No. I (2010): Journal Of Agricultural Sciences - Supplement

Published October 5, 2010

Natural Resources and Sustainable Development
8th International Scientific Symposium on
“Adaptation to climate change”

##issue.tableOfContents##

Articles

  • Examination of Zn deficiency on some physiological parameters in case of maize and cucumber seedlings
    5-9
    Views:
    82

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient needed not only for people, but also crops. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in
    Zn, leading to poor crop yields. In fact, one-third (33%) of the world's population is at risk of Zn deficiency in rates, ranging from 4% to
    73% depending on the given country. Zn deficiency in agricultural soils is also a major global problem affecting both crop yield and quality.
    The Zn contents of soils in Hungary are medium or rather small. Generally, the rate of Zn deficiency is higher on sand, sandy loam or soil
    types of large organic matter contents. High pH and calcium carbonate contents are the main reasons for the low availability of Zn for
    plants (Karimian and Moafpouryan, 1999). It has been reported that the high-concentration application of phosphate fertilisers reduces Zn
    availability (Khosgoftarmanesh et al., 2006). Areas with Zn deficiency are particularly extensive in Békés, Fejér and Tolna County in
    Hungary, yet these areas feature topsoils of high organic matter contents. Usually, Zn is absorbed strongly in the upper part the soil, and it
    has been observed that the uptakeable Zn contents of soil are lower than 1.4 mg kg-1.
    Maize is one of the most important crops in Hungary, grown in the largest areas, and belongs to the most sensitive cultures to Zn
    deficiency. Zn deficiency can causes serious damage in yield (as large as 80 %), especially in case of maize. On the other hand, Zn
    deficiency can also cause serious reduction in the yields of dicots. One of the most important vegetables of canning industry is cucumber,
    which is grown all over the world.
    In this study, the effects of Zn deficiency have investigated on the growth of shoots and roots, relative and absolute chlorophyll contents,
    fresh and dry matter accumulation, total root and shoot lengths, the leaf number and leaf area of test plants in laboratory. Experimental
    plants used have been maize (Zea mays L. cv. Reseda sc.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delicatess). A monocot and dicot plant have
    chosen a to investigate the effects of Zn deficiency, because they have different nutrient uptake mechanism.
    It has been observed that the unfavourable effects of Zn deficiency have caused damage in some physiological parameters, and
    significantly reduced the growth, chlorophyll contents of monocots and dicots alike.

    96
  • The influence of crop rotation and nutrition regime in winter wheat on the phytomass remains and the deposits of weed seeds remained in the ground
    10-13
    Views:
    127

    An important problem refers to soil weeds seed bank with special reference to brown luvic soils and relationship between vegetal remains
    (roots + stub) and nutrition regime – crop rotation plant. A great number of seeds can be found in first 20 centimeters of soil (plowing
    layer). This fact causes a high weeds density, which has a negative effect on the cultivated plants leading to partial or total crop loss.

    91
  • The effect of crop rotation and fertilization on wheat and maize in the pedoclimatic conditions of the Banat Plain
    14-18
    Views:
    69

    The simplification of the plant cultures range and the yields in the last 10-15 years brings into the actuality the role of crop rotation and
    of fertilization on the yield level and stability for wheat and maize even on the soils with a high natural fertility. The results of the researches
    performed between the years 2006 – 2009 on a cambic low gleyed chernozem from the Banat Plain showed that the wheat cultivated in
    monoculture gives productions with 59-81% lower than that cultivated in crop rotation with other plants during 2-4 years. In maize, the yield
    obtained in monoculture is situated behind that obtained in crop rotation with 11-21%. The most favorable crop rotations for wheat were
    rape-wheat in a 4 years rotation and soybean-wheat in simple rotation of 2 years. In maize, the most favorable was the 2 years rotation
    (wheat-maize). The mineral fertilization was very efficient both in wheat (11-36%) and maize (9-31%). The organic fertilization with manure
    was very efficient for maize, the yields being superior with a mean value by 34% for a 60 t/ha dose and with 16% for 30t/ha. The fertilization
    compensates the negative effect expressed by the monocultivation only in a small measure

    93
  • A genetic study regarding the number of grains in spike in winter wheat
    19-22
    Views:
    60

    Grain number per spike was studed in 6 winter wheat varieties and all their 30 direct and reciprocal F1 hybrids. Parents
    included 4 released Romanian variety, the old american Atlas 66 and a dwarf breeding line, Oradea 79. This line has a low number of
    grains/spike, but is important in breeding program for here reduced height. General and specific combining abilities were computed and
    genetic effects were estimated using Griffing’s method 1, model 1, as modified by Cabulea (1983).
    For this diallel crosses, gene interactions and the interaction between cytoplasm and nuclear genes were highly significant and
    the ratio of additive and non-additive effects was close to one.
    The variety Fundulea 29 showed the highest general combining ability and it is recommended as a good parent for increasing
    grain number/spike. Mid-parent heterosis was significant in 9 out of the 30 cases, mostly in hybrids involving the breeding line Oradea 79.
    In 3 cases the number of grains/spike of F1 hybrids was significantly lower than the average of the parents. The breeding line Oradea 79 had
    a significant negative general combining ability, but showed significant positive specific combining ability in most crosses, as well as a
    significant positive effect of its cytoplasm. These results are considered to indicate that there are chances of improving the grain
    number/spike in some crosses with Oradea 79.

    94
  • The effect of gamma irradiation on the germination and growth of Turda Star maize hybrid dry samples
    23-25
    Views:
    58

    In order to study the effects of gamma rays on germination indices i.e. germination index (GI), total germination (GT) and the
    germination energy (GE), of maize hybrid, Turda Star current experiment was conducted. Dry seeds of Turda Star maize hybrid were
    irradiated with 2, 5, 15, 30 and 50 Gy, using a 60Co-gamma radiation source.
    Results showed that gamma irradiation affected all the above mentioned parameters except germination percentage. Total
    germination and germination energy was significantly affected at higher doses of gamma rays. However, increasing doses of gamma
    rays did not have significant effects on seed germination percentage. The other growth parameters showed declining tendency with
    increasing doses of gamma irradiation.

    112
  • Researches on the quick method of sugar productivity evaluation
    26-29
    Views:
    64

    In a sugar factory it is necessary to be able to calculate very quickly the sugar productivity possible to obtain by processing the beet
    having a certain technological quality. That is the reason why, in the following lines, it is presented a very quick method used by the Institute of
    Alimentary Chemistry, the laboratory for sugar research and engineering, for such kind of quick calculations, but with a high theoretical and
    practical precision.

    90
  • Research on seeding agents to effect the sugar crystallization
    30-33
    Views:
    71

    The quality of sugar is the decisive factor in ensuring the sugar commercializing through the conservation of old markets and
    expansion towards new markets. The sugar quality is also the key element which determines the price maintenance in according with the
    expenditures performed or even the diminution of the price as a consequence of the quality lessening.

    113
  • Exogenous salicylic acid treatments enhance tolerance to salinity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plantlets
    34-38
    Views:
    118

    Salt stress, an abiotic stress, determines modifications of some biochemical indicators, like, antioxidant enzymes, proline (amino acid
    accumulate in higher plants under salinity stress) content, and some physiological processes including: plant growth and development. In
    this paper we studied the influence of exogenous treatment of wheat seeds, with 0.1 mM salicylic acid (SA) solution, in the plant response to
    salt stress. The treatment was applied by presoaking the seeds in the treatment solution for 12 hours before germination. The results showed
    that exogenous 0.1 mM SA solution, administrated to the wheat cariopses significantly ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress in first
    week of germination in laboratory conditions.

    112
  • The effect of crop protection and agrotechnical factors on sunflower in the Hajdúság region
    39-46
    Views:
    81

    Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
    The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
    agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the appropriate crop technology (sowing time, crop density)
    and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
    sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
    and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
    one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
    infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
    In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
    ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
    density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
    yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
    treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
    2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
    In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
    obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
    times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.

    98
  • The influence of biostimulators in the growth of some shrubs
    49-52
    Views:
    58

    More sensitive than Mimosa pudica and more beautiful than any adornment detached from nature by man, the azalea (Azaleea
    indica) gathers through its shapes a real symphony of colours and enchanting hues, of elegant shapes, having no rival in the flower world.
    The azalea can multiply through seeds and vegetatively: seedlings, grafting, layering.
    The widest reproduction method remains that through semilignified seedlings, a method that can be used throughout the year
    avoiding the months less favourable for propagation by seedlings, with poor light: November and October. The best results are given by the
    spring propagations by seedlings (February-March) and the summer propagations by seedlings (July-August). The rooting can last for 12-14
    weeks until the seedlings can be transplanted in flower pots without risks.
    A wide application in horticultural practice is the use of growth substances, that take part in the faster formation of roots and in a
    higher percent for species of plants, that, normally, root with difficulty through seedlings. Under this aspect, many synthetical compounds
    have proved to be very active (IAA, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T acid etc.) (3,4).

    89
  • Modern methods to determine vitamin E in foods and feeds
    53-58
    Views:
    96

    Highly specific and sensitive, the proposed fluorometric method for determining α-tocopherol is robust and fairly fast. It
    has been tested in parallel with a conventional thin layer chromatographic method on foods and feeds. The only necessary
    cleanup is the usual saponification. The unsaponificable fraction can be extracted with ethyl ether or, preferably, with
    Extrelut columns. Reagents and their solvents are added to the isooctane solution before each successive reaction and are
    then eliminated by partition with water. The α-tocopherol (α-T) derivative always remains in isooctane. The first step is
    nitrosation and elimination of tocopherols and tocotrienols other than α-isomers. α-T is then oxidized to α-tocored (α-TR)
    with a mixture of sulfuric acid, ferric chloride, and iodine bromide. Α-TR is then condensed to a new reagent: 4,5-dimethylo-
    phenylenediamine. The phenazine formed is strongly fluorescent. Iodine and bromine add to the double bonds of α-
    tocotrienol present and quench the fluorescence of its phenazine.

    114
  • The toxic effects of aflatoxin microorganisms in plants used as spices
    59-62
    Views:
    65

    As an extension of the analysis of black, white and capsicum peppers for aflatoxins , we have examined an additional 11 types of spices and
    4 herbs for these mycotoxins. The investigations consisted of assessment of the applicability of available methods of analysis and modifications of
    these, where necessary together, with a limited survey of each spice and herb for aflatoxins. The analysis of 13 types of ground spices reported
    the presence of low concentrations of aflatoxins in some samples of black pepper, celery seed, and nutmeg. We decided to include in our study 5
    of the spices examined by these workers (cinnamon, celery seed, coriander, nutmeg, and turmeric) for a comparison purpose. In addition we
    examined ginger, mace, cumin seed, dill seed, garlic powder, onion powder, and the herbs marjoram, rosemary, thyme, and sage.

    108
  • Comparison of apricot cultivars for suitability for organic growing
    63-65
    Views:
    61

    Nowadays, important task is using more widely the environmentally friendly production technologies. There are considerable differences
    among technologies using reduced spray programs (integrated and organic) in plant protection and plant nutrition.
    In this case integrated production has a better position as roles for organic production more strict and due to this fruits has an obvious
    temporal and permanent reduction in tree conditions. Fitotechnical elements and renewal and regeneration of cultivars are important
    factors for offseting or delaying of condition weakening.
    In this study, 5 apricot cultivars (not pruned for 8 years) were compared in their characteristics (assessment of inactive, semi-active and
    active plant parts).
    Our study showed that there were 50-70% differences among observed characteristics. Our study confirmed those cultivars which are
    suitable for organic production and which one more resistant to condition weakening and which one able to tolerate negative technological
    effects.

    102
  • Fruit quality parameters of sweet cherry cultivars produced under rain protected plastic foil and general orchard conditions
    66-69
    Views:
    78

    Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
    amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
    basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are an important task in dynamically growing sweet cherry production. This can
    be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
    cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
    compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
    from not covered tree

    104
  • Tulip bulbs preparation by heat treatment for forced culture in green house
    70-72
    Views:
    71

    Tulip can be grown in parks as ornamental plant and cut flowers, or possibly in protected areas for cut flowers during winter and early
    spring.
    An important condition for the successful cultivation of tulips is the quality of the bulbs that are going to be planted and their
    biological preparation.
    Under the quality aspect bulbs have to be uniform and large, preferably with circumference greater than 11 cm and must have good
    phytosanitarical status.
    Preparation of organic bulbs for ensuring the continuation of the differentiation process of germs (floral), is made during the storage.
    It is known that the preparation of organic bulbs are made in interaction with environmental factors, among which temperature plays an
    important role. At the beginning and throughout the process of biological preparation, temperature is maintained at a higher level then the
    temperature must be low until planting.
    The temperature level and the duration of treatment varies by followed objective respectively early or late flowering and staggered
    flowers production over a longer period of time.

    127
  • The identification of phylloquinone in cattle samples using T.L.C. method
    75-78
    Views:
    76

    A case of hemorrhage of unknown origin was observed in cattle and liver samples were submitted for assay of Vitamin K or
    possible cuomarol. After evaluating normal and reverse phase Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates and different solvents,
    reverse phase TLC plate with indicator and methylene chloride:methanol 70:30 were chosen for direct method of detection and
    indication of Vitamin K.Gass Chromatography and Densitometry were used to quantitate the Vitamin K present in liver samples and
    confirmation of Vitamin K was done by Mass Spectroscopy.

    98
  • Study of animal welfare status and heat stress measures applied in dairy cow herds in Hungary
    79-82
    Views:
    91

    The following material focuses on dairy production and climate related issues in Hungary. All the data was gathered during PhD
    project: Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary. Relations between animal welfare and climate changes expressed by
    increase in temperature are described. Extremely hot weather creates hard conditions for milking cows when animal welfare is highly
    compromised. From the preliminary results obtained one might formulate hypothesis that there are still areas on the farms where immediate
    actions should be taken to give a relief to cows in hot seasons. There was found significant number of farms with too many animals per one
    water trough, dirty water troughs, limited access to water troughs and hazardous surface for cows in critical places where many animals are
    gathered. Calves with not sufficient amount of water in hot days and other parts of the year were reported. Silage exposure to the sun and
    mouldy food in a silage clump was also found to be an important factor in monitoring impact of warm weather. Half of the farms letting
    animals to spend time on the pasture or paddock did not provide shade for animals. Low conception rate of first insemination was predicted
    to be influenced by heat stress, what is proved by lack of heat decreasing measures taken on the farms.

    100
  • Evaluation of Hungarian Sporthorse mare performance tests
    83-87
    Views:
    80

    Results of the Hungarian Sporthorse mare performance tests were evaluated. Data from the period of 1993-2009 were used, covering
    scores of 618 3-year-old and 310 4-year-old mares, 109 of them were tested at both ages. Seventeen traits were scored on the tests, which
    covered ten conformational, three free jumping performance and four movement analyses traits, respectively. Breeding value estimation was
    based on BLUP animal model. Test year, age and owner were included in the model as fixed effects. Variance components were estimated
    with VCE-6 software package. Heritabilities ranged from 0.32 (frame) to 0.50 (saddle region) for conformation traits, from 0.39 (jumping
    style) to 0.49 (jumping ability and jumping skill) for free jumping traits and from 0.20 (walk) to 0.48 (canter) for movement analysis traits.
    Breeding value indexes were constructed for each trait group. Conformation index was computed based on the weighted scores of the
    breeding values of conformational traits. The conformational score scales were used as weightings. Free jumping and movement indexes
    contain the proper breeding values with equal weights. A total index was also constructed using conformation index, two times the free
    jumping index and two times the movement index. Each breeding values and breeding value indexes were presented with the mean 100 and
    standard deviation of 20 for the easier understanding.

    92
  • Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins
    90-95
    Views:
    89

    In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
    considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
    utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
    moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
    decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
    mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
    HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
    The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
    healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
    However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
    are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

    109
  • The effect of climatic change on the rheological properties of winter wheat doughs
    96-100
    Views:
    77

    In present paper we have examined the effect of climatic change on the extensigraph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality
    of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by weather conditions during growing period. Flours were from 5
    cultivars grown at one location in three cropping years. We have found that the extensigraph properties of dough are affected by the weather
    conditions, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation. In generally, the
    higher average day temperature and lower precipitation level is favourable to produce winter wheat flour with better quality

    85
  • Analysis of the photosynthetic parameters, the yield and the quality of winter wheat
    101-106
    Views:
    125

    The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and
    varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The aim of our work is to parametrize the plant assimilation, its intensity, dynamics and the
    most important characteristics and the relationships to the quality in winter wheat trials. The measurements were carried out at the research
    site of the University of Debrecen in small parcel experiments. We measured the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance,
    intercellular CO2 level, the transpiration, the leaf temperature and the air temperature by the LICOR LI-6400 portable photosynthesis
    system in field trials on the nutrient supply. The soil of the experimental area is calciferous chernozem with favorable water regime.
    We have examined the photosynthetic activity, the productivity and yield stability of winter wheat varieties. We have compared the yield
    results, at similar agrotechnical conditions in seven cropyears. We also determined the quality parameters of the winter wheat varieties.
    Then we valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the
    connections between assimilation parameters, the yield stability and quality parameters of wheat varieties.

    107
  • Effect of the dry and rainy weather on the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties fruit quality
    107-110
    Views:
    90

    Weather conditions have an important role in fruit production. In the last few decades, this role is increased and basically determines the
    fruit quality and quantity. Despite of this statement, there is but very few information about impacts caused by weather anomalies in
    Hungarian orchards. Regarding this, the relation between the external, and internal values of the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties,
    the changing of the temperature and precipitation in a dry year (2009) as well as in a rainy year (2010) were investigated. The examined
    apple varieties are grown at the same training system (rootstock, spacing, training, pruning system). The average weight, average diameter,
    acid content and soluble solids were higher in 2009 than in 2010, although the precipitation was higher in 2010. Due to the many rainy days
    the intensity of sunshine and the number of sunny days were less. To produce better quality it is very important the amount of the sunshine
    and heat, the optimal temperature and the precipitation rate.

    95
  • Storage of wheat at high moisture
    111-114
    Views:
    75

    Deterioration rates were determined for 15-19% moisture content wheat (Dropia cultivar) stored at constant temperatures.
    Deterioration rates were determined by measuring germination capacity of the grain and respiration rates of grain. Safe storage
    time was defined as the time for germination to decrease to 90%. Safe storage times of 19% m.c. wheat stored at constant
    temperatures ranged from 2.5 d at 30 and 35°C to 37 d at 10°C. Deterioration rates of 19% m.c. wheat stored with a step decrease
    in storage temperatures (35-25, 30-20, 25-20, and 20-15°C) were determined and safe storage times were satisfactorily predicted.
    Safe storage times of 17% m.c. wheat were 5, 7, and 15 d at 35, 30, and 25°C, respectively. Respiration rates and germination
    percentages of 15 and 16% m.c. wheat stored at 25°C remained constant for 70 d. The respiration rates of 17-19% m.c. wheat at
    25°C increased while the germination percentages decreased with storage time. Germination dropped from 98 to 92-89% when the
    dry matter losses were about 0.05% and visible mould occurred when the dry matter losses were about 0.1% in 17-19% m.c.
    wheat.

    116
  • Effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the quality frozen dough bread made from diferent wheat flour
    115-120
    Views:
    67

    A laboratory scale no-time frozen dough procedure that approximates Romanian commercial practice has been
    developed and used to study the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the bread quality of a straight
    grade wheat flour during prolonged storage (2 days to 26 weeks). All treatments (baking absorption level, mixing
    energy input, mixer type, fermentation and intermediate proof times, removal of oxidant and/or dough
    strengthening conditioners and partial freeze-thaw cycles) had significant effects (P<0.05) upon bread quality (loaf
    volume and/or bread score). In general, these effects were more pronounced with extended frozen storage time.
    High baking absorption, undermixing, bulk fermentation (> 1 h) and removal of oxidant and/or surfactants had
    the most dramatic effects. Addition of a very strong flour at 30% to strengthen the wheat flour had no significant
    effect (P>0.05) upon bread quality under optimum conditions.

    122
  • Examination of the effects of the cropyear and the nutrient supply on the quality of winter wheat with the help of Győri’s Z-index
    121-125
    Views:
    60

    In the case of winter wheat,the knowledge of several quality features is needed to be able to determine precisely the real quality of the given
    wheat. Several systems have been worked out on the qualification of the winter wheat in Hungary and other countries as well. Evaluating the
    quality is being made more difficult because the different quality features take part in the development of the quality in different degrees and
    the values of the several quality features are in different intervals and these data are different dimension values. On the evidence of the
    results, in the case of considering several features,it can be difficult to rank into one concrete quality cathegory. Researchers are trying to
    develop complex quality index numbers in order to be able to define the quality more precisely. One of these complex quality index numbers
    is Gyıri’s, so called, Z-index.
    In three years from 2006 and 2008, we examined the change of the quality features of nine varieties of winter wheat with the help of the
    Z-index under the influence of the effects of the different cropyears and the fertilizer treatment. The results show that the Z-index of the
    examined varieties of winter wheat were influenced by several factors. Examining the data of the three different breeding years together we
    can observe the corrective effect of the different cropyears on the Z-index, and if we examine the three years separately and together, the
    differences of the quality features of the different varieties differentiate very well, and with the help of the Z-index the comparison of the
    types is easier and perspicuous, and the Z-index represents the different nutrient reactions of the different types as well. On the average of
    the three years, the types gave the best results at N120-150+PK nutrient level. Among the nine varieties the best results were given by Mv Suba,
    GK Békés and Mv Mazurka in the case of both low and higher nutrient levels.

    93
  • Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
    126-131
    Views:
    64

    An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
    by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
    adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to diseases.
    Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
    quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
    (60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
    significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
    yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
    were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
    carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
    years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
    weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
    starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
    to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

    121
  • Studies of the influences of different N fertilizers and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on the nutrient content of soil
    134-140
    Views:
    60

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizers in combination with bacterial fertilizer on
    nutrient uptake of horseradish and plant available nutrients of the soil. Three different N fertilizers, ammonium-nitrate, urea and calciumnitrate
    (116 kg ha-1 N) in combination with Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer (2 kg ha-1) were applied as treatments in a randomized
    complete block design in three replications. In this paper we presented the results of soil measurements. The soil of the experimental area
    was chernozem with medium sufficiency level of N and P and poor level of K.
    Our main results:
    The amount of 0.01M CaCl2 soluble inorganic nitrogen fractions, NO3
    --N and NH4
    +-N and also the quantity of soluble organic-N were
    almost the same in the soil. N fertilizers significantly increased all the soluble N fractions. The amount of NO3
    --N increased to the greatest
    extent and the increase of organic N was the slightest. We measured the largest CaCl2 soluble NO3
    - -N and total-N contents in the plots
    treated with ammonium-nitrate, the largest NH4
    +-N in the plots treated with calcium-nitrate and the largest organic-N fraction in plots
    treated with urea.
    Bacterial inoculation also increased both soluble inorganic nitrogen forms and also total-N content of soil compared to the control. In
    the case of combined (artificial and bacterial fertilizer) treatments we measured lower NO3
    --N, organic-N and total-N compared to the
    values of plots having only nitrogen fertilizer treatments. On the contrary in the plots with combined treatments the CaCl2 soluble NH4
    +-N
    content of soil in more cases were higher than that of values with artificial fertilizer treatment.
    As a function of calcium-nitrate application increased AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values were measured compared to control. Microbion
    UNC supplement of calcium nitrate yielded also increase in AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values, till then supplement of ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
    yielded a decrease in these values compared to the control.
    All nitrogen fertilizers resulted in a significant decrease in AL-Mg content of soil compared to the control. Nevertheless bacterial
    fertilizer increased AL-Mg values in any cases.

    96
  • Effects of long-term K fertilization and liming on the extractable and exchangeable K contents of a Haplic Phaeosem soil
    141-145
    Views:
    30

    Effects of regular K fertilization and liming on the easily extractable K content of a Haplic phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl2
    and AL (traditional method in Hungary) were examined in the B1740 type of the National Uniformed Long-Term Fertilization Experiments
    at Karcag.
    Close correlation (r=0.95) was found between the 0.01 M CaCl2 and ammonium lactate - acetic acid (AL) extractable K contents of
    soils.
    K fertilization increased the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL extractable K significantly. Liming had different effects on the amounts of
    K extracted by these two methods. Liming increased the amount of AL-K and decreased the amount of CaCl2-K. CaCl2 extractable K was in
    close correlation with the relative amount of exchangeable K content of the soil (K%) and the agronomic K balance. The results of regression
    analysis confirmed that the CaCl2-K characterized K% and the AL-K related to the absolute amount of exchangeable K.
    On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to detect not just the increase of easily extractable K
    caused by fertilization and liming but the changing of the rate of the relative amount of exchangeable K.

    28
  • The effect of agrotechnological factors and the cropping season on sweetcorn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) production in a humid year
    146-151
    Views:
    71

    We have examined the effect of three agrotechnological factors (sowing time, fertilization, crop density) and four genotypes on the yield
    of sweetcorn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in 2009. The experiment was set up at the Látókép Research Site of the University of
    Debrecen. We have included two sowing times (27 April, 26 May), six nutrition levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK,
    N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) at two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1).
    In the humid cropyear of 2010 the amount of precipitation exceeded the 30-year average by 184 mm in the cropping season; the average
    temperature exceeded the same by 0.8 C on the average of the examined months. The circumstances were most favourable for sweetcorn
    production with the first sowing time, thus, this was when the yield of all hybrids was the highest.
    With early sowing time, the highest yield (23437 kg ha-1 yield) was obtained with Enterprise at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level at
    N150 + PK nutrition level. The highest yield of the other three hybrids was 22253 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) 22286 kg ha-1 (Box-R) and 1873 kg ha-1
    (Prelude). With the second sowing time, the highest yield was obtained with Enterprise again (22237 kg ha-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 crop
    density level. With this sowing time the yield of Jumbo, Box-R and Prelude was 20888 kg ha-1, 17796 kg ha-1 and 17401 kg ha-1, respectively.
    We found that the highest yield was obtained at the highest nutrition levels (N120 + PK, N150 +PK) with the first sowing time, while the same
    was obtained at lower nutrition levels (N90 + PK, N120 + PK) with the second sowing time.

    89
  • Baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the long-term experiments on chernozem soil
    152-156
    Views:
    69

    Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
    is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
    importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-average yields of wheat were about 5,0-5,5 t ha-1 („industrial-like”
    crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
    of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
    (eastern and middle-parts).
    The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
    agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
    element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
    be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
    could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
    The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
    direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
    rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
    Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
    in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.

    98
  • Determining elements of variety-specific maize production technology
    157-161
    Views:
    62

    Our aim was to work out such new maize fertilizer methods and models which can reduce the harmful effects of fertilization, can
    maintain the soil fertility and can moderate the yield fluctuation (nowadays 50-60 %).
    The soil of our experimental projects was meadow soil. The soil could be characterized by high clay content and pour phosphorus and
    medium potassium contents. In the last decade, out of ten years six years were dry and hot in our region. So the importance of crop-rotation
    is increasing and we have to strive for using the appropriate crop rotation.
    The yields of maize in monoculture crop rotation decreased by 1-3 t ha-1 in each dry year during the experiment (1983, 1990, 1992,
    1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2007). The most favourable forecrop of maize was wheat, medium was the biculture crop rotation
    and the worst crop rotation was the monoculture.
    There is a strong correlation between the sowing time and the yield of maize hybrids, but this interactive effect can be modified by the
    amount and distribution of precipitation in the vegetation period. At the early sowing time, the grain moistures were 5-12 % lower compared
    to the late sowing time and 4-5 % lower compared to the optimum sowing treatment.
    There are great differences among the plant density of different maize hybrids. There are hybrids sensitive to higher plant density and
    there are hybrids with wide and narrow optimum plant densities.
    The agro-ecological optimum fertilizer dosage of hybrids with a longer season (FAO 400-500) was N 30-40 kg ha-1 higher in favourable
    years as compared to early hybrids.
    We can summarize our results by saying that we have to use hybrid-specific technologies in maize production. In the future, we have to
    increase the level of inputs and have to apply the best appropriate hybrids and with respect to the agroecologial conditions, we can better
    utilize the genetic yield potential.

    99
  • The effects of agrotechnological factors on winter wheat yield in humid cropyear
    162-167
    Views:
    78

    The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
    (powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
    Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in triculture (pea – wheat – corn) and biculture (wheat – corn), at
    five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
    the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
    significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
    vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
    extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
    Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
    at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
    protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
    technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
    The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
    was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
    experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
    crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
    (0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
    correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
    lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
    triculture.

    91
  • Monitoring the oxygen level in the Szarvas-Kákafok Deadarm
    170-173
    Views:
    58

    The water quality of the Szarvas-Békésszentandrás Dead Körös is generally meso-eutrophic, and meso-saprobic. However, particularly
    under higher temperature conditions, the water body may change toward the eutrophic state, even algal blooms could be observed
    previously.
    The present measurements were conducted during a two week period, twice a day. Three water samples were taken horizontally, from
    the surface, bottom and the middle of the water body. The samples were examined in situ. The oxygen content, the temperature, the pH and
    the conductivity were measured by potentiometric methods.
    Increasing pH was detected in correlation to the temperature, which indicated a rising photosynthetic activity. Also, the O2
    concentration showed high variations, especially, when the fresh water supply from the river was stopped, due to a small flood in the river
    Körös.
    These results indicate the increasing eutrophication processes in the deadarm, and the high load and instability of the ecosystem.

    87
  • Evolution of some components of agroecosystems productivity from Vinga Plain in water stress situations
    174-179
    Views:
    60

    The researches are inscribed on line of substantiation of durable agricultural system, having main objective the prominence of
    quantitative and qualitative modifications made on agro-system level under the effect of no-tillage system for wheat, maize and soybeans.
    The experimental field is placed on a cambium chernozem, with a medium content of clay, dominant in the Prodagro West Arad agrocentre
    and representative for a large surface in the Banat-Crisana Plain.
    The passing to no-till system change the structure of technological elements, through less soil works, so the impact on agro-system is
    different comparing with conventional tillage, first less the intervention pressure on agro-system ant secondly appears new interactions, new
    equilibriums and disequilibriums.
    Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly (by taking soil samples and laboratory determinations) for
    the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work
    of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil.

    97
  • The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
    180-186
    Views:
    72

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
    the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
    irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for maize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
    cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
    in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
    correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
    yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
    decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
    hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
    determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
    ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
    a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
    consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

    97
  • The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations
    187-192
    Views:
    84

    Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
    significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
    crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
    stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
    The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
    we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
    Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
    · Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
    · The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
    · Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
    climatic anomalies.
    · Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
    · The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
    · Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
    modifier factors.
    Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
    fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
    method.

    105
  • Evaluation of water balance in apple and pear trees
    193-198
    Views:
    105

    A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor
    of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates
    the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-loss happens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not
    an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree
    (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and
    fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of
    fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees.

    111
  • Survey of the chance of secondary salinization in the hobby gardens around Karcag
    199-205
    Views:
    90

    Irrigation involves the risk of secondary salinization on certain areas. The increase of the level of salty groundwater or the application
    of poor quality (salty) irrigation water can cause secondary salinization. Irrigation from drilled wells is very characteristic in the small
    hobby gardens located around Karcag during the frequently droughty summers. Mainly vegetables and fruits with high water demand are
    grown in these gardens, hence quite a large amount of subsurface waters are used for irrigation. Water samples were taken from 46 drilled
    wells located in the hobby gardens around the town of Karcag and analysed in order to survey the risk of secondary salinization. On the
    base of the results of the analyses and some indexes calculated from the chemical parameters of the irrigation waters, it can be established
    that none of the investigated wells supply water that is suitable for irrigation without improvement.

    100
  • Failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems
    209-214
    Views:
    57

    The present paper intends to overview the problems of the failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems. The author’s efforts were channeled to systemizing, classifying and adapting the content to the hydraulics engineering field. 

    87
  • Plant production possibilities on a heavy metal contaminated soil with the purpose of biorefinery
    215-222
    Views:
    73

    Significant part of not cultivated area of Hungary is not suitable for agricultural utilization because of industrial
    pollution. Technologies of biorefinery make reutilization of contaminated areas possible. Biomass of plants
    produced on polluted soils can be raw material of valuable products. Applicability of biorefinery was tested on a
    heavy metal polluted soil, where the contamination originated from previous mining activity. Complete biomass
    utilization was aimed to obtain cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical agents, and precursors. During our research
    work 88 plant species and varieties were produced and tested for potential utilizable components. Levels of
    possible contaminants in these plants were monitored, and amounts of carbohydrates, protein, organic acid and
    cellulose were determined as well. Different plant extracts were tested as potential sources of biologically effective
    components or as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation. Our results show that biorefinery is a real possibility
    for utilization of polluted areas. Numerous plants could be cultivated on contaminated areas without increased
    levels of contaminants in their tissues, thus they can be sources of valuable compounds.

    100
  • Theoretical and comparative study regarding the Galerkin-Vlasov method use for study the free vibrations of wood flat plate
    223-228
    Views:
    49

    As for the historic record of the problem related to the study of flat plates, the first results were out for publishing at the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century, having Chladni E, Strehlke, Konig, R, Tanaka S, Rayleigh L, Ritz W and later on Gontkevich V, Timoshenko S, Leissa as pioneers. Each of the above mentioned authors have had significant contributions regarding the development of methods in order to solve the plates and establish some rigurous solutions of their differential equations of equilibrium. 
    The making of constructions, machines and different high-perfomance appliances, whose functioning should take place in safety conditions, have required theoretical studies of rich complexity, as well as practical experiments, within which the problem of their free and forced vibrations represent an important category in the respective theme of research.

    94
  • Competence modules of the agro-environmental engineering bachelor course in Hungary
    229-236
    Views:
    69

    One of the most important goals of the Bologna Process is to introduce the three circle system: bachelor, master, doctorate courses. In Hungary from 2006/2007 academic year 132 bachelor courses are launched. One of the launched bachelor course is environmental engineering of which the scientific background and economical sector are rapidly changing. Hence, to help graduates from this area to find a job, it is very important to examine working activities, expectations of employers, to study requirements of the training programs, the system of competencies. Having examined these points, frameworks of professional requirements have been worked out by 27 validation tests. In this publication, the results of the research work related to the environmental engineering bachelor program were presented.

    104
  • Energy forests or vineyards?
    237-240
    Views:
    67

    This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
    decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
    wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clearing of vineyards have been implemented in the last few years. The
    abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
    etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
    Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
    absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
    interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
    from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.

    88
  • Greenhouse gas emissions and Europe 2020 strategy
    241-244
    Views:
    58

    Common Agricultural Policy has identified three priority areas for action to protect and enhance rural heritage: (i) the preservation and development of natural farming and traditional agricultural landscapes; (ii) water management and sustainable use and (iii) dealing with climate change. Measures of Rural Development Plan in EU countries promote the development of agricultural practices for preserving the environment and safeguarding the countryside. This is achieved by targeting rural development and promoting environmental friendly, sustainable practices, like agri-environment schemes. Farmers are encouraged to continue playing a positive role in the maintenance of the countryside and the environment. Changes in total emission between 1990
    and 2007 do not show any correlation with the total GHG emission. GHG emission was reduced in Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Estonia and Bulgaria, where GHG efficiency is low.

    87
  • Mitigation and adaptation measures in the hungarian rural development programme
    245-250
    Views:
    60

    In the Hungarian Rural Development Programme (RDP) climate change adaptation is addressed through the measures in Axis 1, 2, 3 and 4. Under Axis 1 farmers can receive support for farm modernisation that will help them adapt to climate change. The processing industry will also be able to use the available resources for capital expenditure on buildings and new equipment. Axis 2 and especially the soil and water package within the agrienvironmental
    measure aim to support production methods, which protect soil quality and will help adaptation to climate change. Measures of Axis 3, such as basic services for the economy and rural population, village renewal and development will provide local communities the opportunity to identify actions that can be undertaken to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, the extension of forest resources contributes to climate change mitigation and enhances carbon sequestration. New methods have been elaborated to the sustainable regional water management, irrigation, water regulation, defence against internal water, and soil protection established. Water management contributes to the balance of water quantity on one side, but also to mitigating the climate change on the other.

    94
  • The influence of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residues biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted
    251-254
    Views:
    65

    The paper presents the partial results of researches regarding the agrochemical melioration of soils under control polluted by petroleum residues that took place at the Agricultural and Research and Development Station in Oradea, Bihor County.
    The experimental device was made out of 1 m2 microparcels, spread out in subdivided parcels, in four repetitions, having tree factors: A - the pollution by crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, B – the mineral fertilization, and C – the organic fertilization.
    The experience was set out on a preluvosoil în the year 1993 and the soil was cultivated with millet in the first 3 years and with spring wheat in the last 7 years of research.
    The researches carried out in Oradea had the objective of establishing the effects of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residue biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted with crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, Bihor County.

    90
  • Failure mode and effect analysis of water supply systems
    255-261
    Views:
    74

    The present paper intends to overview the problems of the failure mode and effect analysis of water supply systems. The author’s efforts were
    channeled to systemizing, classifying and adapting the content to the hydraulics engineering field.

    88
  • Changing of some parameters of the soil-plant system as an effect of different composts
    262-266
    Views:
    81

    Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system. 
    Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plant was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested plants, the P-, K-, Mg-contents, and the pH of soils.
    The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.

    101
  • Public opinion on the settlements’ environment and the use of renewable energy sources in the Micro-region of Gyöngyös
    267-272
    Views:
    60

    This paper intends to give an overview on some results of our studies carried out on the public opinion of the above aspects (settlements’
    comfort level and the use of renewable energy sources) directly or indirectly linked to the topic of climate change and possible adaptations.
    These studies were carried out by applying questionnaire survey in the (altogether 25) settlements of the Gyöngyös Micro-region.
    Knowledge on general human perceptions related to climate change and its impacts is considered to be important as it should advance the
    elaboration of adaptation and applied scientific works. They are highly required as rural areas, due to their closer relationship (dependence)
    to the physical environment, are more susceptible to changes resultant from the climate change with their possibilities to adaptation also
    being impeded.
    The beauty of environment plays an important role in the settlements studied within the micro-region with more than two third of pollees
    opting the environment as a factor they most proud of, especially among those residing in the villages for more than 10 years. It can be
    presumed that any change in this environment would greatly impact their everyday life and emotional relationship to their home villages. The
    overall picture after analysing the public opinion on the use of renewable energy source (as possible way of adaptation to the impacts of
    climate change) is rather controversial. Even basic knowledge and information are limited regarding the relevant technologies calling
    attention to the importance of raising environmental awareness and providing full information seems to be essential and should be
    implemented, through the media and education.

    91
  • Status of soil quality in south-west of Romania and its role in sustainable development of the rural space
    273-278
    Views:
    62

    Being aware of lands ecological resources’ natural conditions and particularities for different uses and crops is of great importance
    for the big and small producers.
    In this paper we present the main aspects regarding the quality of the ecopedological conditions. Here there are briefly presented the
    physico-geographic conditions and the telluric-edaphic configuration of the area. Also, the structure of the main categories of agricultural
    activities in the physical geographical areas (mountains, hills and plateaus, high and low plains and meadows) and main soils’ types and
    associations are presented. Lands vocation for different use (arable, lawns, hay, orchard, vineyard
    The paper ends with highlighting the necessary measures for a lasting administration of ecopedological resources in the studied area.

    96