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  • Influence of irrigation and row spacing on the growth, seed yield and active substance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
    78-81.
    Views:
    197

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn) has been used in medicine since ancient times, but it has been cultivated as a medicinal plant only in recent decades. The ripe fruit of milk thistle contains flavonoids, which are used to prepare anti-hepatotoxic drugs. The main purpose of this study was to substantiate the effects of irrigation and row spacing on growth, seed yield and the content of active substances (silybin and silymarin) in milk thistle. The results showed that the suitable amount of irrigation was 20 mm and the appropriate row spacing was 25 cm.

     

  • Fruit formation dynamics in parthenocarpic cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spring forcing
    111-114.
    Views:
    139

    20% of the cucumber crop of the world belongs to the parthenocarp type. Parthenocarp cucumber forcing has a great importance in Hungary, too. In our country the whole area of parthenocarp cucumber forcing was approximately 500 ha of the last years (2000-2002) and 75-85000 tons of yield has been harvested (MGYSZT, 2003). It means 15 — 17 kg/m2 as an average yield. In European forcing systems, parthenocarp cucumber is usually planted in January or February and it is harvested in spring or early summer. In Hungary cucumber forcing is the most profitable in two separate periods: spring and autumn, the reason for it is the changes of the average prices of fresh market cucumber, but spring forcing is still the most profitable. Forced cucumber cultivars are mostly parthenocarp; non-parthenocarp cultivars are grown in summer preferably. Cucumber cultivars, forced in our country, are hybrids, and 90% of them are offered by foreign seed companies (KristOfne, 1998.). The productivity of these hybrids is high and the productive period is quite short. All the mentioned details give the reason why it is important to know everything about the productivity, the dynamics of growth, and the possibilities of timing of parthenocarp cultivars, and it is also important to learn how to control all these parameters. Our spring cucumber-forcing experiment aimed to characterize of those parameters mentioned.

  • Effects of initial spacing on the stand structure and yield of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands
    37-39.
    Views:
    158

    The choice of the right initial spacing of stands is one of the most decisive operations of a successful afforestation. It is even more important in the case of fast growing tree species grown in plantations; it is expressed in their early phase of development and in wood quality. The results of a 5-year long experiment with four treatments will be presented in this paper. They proved the priority of an initial spacing of 1.61.0 m in the majority of quality This treatment has been proved optimal exploitation of growing space by the young trees.

  • Economic aspects of aged apple plantations in Hungary
    13-16.
    Views:
    127

    Being competitive is a goal all over in the EU. Competition is free and getting closer among the competitors of the apple industry. In Hungary, one of the most important issues of apple industry has been what are the prospects for aged plantations, which account for 50% of crop land. Based on our results, 80% of those apple plantations on the down-grade yielding apple, the ones only for processing, do not meet the criteria of competitive production. For those plantations in better shape that yield 30-40 t/ha, of which at least 20-30% are for fresh production, it can he profitable. Because of the future trend in technology and economy, however, even the latter ones can not be considered being competitive in the long run.

  • The uses of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) as a fruit in an international breadth of view
    7-13.
    Views:
    259

    Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the import of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
    its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.

  • Effect of water supply on nutrient transport in grapevine varieties
    64-68.
    Views:
    116

    The effect of water supply on availability of macro nutrient elements (N, P, K) by the plants in the soil and their transport in the plants were examined. In a field experiment two grapevine varieties characterized by higher (White Riesling B 7) and lower (Kövidinka K 8) water requirement were compared on the basis of N, P, K concentrations of leaf blades, petioles and berries. A different water supply of the vineyard was achived by striped coverage of the soil with plastic foil to exclude rainfalls from the beginning of May to ripening. Humidity of the soil decreased as the vegetative phase advanced. Soil cover resulted in 25-30% decrease of the water content in the soil at flowering but this difference gradually disappeared till veraison (i.e. the start of intense growth of the berries). The water consumption in the White Riesling B 7 plantation was more intensive. Mobility and availability of N, P, K in the soil was restricted by water exclusion (i.e. plastic soil cover) at flowering. Nitrogen was slightly affected, whereas P and K were in a higher extent. Comparing the transport of nutrient elements in the two varieties, leaf blades of Kövidinka K 8 contained less N and more P and K than White Riesling B 7 at flowering and more N and P and less K at ripening. Water deficiency inhibited K accumulation in the berries of White Riesling B 7, while this effect did not appear in Kövidinka K 8.Water exclusion decreased the yield of White Riesling B 7 already at lower bud loading, the yield of Kövidinka K 8 was affected only at higher bud loading. The higher yields of the treatments in Kövidinka K 8 plantation support the superior performance of this variety under the hot and dry climate of the Hungarian Great Plain.

  • Effect of Foliar Nutrition on Post-Harvest of Onion Seed under Sandy Soil and Saline Irrigation Water Conditions
    85-92
    Views:
    221

    Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fertilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
    and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
    sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.

  • Path coefficient analysis of environmental factors influencing flight activity of Apis florea F. and seed yield in carrot (Daucus carota L.)
    87-92.
    Views:
    117

    Foraging ecology of insect pollinators visiting carrot flowers (Daucus carota L.) was studied in relation to five environmental variables. The dwarf honeybee, Apis florea L., was the most abundant flower visitors and comprised more than 94% of the total flower visiting insects. Commencement of flight activity occurred when a minimum threshold of environmental variables was surpassed while the cessation was governed mainly by decline in values of light intensity and radiation. In between the commencement and cessation, the foraging population correlated significantly and positively with air temperature, light intensity, solar radiation and nectar-sugar concentration and negatively with relative humidity. Path coefficient analysis, however, revealed that direct effect of temperature was high and positive followed by light intensity and solar radiation while the direct effect of relative humidity was high and negative. The direct effect of nectar-sugar concentration was negative and negligible. Evidently, path coefficient analysis gave a more clear picture of effects than did the simple correlation analysis. Apis florea on an average visited 1.14+0.23 and 22.78+2.57 umbels and flowers/min, respectively during different hours of the day. Furthermore, the insect pollinated plots produced significantly more seeds with heavier weights than those isolated from insect visits.

  • Irrigation of pear (A review)
    65-73.
    Views:
    174

    The plantation of intensive growing orchards and steady increase in yield is essential to return the growing cost by sale. Seasonal crop fluctuation of pear is increased by the frequently occurrence of drought and climatic changes. This study reviews genetic and growing factors determined the alternancy of pear and present the new knowledge concerning on water saving irrigation techniques. Use of dwarfing rootstocks, root pruning, branches pruning and new water saving irrigation make the changes in vegetative and generative growth that successfully improve the alternancy of pear growing. According to publications BA 29 of clonal quince rootstocks exhibited the best protection mechanism against to drought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) applied during rapid shoot growth and slowly fruit growth result a decrease in shoot growth and 60% of water saving in pear orchard while there was no influence on harvested yield. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) microjet irrigation applied in pear orchard result 23-52% of decrease in water use, however concerning explorations are contradictory. Further investigations need to improve the efficiency of new irrigation technology adapted pear varieties based on monitoring of soil water status and measurement of stem water potential as stress indicators of plants.

  • Pre-scaling up evaluation of banana technology under irrigation conditions in Abergelle District, Wag-himra Zone, Ethiopia
    39-44.
    Views:
    543

    The study was conducted to compare the improved banana technology against the local production technique to enhance demand-driven banana technology up-scaling and diffusion. Data were collected at the field and farmers' levels. Descriptive and inferential statistics, cost-benefit analysis and matrix ranking were employed for analysis. The result revealed that the average yield (38.40 ton ha-1) of improved banana technology had a significant yield advantage (47.24%) over the local practice (p<0.05). Despite the higher cost of production, its net return was by far higher than the local practice. The benefit-cost ratio also displays that 9.49 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) profit per 1.00 ETB investment in an improved technology package. The overall farmers' perceptions were laid under strongly agree and agree categories, and 95% of them believed that the improved banana technology was appropriate for their area and hence accepted with full confidence. The respective organizations working on rural livelihood improvement are therefore advised to up-scale the improved technology for the wider community based on the irrigation potential.

  • Effect of intensity of bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees on the fruit set and yield of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
    31-39.
    Views:
    134

    Based on the results of our experiments, both the relative and the effective intensity of bee visitation were rather different depending on the cultivars as well as the time of the day. While it varied between relatively extreme values (40-80%) in the morning for the varieties examined, there were much smaller differences between the intensity of bee visitation at the afternoon, because the relative bee visitation attained 70-90% at each cultivar. These results showed that the differences arising from intensity of bee visitation of different cultivars should be taken into consideration more carefully in the morning in orchard planning and in estimating the number of honeybee colonies required.

    The results showed that the greatest percentage of fruit set and the highest number of viable seeds per fruit were measured on branches of those cultivars that were most frequently visited by pure pollen gatherer bees as well as by bees collecting both nectar and pollen (mixed behaviour). The effect of pure pollen gatherers and of bees with mixed behaviour was highly significant from the statistical point of view on the fruit set and the number of viable seeds per fruit.

    Those bees that were sucking nectar only from apple flowers did not proved to be effective pollinators at all. Relationship between their number and the fruit set as well as the number of viable seed per fruit were not significant because the coefficient of correlation was close to nil.

    The ratio of side worker nectar gatherers was negatively correlated with the fruit set and the seed content of fruits of apple cultivars examined at both of our experimental sites, at Mosonmagyaróvár and Feketeerdő as well. The presence of side worker nectar gatherers resulted in higher decrease of fruit set and seed content of fruits at Feketeerd6 than at Mosonmagyaróvár, especially in the morning.

    The effect of flower visiting intensity by other pollinating insects was found to be fairly variable according to the time of the day. In the morning they had no effect on the fruit set as well as on the seed content of fruits either at Mosonmagyaróvár or at Feketeerdo. However, at the afternoon, when their intensity was greater, the correlation was a bit stronger.

  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) anatomical, physiological, biochemical and production responses to drought stress - A mini-review essay
    40-45.
    Views:
    779

    The cultivated plant climate association in agricultural yields is getting expanded consideration with regards to changing climatic conditions. Abiotic stressors can lead to morpho-anatomical, physiological, and biochemical alterations in harvests, resulting in a significant loss of profit. A comprehension of ecological elements and their communication with physiological cycles is critical for improving agricultural practices. Drought stress is among the main natural factor affecting plant development, growth, and yield measures. Assessing the impact of environmental change and atmospheric variability on tomato crop output will require a thorough understanding of this stress element. The physiology, development, improvement, yield, and quality of the tomato crop are all affected by dry season stress. This mini-review essay presents the most prominent features about the effects of drought stress on tomato crop plant physiology and production, with specific highlighting for the complex relationship between drought stress, and nutrients uptake.

  • Farm economic analyis of walnut production
    71-74.
    Views:
    178

    In this present study the returning issues and profit conditions of domestic walnut production are investigated. Our objective is to determine the fact that under what conditions our walnut production may be competitive and maintained in an economic way regarding the present economic and market situations. Our analysis was carried out by a deterministic model based on a farm-level data gathering in production enterprises. The total investment cost of an up-to-date walnut orchard is up to 3000 thousands HUF per hectare and turning to
    productivity is expected within 8-10th years. These orchards are able to produce a yield of 3 tons per hectare in the years of productivity in a normal year, thus in case of a medium-good selling prices a profit of 500 thousand HUF per hectare may be realized. As a result at the end of the whole lifetime of the orchard (30th year) an internal rate of return (IRR) of 10 to 12% may be calculated and the return is expected in the 20th to 22nd year, which may be considered as a very late return. Taking the 20 to 25% probability of harmful whether phenomena (frost, drought) into consideration, it may be concluded that in good years a performance reaching a yield of 4 tons per hectare is necessary in the long-run in order to achieve the profitable and sustainable production in an economic way. This is managed to reach in only the most up-todate orchards.

  • Flower density and winter damage of apricot and peach varieties
    53-56.
    Views:
    223

    Hungary is located on the northern boundary of economical apricot and peach production. The present assortment of varieties and the actual, not adequately selected growing sites cause a permanent risk of winter and spring frosts in their cultivation. The field observations are performed at Debrecen, the Experiment Station Pallag, on 20 apricot and 21 peach varieties. The flower density among the varieties attained 3-4-fold differences. Three categories have been suggested for both species. The density was inferior in Hungary established varieties compared with the new varieties of foreign origin. The minimum temperatures of January 9, 2009 was –17,6 °C , and of December 21, 2009 also –17,6 °C. In some varieties the damage of buds attained 100%. For estimating the yield security, we need to consider also the flower density and the frost damage together. For a mediocre yield, we need a flower density in both species of at least 0.2 living bud/cm. The results confirm the statement that in Hungary, the revision of growing sites is indispensable in order to develop a profitable and competitive apricot and peach growing industry.

  • Role of nutrient supply in yield increase and quality improvement of spice pepper
    83-86.
    Views:
    110

    Hungarian spice pepper powder is a unique product, a real hungaricum with its flavour and aroma compounds and seasoning effect. Its competitiveness with foreign spice peppers is ensured by its high biological value deriving from the specially Hungarian production and processing technology. Besides the traditional and highly manual labour intensive processing technology, there are some modern industrial technologies as well, where high quality can be guaranteed only by producing excellent base material (raw pepper pods). This is the reason which necessitates the rational development of the elements of the production technology, such as nutrient supply. Our objective was to offer a contribution to this aim by our trials in plant nutrition.

    Experiments on the nutrient supply of spice pepper were set up in the 2003 growing season in order to decide whether yields and fruit composition parameters of pepper could be increased by means of increased K fertiliser doses with lower N:K ratios. Several forms of potassium were used, as well as applying microelement top dressings in the single treatments. It was found that the increase of N:K ratio from I:1 to 1:6 did not increase yields, but resulted in higher pigment and dry matter content. Microelement top dressing had a yield increasing effect at each N:K ratio. Higher potassium doses did not accelerate ripening.

  • Promising black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cultivars in Hungary
    18-20.
    Views:
    330

    In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important exotic stand-forming tree species, growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions. Considering the climate change effects its importance is increasing in many other countries. As a result of a selection programme, several black locust cultivars have been improved for setting up cultivar trials. In the paper four black locust cultivars were evaluated in Central Hungary under arid hydrological and brown forest soil conditions. Significant differences (P<5%) were found in height, DBH, mean tree volume and average stem form value (SFV).  At the age of 35 the cultivar ‘R.p. Jászkiséri’ appeared to be the most promising one for yield production and ‘R.p. Zalai’ for SFV.

  • Strategy of the sour cherry verticum in the Northern Great Plain Region Hungary (Analytic study)
    7-31.
    Views:
    213

    Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainly Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising Szabolcs­Szatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.

  • Evaluation of generative accomplishment of new apple cultivars in Hungary
    11-15
    Views:
    250

    In a two year study, 14 new apple cultivars (cvs ’Gala Venus Fengal’, ’Gala Decarli-Fendeca’, ’Galaval’, ’Jugala’, ’Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, ’Red Cap Valtod (S)’, ’Early Red One’, ’Jeromine’, ’Crimson Crisp (Co-op 39)’, ’Red Topaz’, ’Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’, ’Red Idared’, ’Fuji September Wonder’ and club cultivar) were studied in Eastern Hungary at Nyírbátor. The following parameters were measured: trunk cross sectional area (cm2), harvest time with yield (date, kg/tree, number/tree), fruit size (mm), fruit surface color (%), and color intensity of the fruit surface (1-5). According to our two year assessments regarding, the best generative accomplishment was achieved for the cvs ‘Gala’ sorts trained to slender spindle and the cv ‘Red Jonaprince’ trained to super spindle. According to the trunk cross sectional area the ‘Gala’ sport trained to slender spindle showed the strongest growth among the 4 years old trees, while the cv ‘Fuji SW’ and the cv ‘Jeromine’ presented lower vegetative accomplishment. The ripening time of the cultivars started at the end of August and finished at the beginning of October. ‘Gala’ mutants trained to slender spindle provided the highest yields. Fruit size of all cultivars reached the market required standard, however, cvs ‘Red Jonaprince’ and ‘Red Idared’ produced large fruits over 90 mm. The fruit size of the ‘Gala’ sort was 72–75 mm. Most of the cultivars showed high fruit surface color and color intensity.

  • Fruit Quality of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Four Different Rootstocks
    59-62.
    Views:
    174

    A rootstock trial planted at the Szigetcsep experimental station in 1989 involved the study of two cultivars- `Germersdorfi FL 45' and 'Van' -grafted on four different rootstocks — 'Colt', `MxM 14 — Brokforest', `MxM 97 — Brokgrow' and 'Saint Lucie 64' as a control. The trees were trained to the "Modified Brunner-spindle" system and came into bearing in 1993. The yield per tree, fruit weight and fruit diameter have been measured each year since then. The refractivity, the acid content of the fruit juice, fruit cracking after four hours' dipping in water and stone weight ratio have also been measured since 1995. In 1997 and 1998 these parameters as well as fruit cracking after 24 hours' dipping were measured. Fruit firmness and fruit colour were also estimated. In almost every observed parameter significant differences were found between the scion cultivars. Yield efficiency was significantly higher on 'NUM 14' and 'Saint Lucie 64' than on the other two rootstocks. As regards fruit weight, in both cultivars and over an average of six years, it was found that trees on low yielding tree on 'Colt' rootstock had the highest fruit weight values and on heavy producing `MxM 14' the smallest. Soluble solids content was higher on 'Colt' and `MxM 97'. No significant differences between the rootstocks were found in acid content of the fruit juice. There were significant differences between the rootstocks in fruit cracking after 4 and 24 hours' dipping in water. Seemingly with respect to cultivars and rootstocks the year has a considerable effect on fruit cracking.

  • Production data of wine grape gene bank (Vitis spp.) of University of Debrecen, east Hungary
    32-36.
    Views:
    198

    National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acidic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).

  • Comparative study of cherry varieties used in intense culture
    71-74.
    Views:
    182

    Research in sweet cherry production is intensely stimulated worldwide. The programs started also in Hungary to develop technologies and to find suitable varieties for the purpose of intense cultivation. It means that dimension of crowns should be smaller, with higher number of plants per hectare. Understocks, which let grow the trees slower, are scarce in this species. On the one hand, the braking effect of the respective stocks is insufficient, they get old pretty soon, loose ramification, yield too small fruits and do not comply with the aims of intense cultivation. Experiences prove the necessity of stocks for intense culture, which are vital, growing, easily regenerating, and freely branching. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb), a strong growing stock, is still suitable. Further improvement is expected from the contribution of technological elements and the choice of variety. In the present paper, a 9-year old plantation is shown with trees trained to (slender) spindle, and the yield and fruit quality of the year 2009 has been analysed with 6 varieties involved.

  • Participatory evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties under irrigation conditions at Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara
    17-22
    Views:
    84

    Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved tomato varieties (‘Melka salsa’, 'Roma VF' and 'Kochero’) against the local tomato variety was carried out during the 2019/2020 growing season involving six farmers of Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara. The objective of the experiment was to assess the performance of different tomato varieties for the farmers, then to collect their feedback. Based on the actual and farmers’ preference data, the analysis underscores the better performance of improved tomato varieties over local varieties by most yield-related attributes. Average marketable fruit yields of ‘Melka salsa’, ‘Roma VF’, ‘Kochero’, and the local variety were 4.62, 3.88, 3.64, and 3.10 ton ha-1, respectively. The improved varieties thus had a yield advantage of 72.38%, 37.14%, and 25.72% over the local variety in that order. Among improved tomato varieties, ‘Melka salsa' provided the highest fruit yield on top of owing the highest score of overall preference attributes rank. Scale-wide diffusion of ‘Melka salsa’ tomato variety is therefore suggested for similar and potential agro-ecologies. Biological scientists also should take farmers’ preference attributes and feedback as a backup for future breeding and adaptation studies on tomato varieties.

  • Impact of potassium fertilizers with different active ingredients and dosages on potato yield in experiments in the Nyírség region
    71-74.
    Views:
    158

    A five-year experiment was carried out in the Nyírség on its characteristic soil type, brown forest soil to investigate the impact of three types of potassium fertilizers (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and Patentkali) in three different dosages (80, 160, 240 kg/ha K20), under non-irrigated conditions applying the same dosages of N, P in all treatments (the applied amount was different between years) in 10 treatments including the control on 50 m2-parcels with 3 or 4 replicates. The test plant was cultivar Desiree, Kondor, Agria and Pannonia in 1998 and 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. The obtained yields were analyzed by an analysis of variance. Based on the five-year results, the highest yields on the acidic sandy and sandy loam soils were obtained in the treatments with 530-800 kg/ha Patentkali containing 30% of K and 10% of magnesium active ingredients in addition to the same amounts of N and P applications. The dosage of 530 kg/ha Patentkali contains 160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients, while the dosage of 800 kg/ha Patentkali contains 240 kg/ha K+ 80 kg/ha Mg active ingredients. It can be concluded that the potassium chloride fertilizer (KCI) was the least effective as regards yields and Patentkali proved to be the most effective fertilizer, it had higher yields than even those of potassium sulfate, the difference in the 160 kg/ha treatments was 17.7%, which was a significant difference. Based on the results of the multi-year experiment, we recommend to apply 530 kg/ha Patentkali fertilizer (160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients) for the fertilization in potato under non-irrigated conditions on the acidic sandy and sandy loam forest soils of the Nyírség, which proved to be the most effective treatment and with which we could obtain 30 t/ha yield in the average of the years (with the simultaneous application of N and P).

  • Effect of life cycle on the production of mullein (Verbascum phlomoides L.)
    123-125.
    Views:
    133

    Aim of the present investigations was the optimalization of the production of the annual cultivar `Napfény' of Verlxiscum phlomoides L. Quantitative data on morphology (growth, leaf and flower size, branching) yield and content of active materials (mucilages, flavonoids) were studied at six sowing times.

    We established, that sowing time may be one basic factor in the production of the annual variety. The major yield was obtained by sowing either late autumn (end of October) or early spring (middle March). At these plots the fresh mass of the flowers was 257-288 g/plant, the drug mass 28-29 g/plant, by 45-70% more than that of the mean of other treatments.

    It was established, that under optimal cultivation conditions the annual form of mullein may reach higher individual yields than the plants of the indigenous wild growing population.

  • General principles in variety-association for intensive plantations of pomeceous fruits
    96-101.
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    159

    Under conditions of Hungary, more than 400 varieties of apple, pear and quince varieties have been observed for time of blooming and fertility relations in order to check the possibility of their use for intense plantations in different combinations with polliniser varieties. Low (below 3%) rate of self-fertility occurred at 65% of apple varieties. That partial self-fertility, however, is far from being sufficient to produce acceptable yield, thus allogamous pollination is absolutely necessary. The same is true for the rear and quince varieties grown in Hun­gary, too. The normal development requires the presence of viable seeds in the fruit set, most in quince, therefore, association of the right varie­ties is most important in that species. Apple and pear varieties are assigned according to their blooming time to 4, quince varieties to 3 groups. The yield of all three pomaceous species declines with the growing distance from the potential pollen source. In the intense plantations, the critical (maximum) distance to be observed is 20 m for apple and 15 m for pear and quince. In combining the placement of varieties, also the principles of a variety-specific cultivation are to be considered carefully. The double objectives are satisfied most by the system of Malus­pollinisers developed for intense plantations.