The opportunities and development of skills in the field of sports may open a door to social inclusion that also facilitates social integration. Based on the funding provided by the national sports strategy and integration, the research project can be developed further on and implemented. The efforts of the European Union (EU) and of the European Council towards the member states are carried out through its directives, and the analyses of these documents provide guidelines for the elaboration of the Hungarian Roma strategies. Funding is one of the key factors for the elaboration of Roma integration strategy and its efficiency. The research highlights upon the way of thinking and mentality of Roma young people about sports currently, and on the importance of sport affairs for them. Also, reflects on the factors which promote motivation to have successful career goals and achieve those based on the program. The sports integration survey suggests conclusions on the role of mentoring in Roma youngsters’ studies, in sports, in building social relations, the role model motivating for them, or on the supportive role of the parents or even the lack of it in their families. The expected result would be a survey on sporting habits of the Roma minority and disadvantaged youth and their positioning in education through which we could develop programs to promote the integration of the Roma minority and to improve their general circumstances. The National Social Inclusion Strategy (Ministry of Human Capacities, National Social Inclusion Strategy 2011–2020) provides the financial background of the integration project whose application also prevails in the field of sports integration. The aspirations of the EU provide guidance to the amount of funding and its allocation manners. The National Roma Self-Government’s (NRSG) sports integration project and best practice has provided the basis for the sports integration research project. The survey is examining the recreational habits, motivational factors, study levels among the Roma minority and the disadvantaged young people. Based on the questionnaire, we can draw some conclusions about the development of sports integration programs. The issues cover the field of sport activities of young people aged between 9-18 and on the significance of sport opportunities for break-out for the Roma youth, and on the effect of role models for them. The sports integration projects treat simultaneously the development of education and sport, furthermore they are significantly linked to each other. The target group of the questionnaire survey are mainly the Roma and disadvantaged people. The sample item number is 1216 completed questionnaires from the whole territory of the country, from 16 schools. As shown in the survey, the sport and the level of education are significantly related to each other. Those who do any sports, obtain higher level of achievement in their studies. It can be revealed by the fact that through mentoring the sportsmen can promote their school performance and sport development together. The research highlights on another observation, namely, it also confirms the legitimacy of sports integration program and points out the direction for development. For accomplishing the goal of social inclusion through sport we have at hand the appropriate concept. It is, furthermore necessary to strengthen and to develop the mentoring program, which ensures the lower drop-out rate among the participants. The effect of Sports integration is motivating for the Roma and for the disadvantaged youth. The use of sport as a tool for social inclusion proves to be of utmost importance.
JEL code: Z23
Based on the results of our questionnaire survey, our study presents the major operational features of LEADER LAGs established in Hungary in the second half of 2007. Our national survey indicated that most of the partnerships established do not have experience in the implementation of community-based rural development programmes and there are no traditions and practices for development cooperation, which may cause problems as the success of programme implementation highly depends on the preparedness of local society, on the cooperation of local people. The survey indicates that the development of areas covered by LAGs is hindered by so-called soft factors characterizing human resources (rural people and communities). Therefore human resources are not only factors of the rural economy but areas for development as well. Having examined the tasks of LAGs,it can be established that they deem it to be their principal task to grant support funds.Inouropinion, performance of this task is obviously necessary but far from sufficient to fulfil their catalyst role expected in local developments. For this purpose, it is essential for action groups to play a proactive role in organizing and thereby increase the capacity of local communities, a prerequisite for implementing a LEADER programme. In accordance with the basic principle of subsidiarity, rural development should be implemented locally, managed by local communities, and decisions should be made at local levels in a decentralized manner. At the same time, the survey points out that LAGs operate under strong government influence and control, leading to the conclusion that the Hungarian practice of the LEADER programme is characterized by decentralization without subsidiarity. In the present structure, the activities of LAGs are predominantly financed from central resources.Administration is the primary goal of their financing, which restricts their effective and efficient operations, thereby the successful implementation of the LEADER programme. It is unquestionable that LAGs need to be centrally financed since their operation is fundamental for programme implementation, but this requires more than acting in their present role of distributing resources. In order for action groups to fulfil their real roles to boost local developments, they need to recognize their mission; and from the financing and regulatory side, they must be enabled to complete the tasks expected from them and their function.
The primary focus of the joint survey, by the National Employment Foundation (OFA) and the researchers of the University of Debrecen in 2009, was to identify the employment characteristics of Ukrainian citizens in Hungary in relation to their impact on the labour market. Our research activities implied the analysis of existing data, relevant scientific literature and a survey questionnaire. For all the target groups, we were guided by the principle of representativity. Statistical analyses and the survey questionnaire were supplemented by indepth interviews. Our research findings are instrumental in simplifying the administration of the Foreign Affairs Police, the process of issuing work permits for foreign employees and their access to employment. The responses given by employees revealed that access to employment in Hungary posed several administrative and official problems for both Hungarian and Ukrainian citizens. Moreover, Ukrainian employees felt a kind of negative discrimination regarding their wages and the conditions of employment as compared to Hungarian employees and they sought remedy from Hungarian official bodies for this problem. The authors hope to call the attention of competent authorities to structural problems and loopholes in the employment of foreign citizens. If these are corrected, it will not only improve employment conditions for foreign workers, but for Hungarian ones as well.
Every year, a significant amount of renewable dendromass is generated in Hungary. Various possibilities have been recognised by today that are not widespread yet. The greatest obstacle is frequently derived from the lack of the farmers’ knowledge as without having the required knowledge obtained they can become distrustful or adequate efficiency will not be achieved during utilisation. In order to improve the rate of utilisation, targeted information methodologies should be applied that comply with the farmers’ knowledge. In this present study, the awareness and acceptance of vine-growers from the Micro-region of Gyöngyös related to the use of vine branches will be analysed based on the results of a questionnaire survey.
The survey was conducted in accordance with the number of wine-community members in personal interviews. The questionnaire contained questions about the farm, the use of vine branches as well as about the farmers.
Based on the results, information was obtained on the reasons for the use of by-products not being wide-spread among farmers as well as on the sources of information obtained. For the fragmented farms which are typical here it is important to know whether by-products are not utilised as it is not how they can be used or whether the vineyard is cultivated by others therefore the farmer lacks machinery. The level of acceptance was also studied by asking a question on the possible offer of the by-products for greater-scale site.
Our intention is to assist the generally badly off farmers to use the annually generated by-products in a reasonable way. This can be realized by various ways of providing information. By applying the results of the survey, adequate methods and knowledge can be provided for farmers.
Based on the experience of the authors, today's university students have different learning habits, expectations of learning and knowledge compared to previous generations. This raises the question of how traditional teaching, teaching methods effectively suited to their development. In this study, the authors examined with quantitative method the expectations of bachelor and master students concerning the business education at university. The survey was conducted among university students assessing whether students with different BSc/BA or MSc/MA majors show the willingness to continue their studies, and the authors were interested in their expectations concerning the business higher education. The authors also tried to find answers in the survey how well-prepared the students feel for the offered opportunities by today's market environment, or may prefer proceeding with their studies. Among the issues authors searched what are the most effective ways of learning for them, based on learning style, what motivates them to continue learning. What kind of education form is preferred by them to continue studying? They also respond the need of having theoretical and practical knowledge and the importance of developing practical life skills. In addition, it has also been surveyed what other expectations the students have in continuing their studies with regard to the institutions. The authors of this paper are working as team coaches at the Team Academy Debrecen. In the last six years, they worked with numerous teams and have experiences in developing students' skills in teams.
JEL Classification: A22
Albania is considered one of the most important countries where olives are cultivated due to its geographical position and climate conditions. The country is facing many problems with the quality of olive oil which is related to cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. The economic value of the sector is calculated almost €20 million per year. For years the cultivation of olives and associated products have been considered an important sector within agriculture and are an integral part of the Albanian diet. The current study aims to analyze the factors influencing consumer preferences for a standardized olive oil. The data collection was conducted through a socio-economic survey. The survey was an important element which provided general and specific information linked to the study area. The interviewees were selected randomly. Descriptive and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the survey data. As a result, we conclude that Albanian consumers prefer domestic olive oil because they are familiar with the taste and believe in its qualities. Usually, Albanian consumers choose the quality of olive oil at the purchase moment, due to their close relationship with the seller.
JEL CODE: D12
Local socio-economic cooperation arrangements can contribute to the development of adequate solutions which can compensate the negative impacts of globalization. One of the specific areas is agriculture. Capital-intensive technology is the key element in the competitiveness and viability of firms. The present paper reviews the factors affecting the joint machine use arrangements of agricultural producers, with special regard to the role of trust. The questions of trust are examined in two dimensions: contractual and competence trust. On the basis of the survey carried out among farmers a positive connection was detected between the level of trust and the farmers’ activity in cooperation arrangements. Our results also pointed out that the trust needed in different areas of cooperation is very different. The experiences indicate a tendency, according to which contractual trust is more important in intensive cooperation arrangements which result in higher dependence, while competency trust is more emphasized in more extensive solutions.
JEL Code: Q13
Self-employed entrepreneurs (without personnel) manage their business and household finances at the same time. Both domains tend to interact with each other. In this study, it is studied whether and how self-employed entrepreneurs manage their finances. More specifically, the role of mental budgeting and time orientation in healthy financial behavior is studied. Mental budgeting is a way to manage expenses. It entails setting budgets, making reservations on budgets, compensating after too much spending on a budget, and non-fungibility (treating money as earmarked and categorized). It can be expected that self-employed entrepreneurs using mental budgeting strategies behave in a more healthy financial manner. Survey data were collected among self-employed people without personnel in The Netherlands. The survey contained, among others, questions about the company, time orientation, financial management, tax attitude, reported tax compliance, and concern or worry about the future. Questions were factor analyzed using principal component analyses. The resulting scales were used for further analyses. Regression analyses were performed to predict concern or worry about finances, financially restricting to and exceeding budgets, and reporting tax compliance. In this paper, two components of time orientation are distinguished: awareness of consequences and carelessness about the future. From these components, four orientation types of self-employed people were obtained. The orientation type focusing on long-term consequences shows more healthy financial behavior, whereas the orientation type focusing on the present and less on consequences shows less healthy financial behavior. Responsible and healthy financial behavior of self-employed entrepreneurs is related to focusing on long-term consequences, using mental budgeting, and keeping one’s budgets. Aspects of mental budgeting are predicting worry about business finances. Differential effects of mental budgeting were found on restricting one’s budgets, and exceeding budgets, respectively. Of two measures of future circumstances (work disability, pension), only pension measures were predicting worrying about finances. Mental budgeting was not related to tax compliance, except for fungibility. Past tax behavior is predictive of other (past) tax behaviors. Fiscal history measures prove to be correlated with present measures.
There has been a continuous increase in the proportion of consumers using dietary supplements worldwide. Evidence based on former surveys suggests that in Hungary more than half of the population buy at least one type of dietary supplement (hereinafter DS). By using secondary research, the authors of the present paper examine the demographic factors determining the consumption of DS on a global scale. Consumption of DS increases with age and is more frequent among women. Consumers with higher qualifications and income tend to buy products containing vitamins and minerals to a greater degree. In the vast majority of cases the purchase and consumption of DS is based on consumers’ personal preferences and decisions, rather than on their physicians’ advice. It has been found that a high percentage of DS consumers probably do not even need any extra nutrient intake. In our primary research (N=1000) the specific attitudes to and characteristics of DS consumption among Hungarian adults are analysed on the basis of on a nationally representative survey. First, we identify the most important reasons which encourage consumers to buy DS. Consumer awareness concerning DS with a particular vitamin and mineral content and of other sources is examined, and we also assess the consumption of the product which is the most popular. The current paper attempts to identify the outlets Hungarian consumers typically buy DS from, and also what resources they use to keep themselves informed about these products. Consumers who admittedly reported (regular) consumption of a certain kind of DS product 6 months prior to the survey are further examined in relation to certain additional issues. The results of our survey provide an accurate picture of the DS consumption habits of the Hungarian population.
JEL CODE: I12, M31
A wide range of empirical experiences shows that the performance of Hungarian producer organizations (aka TÉSZ) significantly falls behind the activity observed in the developed Western European countries. Regarding this issue, the present study examines how moral hazard - as one of the possible reasons - influences the producers’ activities in cooperative organizations. Information for the research was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey among the members of PaprikaKert TÉSZ Ltd. A statistical path model has been developed for the research, which assumed that - in addition to a direct effect - moral hazard also affects collaborative activity by eroding trust. The statistical model has been tested both in member-member and members-management relations. The experiences from the survey clearly show that moral hazard exists in the producer organization. According to my results, though its measure cannot be regarded numerically considerable, its negative effect on cooperative activity can be proved with statistical examinations. Its effect can be divided into two aspects: besides a direct effect, an indirect one can also be detected, which means that moral hazard is able to reduce producers’ willingness to cooperate by eroding trust. Moreover, our results have clearly pointed out that moral hazard has a negative impact on member-member and members-management relations to varying degrees and through different mechanisms. In addition to the above tests, the empirical testing of another model called Sholtes trust model has been carried out, too. The validating was successful, so the model - which attributes trust to the faith in the partner’s loyalty and capability - is basically acceptable. The argument says that high-level trust can be observed among partners only when faith both in loyalty and capability is strong enough. The research, however, revealed that the above-mentioned two factors determine it in a different way: regarding trust between members, the faith in capability is more important; while trust towards the management is more determined by faith in loyalty.
JEL code: Q12, Q13
Today, the non-profit sector, and especially the role of civil organizations, has become significant in society. In Hungary there has been a large development in the past 20 years, in the non-profit sector, as the number of such organizations has quadrupled. The number of classic civil organizations (foundations and associations) makes up more than 80% of the non-profit sector. The social attendance, economic significance and affect often raise the issue of the true intensity of the sphere and also the question of why there are such vast differences between the conditions of function, human resources and how successful they are. For years now, with management related examination, we have been searching for the answers to the above questions, within the confines of the functional aspect research program of the Institute of Management and Organization in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. Above all, we made an attempt to find general, management- related results and answers, with the use of probability sampling, a low number of samples and surveying.
In the selection process of organizations to include in our research, we relied on the data base of the Court of Hajdú-Bihar County and with K-aspect systematic sampling, and we also questioned more than 140 managers from different organizations. With this research, we acquired a diverse collection of information, which now we intend to summarize within this article. With this article, we aim to find out how realistic a picture the database of the Court gives regarding the civil activity of the county. Even the sampling was not trouble free, since the entire database is not accessible.
The survey also revealed some problems that confirmed the statement of the Central Statistic Office (KSH), i.e. that some organizations either do not function at all or function in name only.
Organizational environment determines behavior of the organization’s members. Therefore, in order to efficiently manage human resources in an organization, it is crucial to know and understand this environment. Being used to describe organizational environment, organizational climate and culture are one of the most important psychosocial constructs influencing successful organization functioning and deve lop ment. During recent thirty years these constructs are attracting the interest for both – organizational behavior researchers as well as practitioners working in the field of the organizational effectiveness improvement and optimal human resources use. All of them are trying to find answers to questions related to the climate and culture nature, their ways of measurement and modification, and their causes and consequences.
The paper searches the differences between the groups of Hungarian households regarding the sport expenditures’ presence in household budget and determining factors. I used the latest Household Budget Survey (HBS) of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office from 2008 which contains data of more than 7000 households. My methods were logit and probit models, where the presence of sport expenditures were explained in households’ budget. The increase of the following indicators has a positive effect onto the possibility of the sport expenditures: income status, level of education, number of the children in the household, size of settlement. The region of the household is determining the presence of the sport expenditures too, however sex of the household’s head does not play a significant role.
The paper endeavours to give a narrower definition of the orientation of ‘career’. The survey to be discussed examines a sample of 116 full time students of economics and has career anchor analysis as its focus. The study details the result of a questionnaire-based survey, which was carried out with respect to the carrier of university students and was supplemented by surveying motivation, value and work value as well. The analysis finds that “security, stability and organisational identification” are judged to be the primary career anchors among the members of the majority sample. This means that the respondents feel ready to identify themselves with the company and are looking for security to be provided by long term employment, regular earnings and by steady career advancement. The cluster analysis of the questionnaire differentiates four groups: Leaders, Specialists, Entrepreneurs and Employees. The results showed that the Leaders have high capacities of leadership, creativity and autonomy. The Specialists show highly developed functional capabilities in general and they seem to like challenges. The Entrepreneurs have outstandingly high scores concerning autonomy and entrepreneurial creativity. The members of the cluster of the Employees are characterised by a high expectation of security and stability and by low levels of managerial capability and entrepreneurial creativity. Discriminant analysis was applied to select the distinguishing features that can set the clusters apart from each other. The motivations, values preferences and work values inventory will consolidate the differences between the clusters of the career anchors. Using the method in high education within special trainings could be the practical utilization of the study. On the basis of the results a questionnaire can be compiled, which could help uncertain students relating to their carriers and future orientation containing information in connection with their carrier orientation, motivation, value preferences and work value.
JEL code: I21
Considering the rapidly changing business environment, staying competitive is a key issue and challenge for companies in the 21st century. The criteria of a company’s success and competitiveness is the changing behavior of the different economic actors and its influence. Through the information society came to the fore, the use of diverse information technology tools and methods has become a significant influence factor in terms of the entrepreneurs or company management and also the customers or other partners. Due to the rapid expansion of new technology developments, the role and importance of social media is continuously increasing. Also statistics show that one of the most regularly used IT tool is the social media and the different web 2.0 applications. The current study is intended to provide a better understanding how social media can emphasize the competitiveness of companies and format the consumer behavior in a special sector – the rapidly developing gastronomy industry. This paper presents an empirical research about the role of social media in the above mentioned industry based on the primary data which are gathered through a survey performed in Hungary. Beyond the empirical results presented, the paper also aims to provide some recommendations for research methodology – based on the international literature review and the Authors’ own experiences – both in gastronomy industry’s and customers’ point of view. Through the analysis the research hypotheses were examined and the most important correlations were identified between the survey results and the Authors’ initial supposition.
JEL Code: D83, L83, M31, Z33
In my article I woud like to find answers for the question how frequently and effectively the region’s business leaders in Northern Hungary participated in various development programs, as regards investments in health tourism, what developments have been made mainly in the area, what the positive effects of these developments were in the life of businesses, whether the businesses (leaders) feel successful, and how their success was manifested. I carried out a questionnaire survey among enterprises. From the data I calculated mean, SD and spectrum and examined the crosstab correlations as well, and the Cramer’s V associate coefficient and Contingency coefficient. The results of the correlation tests could be summarised as the following: According to the survey, the number of the medium-sized enterprises being involved utilised a significant proportion of their development funds, compared to the micro and small enterprises. Although the idea of spas winterizing their pools was not considered an important development, both the adventure and wellness elements were important for the construction of thermal baths. In the case of hotels, the expansion of wellness elements and other additional services together with the development of marketing activities played an important role. Besides the positive business publicity, enterprises see the positive effects of the investment in the increase of their income; the success can be the result of the adequate supply of components, the professional management and that of positive image.
Innovation is not just a technology, but it is rather a comprehensive vision of what the future should look like and which requires changes in many ambits. Innovation is driven by people’s needs, ambitions and dreams, and it is necessary that people at different positions in the society change the way they work and live. Innovation, as a result of human interactions, often fails because people do not understand each other, as they belong to different worlds which have their own languages and cultures. While innovation system-like thinking recognizes that the needs are a good mix of factors for innovation, it is hard to establish the perfect mix beforehand: innovation systems and policies need to be adaptive” (Klerkx, Mierlo & Leeuwis 2012). I tried to bring this complex vision to our future. The actuality of the topic is provided by the fact that we are in the period of the development of digital industrial revolution, on the peak of the technology innovations, slowly resulting in the revolutions of the machines. These technological innovations, trends, equipment or new technological achievements often make our work easier, or they may replace us, and will bring changes transforming the world with them. At present era, the availability and use of the relevant knowledge is essential. In Western Europe and in other more developed countries different spaces provide places for evolving various trends, applying the acquired knowledge, e.g. development of Silicon Valley, polices, clusters, co-workings. These innovative spaces may form a bridge for evolving a global, international or regional technology and knowledge transfer, sharing our knowledge and developing our competitiveness. They may be the engine of a “new world”. The entrepreneurship ecosystem in Debrecen was investigated regarding the presence of open innovation spaces. Though Debrecen has already had open innovation spaces, it does not have space operating as HUB. „HUB is a global platform, where people from all corners of the planet connect and engage in collaborative action to realize enterprising ideas for a better world” (HUB GMBH 2012). Furthermore, I studied the fact that why the creation of HUB in Debrecen is reasonable concerning every sector, and what characteristics this space may have. In order to analyze my hypotheses, I used questionnaires made by Delphi survey. During the process experts of this field were asked in two turns. Selecting the experts occurred on the basis of Helix model.
One of the five basic factors in the Lengyel-type pyramid model – institutions and social capital – is essential in the economic growth of the region. Economic success however, does not only depend on participants in the economy, but on social factors such as the roles played by local authorities, including their functions, operation and organisational culture, all of which are crucial factors. Based on the results obtained regarding organisational culture it can be stated that performance orientation, dominant motivation based on calculated risk, forward planning and regular feedback are expected values at local authorities in all three counties. All local authorities emphasise the importance of the need for forecasting. Respondents find it important that organisations encourage and reward individual action and contributions as expected values. The degree of human orientation expected by local authorities reflects the fact that respect for colleagues and attention to their well-being should be at the highest level. Reinforcing these organisational culture values (dimensions) is the basis for the efficient and successful operation of organisations (local authorities). The study examines the organisational culture of local authorities in the Northern Great Plain, looking for any relationships it might have with the competitiveness of the region. This study is an element of the wider research into organisational culture. We used the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness) survey, which had been successfully applied in the research programme In Competition with the World at the Corvinus University of Budapest. Koopman, Den Hartog, Konrad et al. (1999) examined the culture variables of 21 European countries in organisations. Based on Hungarian and international literature it can be stated that a similar survey of local authorities has not yet been conducted.
This primary research examines the introduction of an innovative health promotion service into the market. Given the assumption that healthcare costs should be part of one’s budget, the survey reveals two trends: 1. Health concerns are more observed by consumers having higher social statuses, this means that they are ready to pay money for health preservative services; 2. Health turns into a precious value when we are running short of it. This assumption is well asserted by the finding of the survey that it is those suffering from chronic diseases that would be ready to pay the highest of all sums to buy the service.
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to find out the multi-dimensional ethical approach to accounting and reporting practices going on in India and abroad. What has been the shift in Reporting Practices by Indian companies? What drives the Indian companies to report on the non-financial matters?
Design/methodology/approach – This paper mainly focuses on the inclusion of Non-Financial Matters in the Corporate Annual Reports. An Empirical Survey was carried out and the questionnaires were administered to 122 respondents comprising of 75 academicians and 47 chartered accountants. This paper compares the perceptions of academicians and accounting professionals on the ethical reporting practices of the Indian companies.
Findings – The results were tested using the t-test analysis. The research suggests that more companies should report on their environmental, social, and corporate governance performance and find a way to express them in their Annual Reports and the reporting of data regarding the carbon emissions, energy use, pollution, impact on the local economy, etc., should be made mandatory for companies.
Research limitations/implications – The research included respondents who are currently living in Delhi. For more generalized opinion nationwide survey can be carried out. Another important category of stakeholder for judging the usability of Corporate Annual Reports could be the Institutional Investors.
Practical implications – The results of this study would help the policy makers in framing the guidelines for standardized annual reports, synergizing social and business interest needs on top priority. Corporate philanthropy needs to transform into the realm of core business and corporate social responsibility. Integrated reporting could pave the way for synthesizing financial and non-financial reporting into one form and give a holistic view of companies’ strategies to its stakeholders incorporating new dimensions of IFRS.
Social implications – More emphasis on Non-financial matters will certainly contribute in making the corporates more responsible to the society, environment, and to the future generations.
Significant quantity of renewable plant biomass comes into existence in Hungary year by year. Nowadays there are different wellknow possibilities for utilization. However these methods are not widely accepted. The most important obstacle is frequently caused by lack of knowledge of farmers. Without the necessary information the farmers become distrustful, and in many cases significantly decrease the efficiency of reclamation. Targeted communication method should be used to improve the rates of utilization. It should include appropriate content to their knowledge. This study research the knowledge and the acceptance of vine-branch utilization circle of wine-grower in micro region of Gyöngyös by questionnaire survey. We will know why the use of by-products has not spreaded yet circle of wine-grower and where they get their information from. The typically fragmented farms do not utilize because they do not know the process for doing or other people cultivate their vine-yard so they have not necessary machine. The questionnaire ask the farmers they want to offer their vine-branch a user factory.The questionnaires was completed by personal request. The reason of methods was the bigger rate of query. The questionnaire include question about the farm, the use of vinebranch and data of farmers. The villages were asked the rates of wine-grower. The aim of the research the rational utilize of by-product by wine-growers year by year. With the results of questionnaire survey we can inform the farmers with the appropriate method about the necessary knowledge.
One of the early key empirical findings of the happiness literature is that at higher levels of per capita real income there appears to be diminishing returns to income at least with regards to marginal changes in ‘happiness’ measured by various survey instruments. Although these results have been recently challenged, these earlier findings and the results of many contemporary studies suggest that an inelastic relationship exists between real per capita income and happiness after a relatively low threshold of per capita income is reached. Appling some of the results of prospect theory I argue that even if it were true that the marginal effect of income on happiness is zero, a reduction in income would probably reduce the level of happiness, yielding a kink in the ‘happiness curve’. Also, applying a target income approach to the happiness literature, one can argue that pursuing higher target income, in itself, is a means of increasing life satisfaction. These two theoretical instruments yield results consistent with some of the most recent empirical finding based on Gallup Poll Survey data. In addition, applying insights from the capabilities approach, I argue, that increasing income is a means of purchasing the capabilities to increase individual levels of happiness through the production of public goods, such as health care and education. A given marginal increase in income need not generate any increase in happiness if this income increase is highly unequally distributed in a population or is not used to purchase goods and services that contribute to increases in the level of happiness.
Goal of this paper is to analyse business of agricultural cooperatives in Serbia and their territorial distribution. Paper also comprehends analyses of premises of directors of agricultural cooperatives towards cooperative associations, based on result of survey conducted on chosen sample. Analysis is based on the hypothesis that reform processes present in the Serbian economy, and completely absent from cooperative sector, have weaken the work of cooperative unions and undermined regular relations between cooperatives and their associations. Paper also analyse premises of directors of agricultural cooperatives on relevant questions on membership and work of 12 regional, provincial and Cooperative union of Serbia, based on result of survey conducted in 148 or 7.2% of 2.055 agricultural cooperatives in Serbia. For cooperatives that are not members of any union, paper gives systematization of reasons why cooperative is not member and motives that could inspire cooperative to become a member. For cooperatives that are members of some union, we give analyses of answers if cooperative is satisfied with work and activities of union conducted for cooperative welfare; and suggestions for activities that cooperative unions should practice in the interests and needs of their members.
Women empowerment and gender equity are two significant aspects of the sustainable development of a country. As Sri Lanka is on the way towards sustainable development, this study was conducted to assess the situation of women farmers’ empowerment and food production in Rathnapura district of the country. A sample of 300 women farmers was randomly selected for the study, from two selected Divisional Secretariat (DS) of Rathnapura district. Data was collected from a field survey using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire survey from April to July 2019. Empowerment was analyzed using the empowerment framework used by RAHMAN AND NAOZORE in 2007 in the study of “Women Empowerment through Participation in Aquaculture” with necessary modifications. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results revealed that majority of the women farmers were middle aged, married and had children. Furthermore, most of them had education up to secondary level. While average family size was four, average farm size was 1.25 acres. They had around 16 years of farming experience. The average monthly income of them was 25,000.00 LKR whereas 20% of it was from agriculture. The main sources of empowerment of women farmers were the Agrarian Service Center (55%) followed by village organizations/societies (30%) and microfinance institutions (26%). Furthermore, women empowerment index was 0.65. It is a moderate level of empowerment. However, there were women farmers under three categories of empowerment levels: low empowerment (4.1%), medium empowerment (58.5%) and high empowerment (36.1%). Out of the socio-economic factors; age, education, family size, land size, number of training programs participated, monthly income, experience in agriculture and number of organizations participated, education and number of training programs attended had significant and positive effect for the empowerment. Accessibility of credit facilities and agricultural extension program participation showed that there was a considerable impact on food production rather than the cultivable land size and utilization of modern farming technologies for food production. Therefore, proving of timely important agricultural education and training programs, enhance awareness level of modern farming technology utilization, better micro finance programs and agricultural credit facilities will be able to enhance the empowerment level of the women farmers of this area furthermore.
JEL CODE: Q01, Q12
The purpose of this study is to explore the most important findings of the empirical research conducted amongst local governments of settlements in Hungary, in order to perform a comprehensive analysis on their practices and methods regarding planning. The primary research was conducted in the spring of 2013, with respondent local governments answering relevant questions by submitting a selfadministered questionnaire. The main purpose of the questionnaire survey was to find out whether the involved parties perform actual formal strategic and operative planning activities, and what kind of management planning methods – solutions already working and widespread in the business sector – they apply within the process of planning. In this study, we attempt to conduct a comprehensive analysis on modern planning systems and to appoint the fields that need to be improved, through the results of the questionnaire survey and our own experiences.