Assessment of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield components of two exotic okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) western urban of Sierra Leone

The experiment was conducted in an Inland Valley Swamp during the dry spell of 2017 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) three replications at the Kabala Horticultural Crops Research Centre (KHCRC) cropping site, Ogoo Farm of the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Freetown, Sierra Leone. Raised beds measuring 5m x 1m (6 m2) with a 1m furrow between beds. Inter and intra row spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm with two rows per bed and two seeds per hills were directly sown. The treatments constituted NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 0, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha designated as T1, T2, T3 & Tand Two hybrids of okra were used as experimental materials obtained from Indo-American Hybrid Seed Company, India; Okra-WASA-HyOKR-1 and Okra-WASA-HyOKR-2. Seeds were treated with Thiram Poison for longevity. Result indicates T2 (25.2; 35.1 cm) and T4 (56.9 cm) treatments recorded tallest plant heights followed by T2 (24.0, 34.4 & 50.1 cm), while T1 (18.8, 28.4 & 33.3 cm) had the shortest plant heights at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting respectively. Similarly, T4 & T2 (38.9, 65.5 & 44.8 cm) exhibited the largest SG and T1 (21.7, 33.0 & 52.0 cm) the least values at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting. While, the widest and narrowest LA at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting was observed in T3 (131.3, 135.0 & 158.5 cm2) and T1 (120.8, 121.8 & 128.1 cm2). With respect to yield and yield components, the longest (22.0 cm) and heaviest (112.7 g) fruit were recorded by T3 followed by T2 (19.1 cm & 101.3 g) with T1 having the shortest (11.7 cm) and lightest (52.3 g). The width of pod in T3 (31.2 cm) was greater than the rest of treatments and as usual, T1 indicated the least value (14.6 cm) respectively. The average NP produced plant-1 was shown by T2 & T3 (4.0) with the least of fruit produced by T1 (2.0). Also, 100 seed weight, T3 (106.7 g) weighted the highest followed by T2 (103.3 g), while T1 (60.3 g) accounted for the lowest seed weight. Conclusively, the two materials are adaptable to the climatic conditions of Sierra Leone (Western area). Hence further evaluation required across vegetable growing zones.

Reducing nitrate content in lettuce using polyolefin-coated fertilizers

Pot experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effects of the controlled-release characteristic, nitrogen form and application method of polyolefin-coated fertilizers on the nitrate content and yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Comparing broadcast application of polyolefin-coated urea (POCU) and urea at four fertilization levels, it was found that application of POCU decreased the nitrate content and increased the yield, due solely to its controlled-release characteristic. Comparing band applications of POCU or polyolefin-coated diammonium-phosphate (POC-DAP) to broadcast application of ammonium nitrate, it was found that a band application of both urea and ammonium containing polyolefin-coated fertilizers can decrease nitrate content in lettuce, without causing any significant yield decrease. This was a combined effect of the controlled-release characteristic and realized ammonium nutrition. Comparing effects of broadcast, band and spot applications of POC-DAP, it was found that nitrate content, was the lowest in the spot application treatment. However, considering both nitrate content and yield, band application was found to be the most effective application method.


Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchards. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

Alternate bearing of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summered' apples

The aim of the present study was to study the effect of biennial bearing (irregular yields) on the generative production of apple cultivars 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' on M.9 rootstock. The observations were made at Nagykutas in West-Hungary for four years. The authors have studied the flowering time, flower density, fruit density, fruit drop, seed content, yielding and fruit quality in the on-year and off-year. Based on the results, it can be stated that the alternation does not cause a significant change in the flowering time of cvs. 'Golden Reinders' and `Summerred': the difference between the flowering time of trees in the on-year and off-year period was 0-1 day. However, there were significant differences in the flower density. 'Golden Reinders' proved to have a weaker tendency to alternation similarly to the statements of the literature. Alternation (off-year) was observed only in three years from the studied four years. While in the case of `Summerred', strong alternation was observed in all four years. In fruit density, there were differences among the cultivars and among the different cycles of biennial bearing. Fruit density (and its opposite, fruit drop) changed inconsistently in the period between flowering and harvest. In the case of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' 2 and 4 fruit drop periods were detected, respectively. In the off-year, the different periods were less distinct, in most cases they were overlapping each other. The dynamics of fruit drop was related to seed content per fruit. The lower the seed number was, the higher the degree of fruit drop was. In both the high- and off-year cycles, the number of seeds in fruits on the tree and on the ground increased with time. In the yield parameters (fruit number, fruit load, yield efficiency), the differences were greater among the yields of trees in the high- and off-year cycles for 'Summerred'. The fruit quality parameters were greatly influenced by the fruit load of the trees in the different alternation cycles. In general, it can be stated that fruit mass, diameter and height were lower on trees in the on-year. A similar trend could be observed in flesh firmness, cover colour and dry matter content, but the differences were smaller. 'Summerred' was more sensitive to the differences in fruit load.

Impact of substrate supplemented with CaCO3 on mycelial growth, yield, morphological features and storability of fruiting bodies of black poplar mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea (DC.) Marie.

Black poplar mushroom, Agrocybe cylindracea deserves special attention, due to its medicinal properties. Water and alcohol extracts from fruiting bodies of the fungus have an anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, cholesterol and triglycerides blood level lowering abilities. This mushroom is rich in proteins and vitamins, mineral elements and low in fat. The aim of the experiments was to determine effect of a substrate supplementation with CaCO3 on mycelial growth, yield, morphological features and storability of fruiting bodies of four strains of A. cylindracea (DC.) Marie. The amount of additive to sawdust substrate affects rate of mycelial growth and yield of investigated strains. A. cylindracea mycelial growth was not affected by addition of CaCO3 to substrate, however a significant effect of this additive was found on yield, which was the highest with CaCO3 addition in an amount of 8 g/100 g of substrate. Carpophores characterized with the largest caps diameter, and the largest individual mass obtained of substrate enriched with CaCO3 addition of 8 g/100 g of substrate. In addition, it was found that supplementation with CaCO3 affect storability of A. cylindracea. The lowest weight loss of fruiting bodies after 3 and 7 days of storage was found with addition of CaCO3 to substrate in an amount of 4 g/100 g of substrate.

Organic and mineral fertilizer effects on the yield and mineral contents of carrot (Daucus carota)

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.

Effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer on the yield and fruit quality in an apple orchard

Nutrient management is a determining element of the technology in fruit production. Significance of foliar fertilization has been increased continuously over the last years, as it can improve directly the vegetative and generative performance of the trees. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer (Bistep) with 1, 3, and 5 l/ha dosages on the yield and fruit quality parameters in an apple orchard during 2016 and 2018. According to our results, crop load increased with 29% in the third year of the experiment with the application of 5 l/ha Bistep treatment compared to the control treatments. Fruit weight was also improved in each year, as values of fruit weight in all treatments were higher than the control one (3.0-13.0% growth). Fruit surface color increased with 2-18% due to the foliar fertilizer. During the three years, leaf length was 9.5-9.9 mm on the control trees, as 9.8-10.4 mm was measured on the fertilized ones. In conclusion, yield and fruit quality can be improved in apple orchard using a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer.

Possibility of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) production in Hungary

Artificial sweeteners have harmful effect on human health, so it is great interested in stevia extract. Our experiment was aimed to show the possibility of inland production of stevia. Different plastic mulches were used (black and white) on raised bed and were compared to uncovered (control) plots for yield and state of health of plants. Furthermore we evaluated the depth of cuttings (low cutting until the 6th double leaf; normal cutting until the upper ⅓ of the plant) on the yield depending on the covering method. The plants were  transplanted on 9 of May, 2014 on raised bed, 3 rows on it, with 33x25 cm spacing. According to our results, the black plastic mulch produced the highest yield, which can be explained by suppressing effect on weeds, furthermore it kept the soil warm, moist and protected the lower leaves from soil wetness. But, the white sheet mulch could not eliminate weeds around the plants. The total biomass on the black plastic sheet covered plots was the highest, nearly 1000 g pro plant by low cutting. On the control plots the fungi infection reached about 25-30%, which caused leaf falling of plants, decreasing of yield by the end of vegetation period. To summarise, stevia production is possible in Hungary, but it is important to pay attention to the balanced soil moisture and low humidity in the leaf area. It is suggested to cover the soil with plastic sheet or organic materials, such as bark and chippings.

Effect of black plastic mulch and raised bed on soil temperature and yield of sweet pepper

A field study was conducted in Central Hungary in 2001 and 2002 in order to evaluate the effects of black plastic mulch and raised bed on soil temperature and on yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. `Kárpia'). The experiment was a complete block design with four replicates. Four different technologies were used as treatments: raised bed with black PE mulch, raised bed without mulch, level ground with black PE mulch and level ground without mulch. In both years soil temperature was the highest in the covered raised bed treatment, about 2 °C higher than in the uncovered raised bed. Optimum soil temperature requirement of sweet pepper roots was met to the highest degree in case of the covered raised bed, 26-28% of the total growing period. The more favourable soil temperature conditions resulted in better yield, compared to the uncovered level ground treatment the covered raised bed treatment produced 19% and 14% higher yield in 2001 and 2002, respectively.

Scheduling of irrigation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) using canopy temperature

The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8t ha-I for spring sown and 1.9 t ha-I in summer-sown plants without irrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5t ha-I was reached twice in the case of spring sowing and only once in the case of summer sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature every day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterize the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value may cause 90-130 kg/ha yield loss.

Effect of pre-harvest spray of calcium nitrate, boric acid and zinc sulphate on yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) and zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.6 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.4 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.

The effect of the intensity and method of pruning on the growth and yield of the apple variety ’Idared’ under conditions of ecological and integrated growing systems

Summary: On the Experimental Farm of the Debrecen University at Pallag, a factorial experiment has been started at springtime of 2008 on an orchard of 12 year old apple trees ’Idared’ grafts on M 26 understocks. The first factor was the growing system (integrated versus ecological), the second was the intensity of pruning (strong versus moderate thinning of the crown), whereas the third was the method of pruning (shortening versus thinning of individual shoots). Measurements have been concentrated on shoot growth, flower initiation, fruit set and accumulated yield of two successive seasons. The following conclusions are made.
– In the ecological growing system, strong thinning proved to be beneficial for growth as well as for fruit bearing. – Strong thinning combined with shortening of shoots diminished yield in the first year, whereas
moderate thinning combined with shortening of shoots caused favourable growth and fruit bearing.
– In the ecological growing system, the moderate shoot growth was associated with better flower initiation, which increases the chances of alternate yielding.
– According to our results, the flower initiation of the ‘Idared’ was stimulated univocally by the thinning of shoots regardless of the intensity of pruning.
The right choice of the intensity and method of pruning is a decisive moment of a successful yield in the ecological apple growing system

Yield loss caused by fruit rot fungi on sweet cherry in Kyustendil region, Bulgaria

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of fruit rot caused by several fungal pathogens from 1999 to 2003. The study was conducted in three sweet cherry orchards at the Institute of Agriculture (Kyustendil, Bulgaria). One copper containing fungicide was applied in late autumn and early spring. During the growing seasons, 2-5 sprays were applied against fungal diseases. Trees were not sprayed specifically against fruit rot during the growing season, with the exception of 1999, when a spray of myclobutanil was applied after a long rainy period during the maturity of fruits. In one orchard, two nitrogen fertilization treatments were also prepared. In treatment 1, trees were fertilized with ammonium-nitrate 10 g/m2 and in the other treatments trees were not. Incidence of the five most important fruit rot pathogens, Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa, Botritys cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer was assessed in all orchards. The most severe yield loss (14.80 %) was measured in 1999, when weather conditions were the most favourable for fruit rot development. In this year, brown rots (M. fructigena and M. laxa) caused the highest damage (9.22 and 4.04 %, respectively) out of all assessed fruit rot pathogens. In all other years, yield loss was significantly lower than in 1999. In 2002, A. alternata caused the main fruit rot (4.46%) and all other fungi were less important, while in 2003, B. cinerea caused considerable yield loss (2.28 %) compared to all other fruit rot pathogens. Experiments on fertilization showed that nitrogen significantly increased fruit rot damage in 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003. The effect of nitrogen fertilization was higher in years with rainy periods around harvest (1999 and 2002) compared to more dry years (2000 and 2001). Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the results are discussed.

The effect of pre-fruiting temperatures on the yield of Pleurotus strains

Authors studied the effect of different temperatures prior to fruit body appearance on the yield of 3 Pleurotus strains P70, HK35 and 357. After 17 days of incubation at 25 °C and 28 °C the substrate blocks were kept for 7 days at 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25 °C. Then temperature was reduces to 16 °C during harvest time. Tests showed difference of some degrees in the optimal prefruiting temperature requirements of the strains which could result in even in 10-15% surplus yield. It is advisable to use technologies specially adapted to strains.

Character association and genetic gain of nine agronomic traits of F1 populations in onion (Allium cepa L.)

F1 populations of half diallel cross were considered for this investigation. Phenotypic component of variation (s2P) was higher than genotypic (s2G), interaction ((s2I) and within error (s2w) components of variation. Trait bulb weight showed the highest values for s2P, s2G, s2I and s2w. The noticeable amount of phenotypic, genotypic, interaction and within error covariation was found in the combination of BW×BY, possibly indicating wide scope of selection for this pair of characters. Genotypic correlations were higher than the respective phenotypic correlations. This situation was also marked in the path coefficient analysis. Bulb yield/plot showed highly significant and positive correlation coefficient with other characters both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. When all the nine characters were included in an index, it exhibited the highest genetic gain as percentage. When a combination of two or more characters was studied in a function, the efficacy was higher than that of direct selection for bulb yield. The combination of five, six, seven or eight characters showed higher percentage of expected gain. Due to significantly correlated with BY and having high positive direct effect at phenotypic level characters viz., LL, BW, PH and NLs is considered as primary yield components. Again combinations of these four characters gave the commendable expected genetic gain of 330.7290% may be considered as important selection index for this material.

Efficacy of N-phenylphtalamic acid in some Solanaceae species

: N-phenylphthalamic acid — Cl4H1 1 NO3 (Nevirol 60 WP) was successfully used for enhancing yield in some important vegetable crops namely, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), chilli (Capsicum annuum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena) of Solanaceae. Aqueous sprays with 0.2% and 3.0% significantly enhanced fruit production in chilli and tomato respectively. On the other hand, various treatments in brinjal failed to enhance yield significantly. The increase in yield in both tomato and chilli is largely due to increase in the number of flowers and fruit-set percentage.

Flower characters and self-fertilization capacity in relation to the bee pollination at sour cherry cultivars

Detailed studies and comparisons were carried out on those flower characters of sour cherry cultivars that may affect bee pollination of flowers. Flower characters of sour cherry are fairly similar to other temperate zone fruit tree species. Their relatively small flowers distinguish the Cigánymeggy-types of cultivars from the flowers of tart cherries cultivars that are conspicuously larger, almost as large as the sweet cherry flowers. The relative position of flower organs was much more variable according to the season than according to the cultivars. So the differences were rather the consequences of seasonal effects than of variety features of sour cherry cultivars. As far as individual cultivars are concerned differences in the nectar production and the sugar concentration are revealed rather between groups of cultivars than between individual cultivars. The pollen production of flowers was extremely changeable in consecutive years. Most honeybees collected nectar at sour cherry flowers; pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees were half as frequent but differences among the behaviour of honeybees according to cultivars cannot be stated. The fidelity of honeybees to sour cherry is less expressed than to some other fruit tree species. Accordingly, it is very strongly suggested to take the competitive effect other plant species (weeds) flowering in and around the orchard carefully into account when organizing additional bee pollination in sour cherry plantations. Several sour cherry cultivars possess more or less self-fertilization capacity but this is greatly changeable according to the season. It has been proved that self-sterile sour cherry cultivars are sensitive even on the partial restriction of the effective time of bee pollination and it is to be stressed too that even in the case of partly self-fruitful cultivars bee pollination is also vital in yield formation because medium or strong restriction of the effective bee pollination period is of a definite negative effect on their fruit set and yield. In years with unfavourable weather the yield can dramatically be reduced sometimes down to nil. However, very high fruit set is also unfavourable because a negative correlation was detected between the final set and the mean mass of fruits.

Some important growing characteristics of apple and apricot cultivars in two fruit growing regions in Romania

The aim of this study was to determine some important growing characteristics of 5 resistant apple (Rajka, Rubinola, Topaz, Otawa and Goldstar) and 7 apricot (NJA 19, Goldrich, Harcot, Venus, Comando, Olimp, Cea mai buna de Ungaria) cultivars in two fruit growing regions in Romania from 2000 to 2003. Height of the apple trees (4-year-old tree) ranged between 1.96 m (cv. Topaz) and 2.39 m (cv. Rubinola). Diameter of the crown ranged from 0.96 m (cv. Goldstar) to 1.12 cm (cv. Rajka). The trunk diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (cv. Goldstar) to 5.0 cm (cv. Rajka). The surface of the trunk section was the lowest for cv. Goldstar (9.7 cm') and the largest for cv. Rajka (19.6 cm). Height of the apricot trees (4 years old tree) ranged between 2.69 m (cv. Venus) and 3.38 m (cv. NJA - 19). Diameter of the crown ranged from 2.59 m (cv. Comandor) to 2.77 m (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The trunk diameter ranged from 9.54 cm (cv. Goldrich) to 13.30 cm (cv. NJA - 19). Length of annual branches was the lowest for cv. Goldrich (45.1 cm) and the highest for cv. NJA - 19 (83.8 cm). Bud swelling of apricot trees began on 8 March for cv. NJA - 19 and ended on 11 March for the control cultivar (Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The blooming started on 16 March for cv. NJA - 19 and 27 Mach for the control cultivar. Duration of fruit growth was 89 days for cv. NJA - 19 and 128 days for cv. Comandor. When the temperature decreased to 1.5 °C (in 2001), percentage of viable pollen grains ranged between 48.86 % (cv. Olimp) and 91.57 % (cv. Venus). The germinating grains ranged from 31 % (cv. Olimp) to 90 % (cv. Harcot). Free pollination was the lowest for cv. NJA - 19 (29 %) and the highest for cv. Harcot (41%), while self-pollination ranged between 6 (cv. Olimp) and 11 % (cvs. Comondor and Harcot). Apple yield ranged from 16.65 t/ha (cv. Otawa) to 24.35 t/ha (cv. Rajka) and the differences varied from 4.45 t/ha to - 3.25 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apricot yield ranged from 11.47 kg/ tree or 9.53 t/ha (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria), to 38.83 kg/tree or 27.34 t/ha (cv. Olimp) and the differences varied from 3 t/ha to 17 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apple fruit weight ranged from 162 g (cv. Otawa) to 222 g (cv. Goldstar) and apricot fruit weight from 42.52 g (cv. Goldrich) to 68.38 g (cv. Comandor). Color, taste and aroma were very specific to cultivars.

Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage in Ghana

A field experiment was conducted at Dormaa Ahenkro, Ghana, to determine the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment treatment comprises of sole application of poultry manure (PM), NPK 15:15:5, the combined application of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer (PM+NPK) and the control (no fertilizer). Data was collected on the number of leaves, stem girth, plant height, head diameter, head weight and edible head weight. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among all the treatments. The combined application of PM+NPK recorded the highest values for all the parameters measured. From the results obtained farmers should consider the combined application of PM and NPK to maximize yield on their farm.

Economics of sea buckthorn production and processing in Hungary

This study focuses on the business management-related advantages and disadvantages of sea buckthorn production and processing based on economic analyses. It is the main objective of the authors to identify the expected economic findings in a high standard plantation with different average yields. A deterministic model calculation was performed on the basis of technological processes, using the primary data collected from enterprises dealing with sea buckthorn production. The calculation is based on the assumption of a 10 hectare plantation with intensive production technology (high soil quality (golden crown value: 32 GC per ha), irrigation, high plant density per hectare). The cost and income relations and the long-term return of the plantation were examined in the case of different average yields (12 t ha-1, 18 t ha-1 and 24 t ha-1). Under the economic circumstances of 2016, the planting cost of an intensive plantation is around 4-4.1 million HUF ha-1. In the years following the fruit-bearing stage, direct production costs are between 2.5-3.9 million HUF ha-1, depending on the given average yield. On the contrary, 5.6-11.1 million HUF ha-1 revenue can be reached based on the current market prices, resulting in a gross margin of 3.1-7.1 million HUF ha-1. Under the modelled circumstances, return is realised on the plantation’s costs in 6-8 years. The net present value (NPVr=3.24%) calculated for the 15-year-long life cycle of the 10-hectare plantation is between 151-466 million HUF, while the internal rate of return (IRR) is between 23-45%. From the business management aspect, the advantage of sea buckthorn production is that it provides better income and return at a planting cost which is similar to that of other small fruits and berries. At the same time, the disadvantage of sea buckthorn production is the fact that yields are harvested every two years due to the technological characteristics of harvesting. The negative impact of this bi-yearly yield on liquidity can be eliminated with the so-called delayed planting.

Foliar application of zinc and its effect on greenhouse grown cucumber

The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.

In the trial the following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.

From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.

The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.

Water relations of sour cherries (minireview)

Recently, the sour cherries as food resources become more important for health preservation and so the modernization of growing technology in sour cherry production will be timely. The global warming and inadequate distribution of precipitation result a decrease in the alternancy of sour cherry production, as well. Sour cherries rather adapted to survival of drought than sweet cherry trees therefore a few studies performed to explore the water requirement of sour cherry varieties. The rootstocks, the type of soils in plantation and the water balance influence the water management of sour cherries. In orchards, in particular first year plantation, use of various row covering contribute to preservation of the natural water pool of soil and affect on the tree vigor, yield and fruit quality. Wide-spread application of integrated fruit growing technology and climate changes the researches are pointed to develop efficient irrigation technology based on transpiration yield model. The crop model based on use of meteorological data was developed for cherry orchards in order to predict transpiration of trees, dry matter production and fruit yield. The linear relationship between dry matter accumulation and transpiration was verified for sour cherry trees. Other models essay to asses the effects of climate changes on crop production. Importance of economical production and fruit quality such as ingredients of raw materials and food increases in intensive sour cherry orchards used by irrigation techniques. Because of climate changes it should more pay attention to research concerning on the stress physiological response of sour cherry varieties and post-harvest fruit quality.

The role of pruning in the intensification of plum production

In an orchard planted in the spring of 1997, four kinds of spacing have been applied (4.0 m x 1.5 m, 4.0 m x 2.0 m, 5.0 m x 2.5 in and 6.0 m x 3.0 m). Four cultivars (‘Cacanska lepotica', Stanley' ‘Bluefre' and ‘President') grafted on Myrobalan rootstock were studied in the experiment aimed to explore the performance of plums under different spacing and training conditions.

It could be stated that the trees grown on vigorous rootstock are prone to be cultivated much more intensely (smaller tree size, higher tree density) by the consequent use of green pruning technique. The most favourable economic combination (yield and labour costs) was found to be: 4.0 in x 2.0 in and 5.0 x 2.5 in (800-1200 tree/hectare), whereas the most adapted was the cultivar: 'Stanley'.

Evaluation of hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) varieties for green pod yield and quality under rain fed production at Teppi, South Western Ethiopia

The trials were designed with three replications in a randomized complete block design in order to evaluate the phenological, growth and yield potential of hot pepper varieties such as ‘Mareko fana’, ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Melka Awaze’, ‘Melka Shote’ and local check. Significant difference was observed between growing year and used varieties. The varieties also performed significantly different (p<0.05) for most of the considered traits in the study. The result revealed that varieties ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Mareko fana’ and ‘Melka Awaze’ were scored highest green pod yield of 8.39, 8.71 and 11.39 ton per hectare, respectively. However, ‘Mareko fana’ variety was susceptible to disease attack as compared to other varieties. Therefore, promoting both ‘Melka Awaze’ and ‘Melka Zala’ varieties for widespread production for Teppi and the areas with similar agro-ecological conditions could contribute to boost the productivity of hot pepper. ‘Mareko fana’ could also be used for dry pod purpose due to its attractive color.

Production technology and fruit tree nutrition

Fruit yield quality and quantity are effectively enhanced if healthy vegetative conditions are ensured. These optimal conditions — i.e. the balance between shoot development and yield — can be achieved by the rationalization of the production technologies, such as:

  • reduction of the size of the crown
  • adaptation of the severity and method of pruning to the conditions of the actual year
  • removal of the shoot tips
  • timely fruit thinning

By establishing an improved level of plant nutrient uptake, this will ensure a healthy balance between shoot growth and yield.

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