In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally oriented growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. The main factor in creating such systems is the establishment of a system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection based on production technology. Therefore, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple culti...vars to diseases and pests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leueoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under "strong" and "weak" pruning techniques. Our results showed that, compared to integrated production, the pathogens and pests infected the trees more in the organic system. The pruning technique affected mainly the cultivars susceptible to diseases and pests. In general, the "weak" pruning technique correlated with a higher level of damage caused by diseases and pests than the "strong" pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The reason that techniques should be carefully chosen is that shoots grow faster and more vigorously after employing the "strong" pruning technique. This supports a better preservation of the trees, as a result of reduced susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.
In this study, the rate of scab infection and quality parameters (content of vitamin-C, dry matter, sugar, total acids, specific weight, quality index and flesh firmness) of some apple cultivars are given, moreover, the relation between those characters was examined in two environmental systems (organic and integrated) in a rainy season. In the or...ganic fruit production, scab infection of leaves was significantly higher than in the integrated system, in case of the same cultivars, which means that the rate of decrease in leaf area was heavier in the organic production. Cultivars did not differ statistically in parameters of inner content when the integrated system was compared to the organic one. Results did not show statistical difference between loss of leaf area caused by apple scab and the parameters of inner content, which is attributed to the regeneration of leaf area due to favourable weather conditions. Data on apple scab and inner content of the fruit justify essentially the environmental systems of apple production.