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Effects of indole-3-butyric acid levels and activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro shoots of apple rootstocks
Published October 16, 2002

Rooting responses of rootstocks cvs. JTE-F1, M. 26 and MM. 106 were studied to different concentration of IBA in root induction media and to presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media. High rooting rate (>90%) could be achieved in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26, while cv. MM. 106 showed weak rooting ability at each IBA level tested. Incre...asing IBA content depressed the rooting only in cv. M. 26. Presence of activated charcoal decreased considerable the rooting rate in cv. M. 26 and decreased the number of roots in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26. These cultivars developed longer roots on media containing activated charcoal, while cv. MM. 106 did not showed any reaction for it.

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Inhibition and recovery of germination and growing ability of seedlings under and after osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in 8 pea genotypes
Published September 26, 2006

Germination and early seedling growth of eight pea genotypes were examined under and soon after different (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) PEG treatments. Seeds were germinated on PEG solution for 3 or 6 days and then further germinated and cultured on filter paper moistened by water for 3 and 6 days. The length and fresh weight of shoots and roots of s...eedlings were measured and used for evaluation of genotypes. Roots were less inhibited by osmotic stress than shoots similarly to other plant species. The variability among the genotypes was the greatest in the case of shoot growth at 5% PEG treatment and in the case of root growth at 15% PEG treatment. Results suggest that growing responses of genotypes after cessation of stress are more suitable for the evaluation of their osmotic tolerance, than their responses expressed during in vitro stress conditions. Genotypes with relatively high or low osmotic stress tolerance, respectively, could be distinguished with 6 days after recovery from 3-day-long 15% PEG treatment concerning the rate of shoot weight to root weight.

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Post-effects of cytokinins and auxin levels of proliferation media on rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots (Malus domestica Borkh.) 'Red Fuji'
Published September 11, 2001

Rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots of 'Red Fuji' grown on proliferation media with different hormone content were tested at three IBA levels in root induction media. Rooting percentage could be slightly increased with an increase in IBA concentration in proliferation media. The highest IBA concentration (3.0 mg 1-1) in root ind...uction media showed strong inhibitory effect on rooting capacity of in vitro shoots. The highest rooting percentage (95%) could be achieved by shoots grown on proliferation media containing TOP or BA+KIN as cytokinins before rooting.


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Model experiments for establishment of in vitro culture by micrografting in apple
Published March 14, 2005

Micrografting was used in our experiments for establishment of in vitro culture from one rootstock (`JTE-F') and three scion cultivars (`Remo', 'Rewena' and `Reanda') of apple. Shoot tips of these cultivars were harvested from field and grafted onto in vitro rootstock cultivars. Their survival and development were studied. 42-...93% of shoot tips survived and developed further depending on cultivar. Impermanent browning of sticking agar-agar could be observed in 21-25% of the micrografts depending on cultivars but discolouration of agar-agar ceased within one week and did not cause any death of shoot tips. We used micrografting successfully for establishment of in vitro culture from cultivars, from which earlier with conventional methods the culture establishment was not possible because of hard tissue browning. However, further studies are necessary to ensure the survival and development of shoots after removing them from micrografts.

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Effects of activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) shoots
Published March 21, 2001

Rooting of in vitro 'Royal Gala' shoots was studied under different conditions of root induction and root elongation phase. The rooting capacity was affected by both rooting phases. Very high rooting percentage could be reached with both liquid and solid root induction media. Raising the temperature from 22 °C to 26 °C during root in...duction phase increased the rooting percentage. Presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media can affect the number of roots per rooted shoots and can increase the rooting percentage, the length of roots and the rate of survival depending also on other conditions during rooting. Presence of NAA in root elongation media reduced the number and the length of roots considerably. Favourable effect of activated charcoal on rooting was mainly due to adsorption of NAA.

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Effects of aromatic cytokinins on structural characteristics of leaves and their post- effects on subsequent shoot regeneration from in vitro apple leaves of 'Royal Gala'
Published March 14, 2005

The effects of different aromatic cytokinins applied in different concentrations and combinations were investigated on the histology of in vitro apple leaves and their post-effects on subsequent shoot regeneration from these leaves were studied. Great differences in the anatomical structure of leaves could be detected originating from containing different types and concentrations of aromatic cytokinins. The number of regenerated shoots per explant and the organogenetic index were used for the evaluation of the post-effect of aromatic cytokinins on shoot regeneration. The histological structure of leaves used for regeneration and their regeneration response showed a good correlation. When the pre-treatment caused a juvenile-like or less-differentiated structure, the number of regenerated shoots per explant increased and often vitrification also decreased and consequently the organogenetic index also increased. A strong interaction between cytokinin-content (type and concentration) of the pre-treatment medium and that of the regeneration medium could also be detected.

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Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring
Published August 23, 2000

Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was aff...ected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.

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Effects of tuberization conditions on the microtuber yield and on the proportion of microtuber tissues
Published November 15, 2004

The production facilities of large-sized microtubers in three potato varieties (cv. Desiree, BorO, Gfilbaba) and the effects of the applied tuberization conditions on the proportion of microtuber tissues, especially on the perimedullary region were investigated in present work. In vitro tuberization was induced on explants wit...h 2 or 5 nodes layered on MS medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. Induced cultures were exposed to short days (8 h) for 2 weeks, then to total darkness for further 11 weeks. For volume calculations of different tissue regions, the formula for ellipsoids (V=4/37c1/8/w2) was used. The number of large-size tubers (> 8 mm, up to 16 mm) reached 53%, 59% and 44% in cvs. Desiree, Giilbaba and Bore, respectively, which indicate that the size of microtubers could be increased by appropriate sucrose support and explant type. Microtubers produced on hormone-free medium have well-developed perimedullary region, and its volume rate seemed to be important in the final size of tubers. The increase in the rate of volume of the perimedulla was connected to the increase of tuber size until tubers reached 12 mm diameter. In microtubers larger than 12 mm in diameter, the volume rate of the pith was increased.

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New in vitro micrografting method for apple by sticking
Published August 23, 2000

The requirements for in vitro micrografting in apple are described. In vitro multiplicated shoots of cv. Royal Gala were the sources of rootstocks and scions after different pre-treatment, respectively. Oxidative browning of cut surfaces could be inhibited by the use of antioxidant mixture during grafting process. Sci...on base cut in v-shape was stuck by 1% agar-agar solution into the vertical slit of rootstock. There was no any displacement and the rate of fused and further developed grafts was 95 percent. Agar-agar between the rootstock and scion made the transport of different materials possible and hold the graft units together until the fusion took place. Fusion was proved also by histological studies. Some of in vitro micrografts were planted and acclimatisated and the survival was 100 percent.

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Effects of different cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from apple leaves of 'Royal Gala' and 'M.26'
Published March 16, 2004

The effects of different types of cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from leaf explants of apple scion 'Royal Gala' and apple rootstock 'M.26' were evaluated. Regeneration media contained either thidiazuron, or 6-benzylaminopurine, or meta-topolin, or zeatin, or kinetin, or their N9-ribosides, respectively, in the concentration 0.5 to 8.0 mg 1-1. Effects of 'these cytokinins were evaluated on the percentage of regeneration (R%) and that of vitrification (V%) and on the number of regenerated shoots per explant (SN). Organogenetic index (0I) calculated from these data was used for the evaluation of efficacy of cytokinins. The course of shoot organogenesis also was followed using stereomicroscope. Types and concentrations of cytokinins applied in the regeneration media influenced each parameter significantly and the regeneration answer was strongly genotype-dependent. The best regeneration (SN: 11.08, 01: 7.5) was achieved in `Royal Gala' by using TDZ in concentration of 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.271,1M). There was a clear relationship between the effect on the regeneration efficacy and the chemical structure of cytokinins considering classical cytokinins, namely N9-ribosides applied in less concentration than non­ribosides have the same or best regeneration effects except for 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. However, similar relationship could not be detected in the case of 'M.26'. SN was the highest (3.22) using 6.5 mg 1-1 (18.2011M) 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or 8.0 mg 1-1 (21.44 µM) meta-topolin riboside (3.18). SN was not significantly lower (3.12) by using 2.0 mg 1-1 (9.08 1M) TDZ, however, OI was about half as big (0.63 compared to 1.29 or 1.74 with 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or meta-topolin riboside, respectively). 'Royal Gala' had higher organogenetic ability, than `M.26': 3.5-fold higher shoot number per explant and more than 4-fold higher organogenetic index was reached with this cultivar than with 'M.26'. Moreover, the similar developmental stage of shoots could be observed 3-5 days earlier than in 'M.26' and if explants of 'Royal Gala' were further cultured with 3 weeks, SN increased from 11.08 to 24.42 on TDZ-containing regeneration medium, which might suggest higher organogenetic ability, too.

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Effect of gelling agents on in vitro development of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’
Published July 25, 2013

In vitro shoot multiplication responses of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ were studied on media solidifi ed with different gelling agents. The media were gelled either with 6.8 g l-1 fi brous agar-agar, or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch, or 20.0 g l-1 Guar gum, or 15 g l-1 Isubgol or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch mixed with 0.5 g l-1 Phytagel. ...Shoot cultures were grown for two months, thereafter the multiplication rates (number of newly developed shoots per explant) were counted and the length of shoots were measured. We found that the highest shoot multiplication of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ occurred on media gelled with Guar gum, while the longest shoots developed on media with Starch. About four-fold shoot number were obtained on media with Guar gum compared to the weakest results found on media gelled with Isubgol. Finally, considering all factors (shoot growth parameters, costs) the most economical gelling agent for Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ was proved to be wheat starch among the tested alternatives which allows a 75.6% cost reduction.

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Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions
Published August 23, 2000

Shoot multiplication responses of three apple scions to different concentrations of BA and BAR as single source of cytokinins and in combination with two concentrations of KIN were studied. The effects of hormones depended on genotype, type and interactions of different cytokinins. Use of BAR significantly enhanced the shoot multiplication of c...v. Jonagold (6.5 shoots per explant). The multiplication rate of cv. Jonagold could not be improved by using the combination of BAR and KIN. The best proliferation was achieved by 1.0 mg 1-1 BA combined with 1.0 mg 1-1 KIN of cv. Prima..(8.1) and of cv. Galaxy (10.4).The effect of 0.5 mg 1-1 BA along with 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN was similar on multiplication rate (10.9) of cv. Galaxy.

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How to produce large sized microtubers of potato cv. Desiree
Published October 16, 2002

In vitro tuberization was induced on explants with different number of nodes layered on a medium with high sucrose (8%) content: 30, 15, 10, 7 and 6 explants per jar were cultured containing 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 nodes, respectively. Microtubers developed were graded by their smallest diameter, and the number of tubers per jar, thei...r size distribution, their fresh weight and the multiplication rate were recorded. The highest multiplication rate (1.98) was obtained for explants with 5 nodes. The size distribution of tubers was markedly affected by treatments. The majority of microtubers (49.4%) were 6-8 mm in the case of the smallest explants (with I node). When explants with 2 to 5 nodes were used, the most microtubers were 8-10 mm but with an increase of explant size, more and more microtubers were produced with larger diameter up to 16 mm and average fresh weight of tubers also increased with the increase of explant size. For the microtuber production of Desiree the use of explants with two nodes can be suggested because in this treatment the average fresh weight of microtubers was high enough (250 mg) and the number of large sized microtubers was very high (79% was larger than 6 mm and 53% was larger than 8 mm).

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Effect of aromatic cytokinins and explant position on shoot multiplication of Asparagus offi cinalis L.
Published July 25, 2013

Asparagus offi cinalis has been widely studied, but little information is available about its in vitro response to exogenous cytokinin during shoot multiplication. To study the effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of A. offi cinalis ‘Grolim’, in vitro culture was initiated from shoot segments cultured on media with Murash...ige and Skoog medium. Effects of different aromatic cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-benzylaminopurine riboside and meta-topolin) applied in four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/l) on shoot multiplication of ‘Grolim’ were tested. Effect of explant position (vertically or horizontally) on the shoot multiplication outcome was also studied. Both the length and the number of newly developed shoots were signifi cantly affected by explant position and cytokinin content of the medium. The highest numbers of shoots (4.9) were produced in the presence of 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside when explants were paced horizontally onto the medium. Although the longest shoots (41.5 mm) developed on explants placed vertically onto medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 meta-topolin, the lengths of shoots developed on medium with 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside were also adequate in both explant position (29.5 and 33.6 mm placed horizontally and vertically, respectively).

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In vitro shoot multiplication of apple: comparative response of three rootstocks to cytokinines and auxin
Published February 23, 2000

Shoot multiplication responses of rootstocks cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H to different concentration of BA, BAR and IBA in eight various combinations were tested on MS-medium. The effect of hormones depended on genotype, type of cytokinin and interaction of cytokinin and auxin. Shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced with the use of BAR cytokinin. High multiplication rate could be achieved in cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H: 7.7, 6.9 and 9.9 shoots per explant, respectively.

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