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  • Production data of wine grape gene bank (Vitis spp.) of University of Debrecen, east Hungary
    32-36.
    Views:
    198

    National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acidic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).

  • Comparative study of cherry varieties used in intense culture
    71-74.
    Views:
    182

    Research in sweet cherry production is intensely stimulated worldwide. The programs started also in Hungary to develop technologies and to find suitable varieties for the purpose of intense cultivation. It means that dimension of crowns should be smaller, with higher number of plants per hectare. Understocks, which let grow the trees slower, are scarce in this species. On the one hand, the braking effect of the respective stocks is insufficient, they get old pretty soon, loose ramification, yield too small fruits and do not comply with the aims of intense cultivation. Experiences prove the necessity of stocks for intense culture, which are vital, growing, easily regenerating, and freely branching. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb), a strong growing stock, is still suitable. Further improvement is expected from the contribution of technological elements and the choice of variety. In the present paper, a 9-year old plantation is shown with trees trained to (slender) spindle, and the yield and fruit quality of the year 2009 has been analysed with 6 varieties involved.

  • Participatory evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties under irrigation conditions at Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara
    17-22
    Views:
    84

    Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved tomato varieties (‘Melka salsa’, 'Roma VF' and 'Kochero’) against the local tomato variety was carried out during the 2019/2020 growing season involving six farmers of Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara. The objective of the experiment was to assess the performance of different tomato varieties for the farmers, then to collect their feedback. Based on the actual and farmers’ preference data, the analysis underscores the better performance of improved tomato varieties over local varieties by most yield-related attributes. Average marketable fruit yields of ‘Melka salsa’, ‘Roma VF’, ‘Kochero’, and the local variety were 4.62, 3.88, 3.64, and 3.10 ton ha-1, respectively. The improved varieties thus had a yield advantage of 72.38%, 37.14%, and 25.72% over the local variety in that order. Among improved tomato varieties, ‘Melka salsa' provided the highest fruit yield on top of owing the highest score of overall preference attributes rank. Scale-wide diffusion of ‘Melka salsa’ tomato variety is therefore suggested for similar and potential agro-ecologies. Biological scientists also should take farmers’ preference attributes and feedback as a backup for future breeding and adaptation studies on tomato varieties.

  • Antioxidant, polyphenol and sensory analysis of cherry tomato varieties and landraces
    75-80.
    Views:
    229

    Among vegetables produced both for raw consumption and processing, tomato is one of the most important one in Europe, by production area and by yield as well. In the past years several study dealt with the investigation of the inner content of tomato, with special regards to antioxidant content. In this paper cherry tomato varieties and landraces from conventional and organic production were compared. Besides basic investigations sensory analysis were designed and Antioxidant Capacity (AOC) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) were measured. The aim of the research was to compare varieties and to study the effect of variety and production methods on antioxidant capacity and sensory profiles.

  • Growth and productivity of a young apple orchard at different spacing
    23-27.
    Views:
    139

    Planting of new high density apple orchards showed an increasing tendency over the last ten years. Growers use in those orchards mainly dwarfing or semi dwarfing rootstocks. The spacing for those orchards is recommended based on Dutch and German experiences; however, the optimization of orchard planting density as a key factor for successful orchard management should consider the local climate conditions. An experimental orchard was planted in 2000 to investigate the effect of spacing on three dwarfing rootstocks with two apple cultivars `Jonica' and 'Gala Must'. We compared 8 planting densities (1270-3704 tree/ha) and two tree shapes (slender spindle and vertical axis). In this paper the data of the first five years' growth and bearing are presented. After 4 years, the decreasing tree densities caused reduced trunk cross sectional area. Tree density had a significant positive effect on cumulative yield per hectare. From the examined rootstocks, M.9 Burgmer 984 gave the smallest canopy for both cultivars. The trees on M.9 T.337 and on Jork 9 rootstocks have stronger growth. The light interception was measured under the canopy by AccuPAR (Decagon Devices Inc.'s).

  • Evaluation of precision farming with regard to horticulture
    105-110.
    Views:
    119

    The global positioning system was made available for public use, which made it possible' to apply a new management tool in agriculture. Precision farming gives much more information on plant-growing than former methods, which makes it possible to use technologies more suitable for micro-sites. It is supposed that more profitable production can be realised with its aid and the strain on the environment can be reduced, not to mention other economic advantages.

    The study makes economic conclusions about the method more and more widely used in plant production taking the yield mapping of Józsefmajor Experimental Farm as a basis and starts ideas about its possible application in arable land olericulture, viticulture and fruit production.

    These issues are important because precision farming has existed in glass-culture for a long time from another perspective, which should be spread to open ground horticultural enterprises that are labour and asset intensive, qualitative farming forms with great plantation value.

  • Prospects of mango fruit powder production at farm level and its utilisation during mango off-season in Ghana
    Views:
    270

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is an important fruit served to customers as fresh-cut fruit, juice, ice cream and yogurts in many fruit juice joints, restaurants and hotels in Ghana. However, the crop’s highly seasonal and perishable nature is a challenge for food processors and farmers. Preservation of the fruit in dry particulate form can serve as a substitute in off-seasons. The study sought to determine mango fruit powder production prospects at the farm level and explore its potential use as a substitute during the off-season. Farmer groups and food enterprises were therefore interviewed. The study showed that Keitt and Kent varieties were the most cultivated varieties because of market demand and high yield. However, an average annual fruit loss of 29.8% at the farm level was observed. Postharvest extension delivery service to farmers is inadequate, and where available, frequency of contact is irregular. A limited number of farmers received training in fruit processing; and few were engaged in transformational value addition activities but were willing to add value through processing into powder. Probit regression analysis showed that a unit increase in training would increase transformational farm level value addition into mango fruit powder by 22.9%. The majority of the food enterprises source fruits within Ghana while 79% experienced mango fruit shortage in the off-seasons. Only a few of the enterprises used mango fruit-based substitutes to serve customers in off-seasons. Probit regression analysis showed that a marginal increase in processors’ use of substitute significantly (p≤0.05) increased willingness to use mango fruit powder as a substitute by 47%. The study has revealed that local production of mango fruit powder could serve as a substitute to fill the seasonal gap in mango supply and also reduce post-harvest losses.

     

  • Polyphenol- and anthocyanin content changes effected by different fermentation- pressing and aging technologies
    65-67.
    Views:
    176

    Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil has slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.

  • In vitro effect of different cytokinin types (BAP, TDZ) on two different Ocimum basilicum cultivars explants
    15-20.
    Views:
    363

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ (Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.

  • Agromorphological and nutritional quality profiles of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) as influenced by cultivar, growing medium and soil amendment source
    53-59.
    Views:
    94

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) is popular as food and feed around the world. Sixteen treatments were developed from factorial combinations of three factors: cultivar (ugu elu and ugu ala), growing medium (garden soil (GS) and white sand (WS)), and soil amendment source (poultry manure, NPK, supergro and no amendment). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the agromorphological and nutritional traits of fluted pumpkin obtained from the treatments. Fresh leaves were analyzed for crude protein, crude fibre, crude lipid, total ash, phytate and nitrate concentrations. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Mean plots were used to explain the effects of the three factors and profiling was done using the GYT biplot. There were significant (p≤0.05/0.01) mean squares for measured traits, suggesting the possibility of selection among the treatments. Plants in GS consistently out-performed those in WS for shoot weight, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant possibly due to greater availability of nutrients in the GS. Inconsistent patterns observed in the proximate concentrations of pumpkin from the 16 treatments showed the role of interaction among the three factors. Principal component analysis identified some traits as contributors to differences among the treatments which can be basis of selection. Treatments 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 might be useful to improve vegetative yield while 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 could improve nutritional values of the fluted pumpkin.

  • Effects of tuberization conditions on the microtuber yield and on the proportion of microtuber tissues
    91-96.
    Views:
    110

    The production facilities of large-sized microtubers in three potato varieties (cv. Desiree, BorO, Gfilbaba) and the effects of the applied tuberization conditions on the proportion of microtuber tissues, especially on the perimedullary region were investigated in present work. In vitro tuberization was induced on explants with 2 or 5 nodes layered on MS medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. Induced cultures were exposed to short days (8 h) for 2 weeks, then to total darkness for further 11 weeks. For volume calculations of different tissue regions, the formula for ellipsoids (V=4/37c1/8/w2) was used. The number of large-size tubers (> 8 mm, up to 16 mm) reached 53%, 59% and 44% in cvs. Desiree, Giilbaba and Bore, respectively, which indicate that the size of microtubers could be increased by appropriate sucrose support and explant type. Microtubers produced on hormone-free medium have well-developed perimedullary region, and its volume rate seemed to be important in the final size of tubers. The increase in the rate of volume of the perimedulla was connected to the increase of tuber size until tubers reached 12 mm diameter. In microtubers larger than 12 mm in diameter, the volume rate of the pith was increased.

  • Bee pollination and association of apricot varieties
    20-24.
    Views:
    188

    Apricot yields are highly variable according to the season. The variation is caused mainly by the adversities during the critical processes of floral biology, i.e. blooming and fertilisation. On the basis of information concerning blooming time and mutual compatibility relations of apricot varieties a system of securing regular and adequate yields has been developed.

    Winter frosts of the continental type are well tolerated by most of the apricots, however, after the end of rest period, flower buds are loosing frost tolerance, 'rapidly.

    Being one of the fruit species blooming earliest during the early spring, apricot start to bloom in Hungary around the end of March or early April as a mean of many years, but it also happened, exceptionally that apricot started to bloom at February 20 (at Letenye South Hungary). The early season, exposes the floral organs to frost injuries. As a consequence, apricot orchards on the Great Plain produce low yields in 3 years, intermediate yields in other 3 years out of a ten-year-period.

    Moreover, weather conditions during the blooming period are often unfavourable for pollination. Cool, windy and rainy weather prevents the flight of insects and on the other hand, warm spells shorten the blooming process, nectarines and stigmata get dry and the female gametes loose viability before effective pollination occurres.

    The fertility of individual cultivars are meeting different obstacles. Apricot cultivars differ greatly in the rate of flowers bearing underdeveloped pistils, which may attain even 60% (e.g. Orangered). New commercial cultivars are often self-incompatible. Local varieties of that type in Hungary are the „óriás" varieties (e.g. Ceglédi óriás, Szegedi mammut), and the new hybrid Ceglédi Piroska. Many of the cultivars are variable in their self-fertility (partially self-fertile): Budapest, Harmat, Korai piros, Mandulakajszi.

    Inter-incompatibility is also known in apricots. The „óriás " varieties do not fertilise each other. During the growth of fruits, cool spells (2-4 °C) caused severe fruit shed in Ceglédi óriás.

    Apricot flowers produce pollen and nectar at average rates related to other fruit species, thus bees are attracted sufficiently. Bee visits are very variable according to growing site and season. Most of the bees are pollen gatherers but sometimes nectar suckers are in majority. Bee pollination is necessary not only for the self-incompatible varieties but also to enhance the yield of self-fertile varieties.

    Taking the blooming and fertility relations of the cultivars into account, plantations should not exceed two rows to a particular self-incompatible varieties, and possibly two different polliniser varieties are suggested to be planted as flanking the block in question.

    In commercial plantations 2 to 4 bee colonies per hectare are proposed to move for the whole blooming period.

     

  • Industrial-scale plantlet production by seed priming and nursery tray seeding method in Sida hermaphrodita L. Rushby
    71-74.
    Views:
    189

    Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.

  • The size of the canopy of sour cherry trees depends on the time of pruning
    49-52.
    Views:
    151

    The intensive culture of sour cherry is achieved by training of trees to form smaller canopies not by means of dwarfing rootstocks but by growth moderation techniques. The rootstocks traditionally used cause vigorous growth, and it is up to the technology to apply procedures less utilised earlier for that purpose. One of those techniques is the transfer of hibernal pruning to the estival period. The best term of the latter is the period of 1-3 weeks after fruit harvest.

    The prolongation of the period of favourable illumination and the reduction of the canopy size facilitate higher densities of planting (number of trees per hectare) and a better exploitation of the crown (specific yield). The regular use of summer pruning resulted also in a better quality of fruit.

  • The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): II. Important features of their epidemiology (Review paper)
    17-33.
    Views:
    208

    Plant disease epidemiology provides the key to both a better understanding of the nature of a disease and the most effective approach to disease control. Brown rot fungi (Monilinia spp.) cause mainly fruit rot, blossom blight and stem canker which results in considerable yield losses both in the field and in the storage place. In order to provide a better disease control strategy, all aspects of brown rot fungi epidemiology are discribed and discussed in the second part of this review. The general disease cycle of Monilinia fructigena„M. laxa, M. fructicola and Monilia polystroma is described. After such environmental and biological factors are presented which influence the development of hyphae, mycelium, conidia, stroma and apothecial formation. Factors affecting the ability of brown rot fungi to survive are also demonstrated. Then spatio-temporal dynamics of brown rot fungi are discussed. In the last two parts, the epidemiology of brown rot fungi was related to disease warning models and some aspects of disease management.

  • Inheritance of the characters related to flower formation, blooming and fertilisation in apple
    63-65.
    Views:
    138

    On the base of observations performed during a period of 20 years the blooming characters-of apple varieties and their progenies the following statements are actual.

    In blooming dynamics there was no difference between paternal and maternal effects. In the assignment to blooming time groups, the paternal effect prevailed whereas in the tendency of flower initiation on long shoots maternal parent was more decisive. Varieties as 'Golden Delicious'. 'Jonathan', 'Red Delicious', 'Rome Beauty' and 'Staymared' and their respective, naturally raised mutants did not differ in blooming characters.

    The possibility of predicting the relation to blooming time groups of early (July, August) ripening individuals is low, whereas late (September. October) ripening ones have a good chance to be medium late in blooming time.

     

  • Promising white poplar (Populus alba L.) clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary
    113-116.
    Views:
    173

    White poplar is a native stand-forming tree species in Hungary, covering 3.1 per cent of the forested area. More than 70 per cent of the white poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube—Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising white poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones `1-1 425-4' (Populus alba x Populus alba), and 11 758' (Populus alba Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the 427-3' (Populus alba x Populus alba cv. Bolleana) and 422-9' (Populus alba x Populus grandidentata) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

  • Farm economic evaluation of raspberry production
    53-56.
    Views:
    222

    Hungary was considered as one of the most significant raspberry producers in the 1980’ies. The acreage and the produced quantity, however, reflected a decreasing tendency during the past two decades: the 7 000 hectares existing in the year of 1990 reduced to 1 500 hectares, the current territory does not reach the 500 hectares. The annual yield is only 1 to 3 thousand tons. The level of domestic fresh consumption is very low, due to the fact that it is a relatively expensive fruit for Hungarian consumers. The requirement of the processing industry is satisfied by raspberries from mainly Polish and Serbian import. These two countries belong to the biggest raspberry producing countries in the world by producing raspberries of more than 50 thousand tons. Comparing to the Hungarian production costs and yields they are able to transport their products here at a very low price, consequently they hold the prices at a low level. The profitability of the domestic raspberry production is rather unfavourable, production often shows a deficit even in orchards of good standard; furthermore the lack of labour causes an extremely great difficulty, which is an important component of the decline of the production independently from cost conditions.

  • Disease incidence of Monilinia fructigena coupled with codling moth damage and mechanical injury in an organic apple orchard
    55-57.
    Views:
    208

    In a two-year-study, disease incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quatified and the importance of certain fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2011 and 2012. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both years. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by M. fructigena amounted on average 26.3% in 2011 and 40.4% in 2012 by fruit harvest. All infected fruits were injured mainly by mechanical injury factors and codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 65-75% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 5-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  • Characterization of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cultivars using SSR markers developed for apple
    7-10.
    Views:
    306

    Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars and selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.

  • Composted and natural organic materials as potential peat-substituting media in green pepper growing
    31-35.
    Views:
    134

    Peat is the most favourable and usable medium in vegetable and ornamental plant forcing but because of the intensive exploitation peat resources decreased significantly all around the world. As peat-reserves run out the use of pine bark, composts and other organic materials spread in horticultural growing. In this study we compared the suitability of peat-based media to pine bark and two types of composts. We examined the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-based media and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest in low moor-high moor peat mixture and pine bark. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations.

  • Applicability of 3D laser scanning in precision horticulture
    55-58.
    Views:
    314

    Due to the technological development, remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of life (from precision agriculture through architecture to medicine). Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments the 3D laser scanner is of outstanding importance. Horticultural applicability of terrestrial laser scanning technique is a new innovation in the precision agriculture. The structure of trees and branches, the canopy extension, the fruit yield, which can help to recognize some biophysical parameters, can be determined. The examination was carried out with Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. In this article the measuring principle, the parameters and horticulture applicability of the terrestrial laser scanner are presented.

  • Floral biology, pollination and fertilisation of temperate zone fruit trees
    7-12.
    Views:
    361

    The knowledge of blooming, pollination and fertilisation and its use are indispensable in maximizing of cropping potential of fruits in economical fruit production. In attaining maximum yield a greater attention has to be focused on choosing cultivar combinations, and results of experiments on blooming, pollination and fertilisation must be applied carefully.

    To have efficient bee pollination requires attention at the time of designing an orchard. It requires further attention at the time of bloom of any of the fruit-hearing species. Markets demand new types of fruit which forces constant changes in the cultivar composition of orchard. The blooming, pollinating and fertilisation characteristics of cultivars chosen have to be known before an orchard is set up. Apart from the general knowledge of trees considered to be planted, there is a great need to know the flowering, pollinating and fertilization characteristics of each cultivar in detail.

  • Valuable offsprings of Seyve-Villard 12375
    75-77.
    Views:
    181

    Powdery mildew, Phylloxera and downy mildew epidemics devastated large areas of vineyards in Hungary in the 1800s. To establish new plantages resistant so called "direct producers" were imported from America (direct means "without grafting"). Direct producers have secure yield but their quality is inferior. After World War II, an organized breeding programme was started to replace them and parallel to this the law prohibited their production. As a resistance gene source, the E.2 clone (S. V. 12375 E.2) of Seyve-Villard 12375, Franco-American hybrid selected in Eger was used by Hungarian breeders. Several valuable hybrid families have originated from crosses of this variety hybrid.

    In the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology at Kecskemét, two valuable table grape hybrids were registered under the names of R.65=Esther and R.78=Fanny coming from 2 hybrid families of the parent S. V. 12375 E.2. Both varieties may be cultivated "environmentally".

  • Book review: Little Hungarian Fruit Growing
    70-71.
    Views:
    195

    There is a part in the history of agriculture that deals with all the past issues of fruit growing, which also deals with the material and intellectual values of fruit species. Just as history is a science, so historical fruit-growing works in so many ways, so does frontier science…

    Presumably, different issues are important to today’s fruit growers than those dealing with the past and historicity of fruit growing. The distinction between historical fruit production and the history of fruit production is justified because of differences in aims and methods. However, examining and explaining certain issues can yield economically useful results.