bee pollination period on the set and the yield, possible compensation of frost damage of flowers by bee pollination in pear orchards, the optimal size of single cultivar block in pear plantations). The results of these studies are reviewed in this paper and some important aspects that need further studies are outlined.


  • Effects of silicon in plants with particular reference to horticultural crops - Review article

    Silicon (Si) has long been considered as non-essential element for plant’s growth and production. Numerous efforts are being made for the discovery of its beneficial effects with large scale studies laying foundation for new findings and hypotheses. Therefore, Si has been suggested to be a quasi-essential element due to its positive effects against biotic and abiotic stresses alike. Though Si is the second most abundant element in the soil profile, its availability to plants is limited to the form of monosilicic acid only. Besides, plants’ ability to take-up Si and use it in their physiological processes also depends on the available transporters associated with it. Thus, the present review covers uptake and transport of silicon in plants as well as Si mediated physiological processes, including mechanisms underlying induced tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses with a particular emphasis on horticultural species.

  • Growing characteristics of apple cultivars in environmentally friendly growing systems

    Nowadays the condition of the good saleability of the fruit is the application of controlled environmentally friendly technologies. Success of the growing is basically influenced by the production value of the cultivars, and their flexibility to the different technologies. In our examinations the effect of the integrated and organic farming  system has been evaluated on the growing characteristics of the apple cultivars. According to our results the trunk thickness of the trees both in the initial and both in the later bearing period is higher in the integratedproduction compared to the organic farming system. This differences most likely caused by the variance of the crop load.

  • Climatic indicator analysis of blooming time for sour cherries

    County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry grown in Hungary. Successful production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during the blooming period, being most decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict yields expected, the characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phonological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. Data of 7 indicators have been traced: number of frosty days, the absolute minimum temperatures, means of minimum temperatures, number of days when daily means were above 10°C, means of maximum temperatures, number of days without precipitation, and number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades. The indicators being associated with certain risky events may serve for the prediction of the future recommendations to prevent damages.

  • Results on mating disruption by sex pheromones against moth pests of apple in integrated and organic orchards

    The study was aimed to study that how mating disruption by hand applied dispensers can reduce the number of damage caused by Cydia pomonella, Adoxophyes orana and Pandemis heparana in four integrated and organic apple orchards. In the first orchard (Gacsály), protection against moth caterpillars ensured by IPM and conventional production systems were equally good, but worse than that of the orchard part where mating disruption was applied by 1000 dispensers/ha. In second orchard (Nyírbogdány), the highest incidence of codling moth damage was measured in the hilly part (17%), while in the plot where 440 dispensers/ha pheromone dosage was applied, the damage incidence was 11%. The smallest damage incidence was at the flat part, where 666 dispensers /ha was applied. In the third and fourth orchards (Eperjeske), codling moth damage on fruits was below 7% in the larger and smaller orchards where 1000 dispensers/ha was applied. At Eperjeske, the codling moth damage increased by 32.3% in the field treated with Bacillus thuringiensis product but without using mating disruption. The results verified that the use of 1000 dispensers/ha as suggested by the manufactures is essential, especially in the first year of application. The results also suggested that better results can be achieved in flat areas and the larger plot size also enables a more efficient reduction of the damage.