Sida hermephrodita or virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through between ten and twenty years. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use it as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favorable features like fast... growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in base stage of domestication therefore has a serious disadvantage the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seed/acre instead of 10-20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a disposable ,basically wild Sida population. We examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenus or endogenus infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65, 80 and 95 oC), 29,33 to 46% germinated of the seeds collected from the population of S. hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5-10 % wihitout treatment and rised using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46 %) after the hot water operation in spite of the previus studys (Spooner 1985; Chudik et al. 2010; Doliński R. 2009.). We discovered that there are a distinguished close relationship between the seeds collecting time and the infection, as well as germination percentage. Thus, 2009 season was the most favourable in case of contamination (control:17,33 and 80 oC treatment:0%) as well as germination percent. It could be concluded that, the best season for our findings was 2009 due to autumn harvest of Sida seeds. In our oppinion, the autumn harvesting should be the best time to overcome the problem of the low germination and high infection percentage.
Seed storage is an essential post-harvest operation that decides the success of seeds viability and germination in next generation. The study explored Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts as bio-insecticides seed treatments on stored wheat and green gram seeds viability and germination. M. villosus...and P. fraternus plants powder were sequentially extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (Petroleum ether, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and methanol), concentrated and tested for insecticidal activity by fumigant toxicity. The extract which showed maximum activity, was selected for seed viability and germination test. Five replications each were made for the treatment and the control. The plant extracts strengthen the non-phytotoxic nature of plant products against seed viability and germination. Seeds treated with extracts (50-400 μg seed-1) did not lose their viability as it resulted in successful and normal germination within the range of 90 – 97.67% irrespective of the extracts concentration. While, seeds in control recorded 95.55 and 100% germination which were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to the treated seeds. Based on findings from the study, potential exploitation of M. villosus and P. fraternus as food grains protectant in insect pest management strategies is recommended for the resource poor farmers. However, further investigations are suggested on biosafety and effects of the extracts on the organoleptic contents of the grains prior to consumption.
In the present work we have examined the changes of germination ability of some medicinal plant species belonging to the Solanaceae family (Datura stramonium L., Datura innoxia Mill. and Hyoscyamus niger L.) during 5-6 years' storage period. According to our results, all the three species showed an after-ripe...ning behavior. Potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid increased significantly the rate of germination in the case of Datura species. During the storage period tested (1995-2001), the species maintained their germination ability which is favourably but not significantly influenced by the cooled gene bank conditions. The degree of ripeness affected considerably the proportion of germinated seeds at all the three species. As a consequence of our results we emphasise that propagation with completely ripe seeds is proposed, however, half-ripe seeds developped in an unadvantageous vegetation period can be also utilized in the practice. The effect of vegetation year on stramony seeds manifested in the length of after-ripening period, while in the case of henbane the germination ability was also influenced.
In our country the maindenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) is raised mainly from seeds, so the aim of our experiments was to determine the most useful generative propagation method. However, some experiments have been conducted earlier connected to the germination of the species, but the comparative control of physical seed treatment was d...one first time by the authors.
After the statistical evaluation of the results it can be stated that the percentage of germination has significantly increased if the seeds received physical treatment (scalding, mechanical scouring). Hereby the pericarp is getting soft or growing thinner, so the germination of the seed is easier. These treatments are extraordinarily simple, easy to carry out and their effect is very favourable, that is why their use is strongly advised.
Comparing the seeds collected at different times was found that the ability of germination is decreasing proportionally with the time spent in the open field. On the basis of our experiments and of earlier practice in Hungarian tree nurseries, our opinion is that the stratification of seeds is not necessary.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere storage techniques to reduce the oxygen around the food are largely used for the preservation of fresh produce. There have been great technological advances in this area of preservation, particularly as it refers to improving the quality and shelf-stability of highly perishable food...products, such as produce. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds storage under modified atmosphere packages. Germination percent of seeds decreased in 5°C than storage in room temperature. Germination percent of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. Packaging treatments had a significant effect on germination percent of seeds. All the packaging treatments had the higher germination percent than the paper package (control). The highest germination percent after 12 months of storage was recorded for the treatment with non perforated polypropylene in room temperature and polyethylene and non perforated polypropylene in 5°C. Catalase activity decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The non perforated polypropylene package had the highest catalase activity. The treatment with non perforated polypropylene had the highest catalase activity after 12 months of storage in both room and 5°C temperatures. Peroxidase activity of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. The highest peroxidase activity after 12 months of storage was recorded in non perforated polypropylene in both storage temperatures.
Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fer...tilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.
In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective pot...ential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.
As a part of the research project to establish natural sources of plant pigments, possibilities of introduction of Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) into cultivation were studied.
As a result of the germination experiment, the relevance of 21 days' duration of germination procedure was proved. To get high germination rate alkanet fru...its are proposed to pretreat by gibberellinic acid (GA3) in the concentration of 400 ppm, overnight before sowing. This method results approximately 50 % germination rate.
The morphological and production properties of alkanet roots are characterized during ontogenesis. Transplanted populations can be characterized by numerous, thick and heavy roots comparing to the spontaneous ones. Thus, seed sowing and transplantation proved to be an effective method for cultivation of the species.
According to our results it can be concluded that in cultivation the optimal harvesting time of roots is at the end of the second vegetation cycle, when the dry root mass of the individuals is about 10-20 g with 3,0-3,5 % accumulation level of active substances.
Considerable seasonal variability have been found influencing not only the root masses, but also the accumulation levels of alkannin derivatives. In a more humid vegetation cycle the root size and mass as well as the content of active substances are much higher.
More than 15 million hectares of Iran’s land areas are suffering from salinity.We investigated the effects of two types of salt (NaCl, CaCl2) in different levels on the germination and initial growth of two medicinal and aromatic plants, Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. The experiment was carried out in Qazvin Agriculture and Na...tural Resource Research Center based on a randomized complete block design, for 14 days in a germinator. Sweet basil germinated above 50% in each saline treatment (EC=10 dSm-1), in alkali treatment (CaCl2=18800 mg/L) and in sodic-saline treatment (Ec=10 dSm-1; SAR=5.6), however at the highest concentrations germination was slowed down. Lemon balm showed a higher sensitivity: except the lowest NaCl treatment, each other ones inhibited germination and its rate to some extent. The combined treatments of both salts increased the stress reactions. However, seedling growth was less effected. The results showed a stimulating effect of NaCl treatment in 2500 mg/L (EC<5 dSm-1) for both species concerning germination and seedling growth.
Samples of 50 wrinkled-seeded pea (Piston sativum cv. ‘Farida') were soaked for 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours at temperature of 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C in distilled water before germination. Water absorption, percent of germination, vigorous seedlings and dry weight of normal seedlings were assessed after 8 days. Respiration of shor...t and long seedlings were checked by IRGA, LI-COR 6200 photosynthesis system. Most plants had more or less respiration but some of them already had photosynthesis. Differences in the amount of water absorbed were evident after one hour, only. Water amount was increased by increasing soaking temperatures and times. The maximum was achieved after 24 hours. Normal germination percent was not improved at any soaking time and temperature combinations but it was significantly declined at 10 °C with soaking time combinations and at 20 °C for 72 hours. The seedling vigour values were not very different at the higher soaking temperatures, but the treatments at 20 °C temperature with 8 and 24 hour soaking periods are proved to be optimal for seedling vigour. At the low soaking temperature the increase of the soaking period influenced the seedling vigour. Reduction of dry weight percent was noticeable by any soaking time related to temperature and compared with the control.
The importance of ecological farming in Hungary is increasing. The utilisation of organic seed is regulated by national law. In our experiment the effect of two plant conditioning substantial: Biokál and Biomit Plussz were tested on the germination of seed. Our test plant species was garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), the most important v...egetable in Hungary. The experiment was carried out in the germination laboratories of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control after international rules. The germination, the length of root and shoot were measured. 4 hours soaking of pea seeds in 30% solution of Biokál gave the best result. Our results could help to make the field emergence of organic seed faster and safer.
In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of... tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
The aim of onion bulb storage is to meet consumer demand for extended availability of onions whilst maintaining product quality. The principal biological factors leading to onion bulb deterioration are respiration, resumption of growth and pathogen attack. In onion bulbs a dormant period, when sprouting and rooting cannot be induced, is followe...d by a period of internal changes that prepare the bulb for breaking of dormancy and subsequent growth. Out of storage, the bulb then proceeds towards flowering and seed production. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on yield and yield components of onion seeds and storage The seed yield of each commercial compounds plot from previous experiment was divided into two groups, storage under room temperature and 5°C. Seeds transferred immediately after drying to Increasing Export Competition of Some Vegetable Crops Project Laboratory located in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. The effects of storage temperature, storage period and foliar with some commercial compounds on onion seed quality were considered. Storage in 5°C had the higher germination percentage than storage in room temperature. Results indicated that as storage period increased the germination percent decreased. The treatment with boron or amica in the first season had the highest germination percentage. While, the treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer or amino X had the highest germination percentage in the second season. Storage in 5°C resulted in higher moisture content than storage in room temperature. Regarding the effect of storage period on moisture content, the water content was significantly increased with prolongation of storage period. The lowest values of water content were recorded for treatments with union feer, shams K or boron in the first season, and union feer, shams K, boron, magnesium, shetocare or hummer in the second one. Catalase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. The treatment with shams K, boron, shetocare or amino X had the highest catalase activity in both seasons. Peroxidase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. Foliar application with boron had the highest peroxidase activity in both seasons. Seed stored in room temperature had the higher malondialdehyde content than those stored in 5°C in the second season. The malondialdehyde content increased as storage period increased. The treatment with magnesium, caboron and the control in the first season, and the treatment with magnesium and the control in the second season had the highest malondialdehyde content.
Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exo...genous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.
Laboratory germination tests have been made with three white fruit pepper varieties and with one spice pepper in filter paper rolls wetted with KCl solutions of different concentration. Parallel tests have been conducted with the other species (lettuce, tomato, kohlrabi) to compare the salt tolerance of paprika with that of other vegetable crop...s.
In greenhouse, the action of KCl has been investigated with transplants raised in soil mixture, in rockwool and with seedlings transplanted from rockwool into soil mixture. Like the trials in the laboratory, the experiments in soil mixture have been made with other plant species, too.
Germination and early seedling growth of eight pea genotypes were examined under and soon after different (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) PEG treatments. Seeds were germinated on PEG solution for 3 or 6 days and then further germinated and cultured on filter paper moistened by water for 3 and 6 days. The length and fresh weight of shoots and roots of s...eedlings were measured and used for evaluation of genotypes. Roots were less inhibited by osmotic stress than shoots similarly to other plant species. The variability among the genotypes was the greatest in the case of shoot growth at 5% PEG treatment and in the case of root growth at 15% PEG treatment. Results suggest that growing responses of genotypes after cessation of stress are more suitable for the evaluation of their osmotic tolerance, than their responses expressed during in vitro stress conditions. Genotypes with relatively high or low osmotic stress tolerance, respectively, could be distinguished with 6 days after recovery from 3-day-long 15% PEG treatment concerning the rate of shoot weight to root weight.
The tolerant bacteria for abiotic stresses such salinity, drought, and different pH have been used as a good tool to improve plant growth in sustainable agriculture. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of isolated stresstolerant bacteria for red mud-polluted soil on growth performance of giant reed plants with increasing co...ncentrations of NaCl 0.0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0% under gnotobiotic conditions. At the same time biostimulator potential of isolated bacteria was observed in case of radish in vitro germination experiment under salt stress. It was found that the observed bacterial strain can tolerate the salt and pH moderately however it is resistant against hydrogen-peroxide caused oxidative stress in high concentration (up to 2640 mM). Molecular identification, basis on 16S rDNA showed 98% similarity to the Bacillus aryabhattai bacterial strain. The isolated strain alleviated the negative effect of salt (0.05%) for the radish seed germination. However in higher salt concentration (≥0.1%) the bacterial mitigating effect vanished. The inhibition of increasing salt concentration for giant reed plantlets was also alleviated by halotolerant bacteria treatment (≥0.5%).
The allelopathic activity of the different extracts of the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and fumarprotocetraric acid on the early growth of A cepa (IPA 6) seedlings depends on their chemical composition and concentration, respectively. It was observed that the length of the radicle was significantly stimulated by fumarprotocetraric acid at high... concentrations and by the total extract of C. verticillaris thalli, which contained a high level of fumarprotocetraric, acid confirmed by HPLC-technique. In addition, it was found, that the phosphate buffer extract, which contained high level of methyl (3-orcinol carboxilate measured by HPLC, reduced the length of the hypocotyls significantly. Under our experimental conditions there was no influence of the different types of extract and fumarprotocetraric acid on the ratio of seed germination, in relation to the control. From the study of HPLC it was found that fumarprotocetraric acid and methyl 13-orcinol carboxilate were present in all extracts at different concentrations, depending on the method of extraction.
The author post few years organizes the plum breeding program. He uses up earlier elaborated morphogenetic and productive characteristics and traits, already on such basis their selected 21 cultivars in the pomological garden at Cegléd. The Hungarian plum assortment and offer very specific and tight, thus that they endeavor, that the selection... before then flare. There are indicating already only the perspective cultivars in present paper on basis of gathered data one decade underneath. Paralleling control was three type of used (Besztercei szilva Bt. 2, Green gage and Stanley). 12-sort trait according to were compared the cultivars. The productivity-biological standpoints without, the open pollination and pollen germination, over and above that the ripening on date big differences appear. The near future the 'C. 1501' (Yellow Besztercei), 'Ontario' and `Mirabelle de Nancy' (yellow plums), the yes untimely `Precoce di Guigno' (red plum), the very well abundant 'C. 940' and Victoria (lilac plums), over and above that 'Beregi datolya', ‘Révfülöpi’ and `Szarvasi' (blue plums) cultivars setup suggest. The demonstrated cultivars out of further give for deputize value the Precoce di Giugno, as earliest ripening and the 'Beregi datolya' but the at the latest ripening.
The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina ...m>using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.
Pepper transplants were grown in trays using 6 different growing media. Trays were filled in a loose and in a compact manner with the 5 different peats and coconut coir. Measurements were made for the most important physical parameters of each single medium studying their effect on transplant development. Results indicated that compaction had h...ad a beneficial effect on the germination of the transplants and on the rate of their development.
This review evaluated previous studies on the effect of pesticide use on flower formation and fertility of some fruit species. The study was divided into two parts. First part of the overview will evaluate the most commonly used fungicides on pollen toxicity and their germination ability under fungicide exposure on different fruit species. Effe...ct of fungicides on fruit set was also critically reviewed. Second part of the study summarised those few studies which determined the effect of some insecticides and acaricides on flower formation and fertility.
Anatomical relations of root formation are traced throughout the life cycle of the strawberry plant from the germinating seed up to the runners of the adult plant. Histological picture of the root changes a lot during the development of the plant. First the radicle of the germ grows to a main root, which makes branches into side roots and later... adventitious roots are formed on the growing rootstock or rhizome. The anatomy of the different types of roots is also conspicuously different. First tiny branches appear relatively early after germination on the seedling's radicle, but soon the hypocotyl of the seedling thickens and develops side roots, which are already somewhat stronger. During this interval, the first true leaves are formed. The 4th or 5th of them being already tripartite, and the initiation of new roots extends into the epicotylar region of the shoot. The second years growth starts with the development of reproductive structures, inflorescences and runners starting from the axils of the new leaves. Near the tips of the runners below the small bunch of leaves, new root primordia are initiated. The tiny radicle of the germ develops a cortical region of 5-6 cell layers. Cells of the central cylinder are even smaller than the cortical parenchyma and include 3-4 xylem and 3-4 phloem elements as representatives of the conductive tissue. Roots originating from the shoot region are much more developed; their cortical zone contains 17-20 cell layers, whereas the central cylinder is about half as large. In the next year, new roots are formed at the base of the older leaves. These roots differ hardly from those of the last season in size and volume, however, they are recognised by colour and their position on the rhizome. The roots of the last year are dark, greyish-black, and grow on the lower third length of the rhizome, on the contrary, the new ones, on the upper region, are light brown. Roots starting from the shoot or rhizome are, independently from their age or sequence, mainly rather similar in size and diameter, thus being members of a homogenous root (homorhizous) system, i.e. without a main root. Plants developed and attained the reproductive phase develop in the axils of the leaves runners being plagiotropic, i.e. growing horizontally on the surface of the soil. The runners elongate intensely, become 150-200 mm, where some long internodes bear a bunch of small leaves and root primordia on short internodes and a growing tip. Runners do not stop growing, generally, further sections of 15-25 cm length are developed according to the same pattern, with small leaves on the tip. The growing tip of the runners is obliquely oriented, and small, conical root primordia are ready to start growing as soon as they touch the soil. The roots penetrate the soil, quickly, and pull, by contraction, the axis of the runner downwards, vertically, developing a new rhizome. The short internodes elongate a little and start developing adventitious roots. At the end of the growing season, the plantlets arisen on the rooted nods of runners are already similar to the original plants with homogenous root system. On the side of the adventitious roots, new branches (side-roots) are formed. The root-branches are thinner but their capillary zone is more developed being more active in uptake of water and nutrients. The usual thickening ensues later.
The yielding potential and regeneration (i.e. germination of hidden buds) after pruning of the fruit-bearing shoots of different ages were compared in sour cherry cultivars pruned to spindle shape. The examinations were carried out in order to determine the optimal pruning strategy resulting in the highest long-term yielding of sour cherry cult...ivars with intensive crown shape (free and thin spindle shape). According to our results, there are great differences among the studied self-fertile sour cherry cultivars in yielding and regeneration, which are worthwhile to be considered in determining the method and degree of pruning.
Storage of fresh fruits and vegetables prolongs their usefulness. The principal goal of storage is to preserve the commodity in its most useable form for the consumer. The extension of storage life and the improvement of quality of fresh fruits and vegetables can be supplied by harvesting at proper maturity, control of post-harvest diseases, ch...emical treatments, refrigeration, controlled and modified atmospheres. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds and storage under controlled atmosphere. The germination percentages were 85.50, 86.85, 83.75 and 82.15 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. Water content of onion seeds was significantly increased with decreasing storage temperature in all controlled atmospheres. Water content values were 4.48, 4.40, 4.55 and 4.54 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. There were significant decreases in water content with increasing exposure periods. The lowest water content was recordednfor the exposure periods of 120 and 240 days. Catalase and peroxidase activities were decreased with the decreasing of storage temperature, whereas malondialdehyde content was increased. The exposure for 120 days recorded the highest catalase activity. The highest value of peroxidase (11.72) was recorded for CA2. Peroxidase activity increased as exposure period increased until 120 days and then decreased. Cold storage temperature (5°C) showed the highest malondialdehyde content followed by room temperature. The CA2 showed the lowest malondialdehyde content compared with other controlled atmospheres. The exposure period of 120 days had the lowest malondialdehyde content.