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  • Analyses of temporal dynamics of brown rot development on fruit in organic apple production
    97-100.
    Views:
    169

    In a two-year study, yield loss and temporal dynamics of brown rot development caused by Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey were quantified and analysed in two organic apple orchards (Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa). The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in both years and both locations, except for one occasion when the first infected fruit was found at the end of July. Temporal disease development was continuous up to harvest time in both years and locations. In the two years, pre-harvest yield loss on the trees amounted between 8.9% and 9.3% at Debrecen-Pallag and between 9.7% and 10.8% at Debrecen—Jozsa by fruit harvest. Incidence of infected fruits on the orchard floor ranged from 32.4% to 43.2% and from 53.3% to 61.9%, at Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa, respectively, by fruit harvest. Analyses of temporal disease progress showed that the best-fitted mathematical function was the power function in both orchards and years. Both parameters of the power function clearly demonstrated that incidence of brown rot on fruit increased faster on the orchard floor than on the tree. Moreover, the disease increase was faster at Debrecen—Józsa in most cases than at Debrecen—Pallag. Our results indicated that the strategy of disease management, the ripeness of the fruit and the presence of a wounding agent played an important role in the yield loss and in the temporal development of fruit disease incidence caused by M. fructigena in organic apple orchards. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  • Character association and genetic gain of nine agronomic traits of F1 populations in onion (Allium cepa L.)
    50-58.
    Views:
    493

    F1 populations of half diallel cross were considered for this investigation. Phenotypic component of variation (s2P) was higher than genotypic (s2G), interaction ((s2I) and within error (s2w) components of variation. Trait bulb weight showed the highest values for s2P, s2G, s2I and s2w. The noticeable amount of phenotypic, genotypic, interaction and within error covariation was found in the combination of BW×BY, possibly indicating wide scope of selection for this pair of characters. Genotypic correlations were higher than the respective phenotypic correlations. This situation was also marked in the path coefficient analysis. Bulb yield/plot showed highly significant and positive correlation coefficient with other characters both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. When all the nine characters were included in an index, it exhibited the highest genetic gain as percentage. When a combination of two or more characters was studied in a function, the efficacy was higher than that of direct selection for bulb yield. The combination of five, six, seven or eight characters showed higher percentage of expected gain. Due to significantly correlated with BY and having high positive direct effect at phenotypic level characters viz., LL, BW, PH and NLs is considered as primary yield components. Again combinations of these four characters gave the commendable expected genetic gain of 330.7290% may be considered as important selection index for this material.

  • Efficacy of N-phenylphtalamic acid in some Solanaceae species
    89-91.
    Views:
    113

    : N-phenylphthalamic acid — Cl4H1 1 NO3 (Nevirol 60 WP) was successfully used for enhancing yield in some important vegetable crops namely, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), chilli (Capsicum annuum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena) of Solanaceae. Aqueous sprays with 0.2% and 3.0% significantly enhanced fruit production in chilli and tomato respectively. On the other hand, various treatments in brinjal failed to enhance yield significantly. The increase in yield in both tomato and chilli is largely due to increase in the number of flowers and fruit-set percentage.

  • Flower characters and self-fertilization capacity in relation to the bee pollination at sour cherry cultivars
    121-132.
    Views:
    147

    Detailed studies and comparisons were carried out on those flower characters of sour cherry cultivars that may affect bee pollination of flowers. Flower characters of sour cherry are fairly similar to other temperate zone fruit tree species. Their relatively small flowers distinguish the Cigánymeggy-types of cultivars from the flowers of tart cherries cultivars that are conspicuously larger, almost as large as the sweet cherry flowers. The relative position of flower organs was much more variable according to the season than according to the cultivars. So the differences were rather the consequences of seasonal effects than of variety features of sour cherry cultivars. As far as individual cultivars are concerned differences in the nectar production and the sugar concentration are revealed rather between groups of cultivars than between individual cultivars. The pollen production of flowers was extremely changeable in consecutive years. Most honeybees collected nectar at sour cherry flowers; pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees were half as frequent but differences among the behaviour of honeybees according to cultivars cannot be stated. The fidelity of honeybees to sour cherry is less expressed than to some other fruit tree species. Accordingly, it is very strongly suggested to take the competitive effect other plant species (weeds) flowering in and around the orchard carefully into account when organizing additional bee pollination in sour cherry plantations. Several sour cherry cultivars possess more or less self-fertilization capacity but this is greatly changeable according to the season. It has been proved that self-sterile sour cherry cultivars are sensitive even on the partial restriction of the effective time of bee pollination and it is to be stressed too that even in the case of partly self-fruitful cultivars bee pollination is also vital in yield formation because medium or strong restriction of the effective bee pollination period is of a definite negative effect on their fruit set and yield. In years with unfavourable weather the yield can dramatically be reduced sometimes down to nil. However, very high fruit set is also unfavourable because a negative correlation was detected between the final set and the mean mass of fruits.

  • Some important growing characteristics of apple and apricot cultivars in two fruit growing regions in Romania
    51-56.
    Views:
    136

    The aim of this study was to determine some important growing characteristics of 5 resistant apple (Rajka, Rubinola, Topaz, Otawa and Goldstar) and 7 apricot (NJA 19, Goldrich, Harcot, Venus, Comando, Olimp, Cea mai buna de Ungaria) cultivars in two fruit growing regions in Romania from 2000 to 2003. Height of the apple trees (4-year-old tree) ranged between 1.96 m (cv. Topaz) and 2.39 m (cv. Rubinola). Diameter of the crown ranged from 0.96 m (cv. Goldstar) to 1.12 cm (cv. Rajka). The trunk diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (cv. Goldstar) to 5.0 cm (cv. Rajka). The surface of the trunk section was the lowest for cv. Goldstar (9.7 cm') and the largest for cv. Rajka (19.6 cm). Height of the apricot trees (4 years old tree) ranged between 2.69 m (cv. Venus) and 3.38 m (cv. NJA - 19). Diameter of the crown ranged from 2.59 m (cv. Comandor) to 2.77 m (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The trunk diameter ranged from 9.54 cm (cv. Goldrich) to 13.30 cm (cv. NJA - 19). Length of annual branches was the lowest for cv. Goldrich (45.1 cm) and the highest for cv. NJA - 19 (83.8 cm). Bud swelling of apricot trees began on 8 March for cv. NJA - 19 and ended on 11 March for the control cultivar (Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The blooming started on 16 March for cv. NJA - 19 and 27 Mach for the control cultivar. Duration of fruit growth was 89 days for cv. NJA - 19 and 128 days for cv. Comandor. When the temperature decreased to 1.5 °C (in 2001), percentage of viable pollen grains ranged between 48.86 % (cv. Olimp) and 91.57 % (cv. Venus). The germinating grains ranged from 31 % (cv. Olimp) to 90 % (cv. Harcot). Free pollination was the lowest for cv. NJA - 19 (29 %) and the highest for cv. Harcot (41%), while self-pollination ranged between 6 (cv. Olimp) and 11 % (cvs. Comondor and Harcot). Apple yield ranged from 16.65 t/ha (cv. Otawa) to 24.35 t/ha (cv. Rajka) and the differences varied from 4.45 t/ha to - 3.25 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apricot yield ranged from 11.47 kg/ tree or 9.53 t/ha (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria), to 38.83 kg/tree or 27.34 t/ha (cv. Olimp) and the differences varied from 3 t/ha to 17 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apple fruit weight ranged from 162 g (cv. Otawa) to 222 g (cv. Goldstar) and apricot fruit weight from 42.52 g (cv. Goldrich) to 68.38 g (cv. Comandor). Color, taste and aroma were very specific to cultivars.

  • Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage in Ghana
    46-49.
    Views:
    608

    A field experiment was conducted at Dormaa Ahenkro, Ghana, to determine the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment treatment comprises of sole application of poultry manure (PM), NPK 15:15:5, the combined application of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer (PM+NPK) and the control (no fertilizer). Data was collected on the number of leaves, stem girth, plant height, head diameter, head weight and edible head weight. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among all the treatments. The combined application of PM+NPK recorded the highest values for all the parameters measured. From the results obtained farmers should consider the combined application of PM and NPK to maximize yield on their farm.

  • Economics of sea buckthorn production and processing in Hungary
    21-25.
    Views:
    267

    This study focuses on the business management-related advantages and disadvantages of sea buckthorn production and processing based on economic analyses. It is the main objective of the authors to identify the expected economic findings in a high standard plantation with different average yields. A deterministic model calculation was performed on the basis of technological processes, using the primary data collected from enterprises dealing with sea buckthorn production. The calculation is based on the assumption of a 10 hectare plantation with intensive production technology (high soil quality (golden crown value: 32 GC per ha), irrigation, high plant density per hectare). The cost and income relations and the long-term return of the plantation were examined in the case of different average yields (12 t ha-1, 18 t ha-1 and 24 t ha-1). Under the economic circumstances of 2016, the planting cost of an intensive plantation is around 4-4.1 million HUF ha-1. In the years following the fruit-bearing stage, direct production costs are between 2.5-3.9 million HUF ha-1, depending on the given average yield. On the contrary, 5.6-11.1 million HUF ha-1 revenue can be reached based on the current market prices, resulting in a gross margin of 3.1-7.1 million HUF ha-1. Under the modelled circumstances, return is realised on the plantation’s costs in 6-8 years. The net present value (NPVr=3.24%) calculated for the 15-year-long life cycle of the 10-hectare plantation is between 151-466 million HUF, while the internal rate of return (IRR) is between 23-45%. From the business management aspect, the advantage of sea buckthorn production is that it provides better income and return at a planting cost which is similar to that of other small fruits and berries. At the same time, the disadvantage of sea buckthorn production is the fact that yields are harvested every two years due to the technological characteristics of harvesting. The negative impact of this bi-yearly yield on liquidity can be eliminated with the so-called delayed planting.

  • Foliar application of zinc and its effect on greenhouse grown cucumber
    79-82.
    Views:
    158

    The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.

    In the trial the following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.

    From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.

    The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.

  • Water relations of sour cherries (minireview)
    103-107.
    Views:
    193

    Recently, the sour cherries as food resources become more important for health preservation and so the modernization of growing technology in sour cherry production will be timely. The global warming and inadequate distribution of precipitation result a decrease in the alternancy of sour cherry production, as well. Sour cherries rather adapted to survival of drought than sweet cherry trees therefore a few studies performed to explore the water requirement of sour cherry varieties. The rootstocks, the type of soils in plantation and the water balance influence the water management of sour cherries. In orchards, in particular first year plantation, use of various row covering contribute to preservation of the natural water pool of soil and affect on the tree vigor, yield and fruit quality. Wide-spread application of integrated fruit growing technology and climate changes the researches are pointed to develop efficient irrigation technology based on transpiration yield model. The crop model based on use of meteorological data was developed for cherry orchards in order to predict transpiration of trees, dry matter production and fruit yield. The linear relationship between dry matter accumulation and transpiration was verified for sour cherry trees. Other models essay to asses the effects of climate changes on crop production. Importance of economical production and fruit quality such as ingredients of raw materials and food increases in intensive sour cherry orchards used by irrigation techniques. Because of climate changes it should more pay attention to research concerning on the stress physiological response of sour cherry varieties and post-harvest fruit quality.

  • The role of pruning in the intensification of plum production
    83-86.
    Views:
    208

    In an orchard planted in the spring of 1997, four kinds of spacing have been applied (4.0 m x 1.5 m, 4.0 m x 2.0 m, 5.0 m x 2.5 in and 6.0 m x 3.0 m). Four cultivars (‘Cacanska lepotica', Stanley' ‘Bluefre' and ‘President') grafted on Myrobalan rootstock were studied in the experiment aimed to explore the performance of plums under different spacing and training conditions.

    It could be stated that the trees grown on vigorous rootstock are prone to be cultivated much more intensely (smaller tree size, higher tree density) by the consequent use of green pruning technique. The most favourable economic combination (yield and labour costs) was found to be: 4.0 in x 2.0 in and 5.0 x 2.5 in (800-1200 tree/hectare), whereas the most adapted was the cultivar: 'Stanley'.

  • Evaluation of hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) varieties for green pod yield and quality under rain fed production at Teppi, South Western Ethiopia
    45-49.
    Views:
    197

    The trials were designed with three replications in a randomized complete block design in order to evaluate the phenological, growth and yield potential of hot pepper varieties such as ‘Mareko fana’, ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Melka Awaze’, ‘Melka Shote’ and local check. Significant difference was observed between growing year and used varieties. The varieties also performed significantly different (p<0.05) for most of the considered traits in the study. The result revealed that varieties ‘Melka Zala’, ‘Mareko fana’ and ‘Melka Awaze’ were scored highest green pod yield of 8.39, 8.71 and 11.39 ton per hectare, respectively. However, ‘Mareko fana’ variety was susceptible to disease attack as compared to other varieties. Therefore, promoting both ‘Melka Awaze’ and ‘Melka Zala’ varieties for widespread production for Teppi and the areas with similar agro-ecological conditions could contribute to boost the productivity of hot pepper. ‘Mareko fana’ could also be used for dry pod purpose due to its attractive color.

  • Production technology and fruit tree nutrition
    39-42.
    Views:
    122

    Fruit yield quality and quantity are effectively enhanced if healthy vegetative conditions are ensured. These optimal conditions — i.e. the balance between shoot development and yield — can be achieved by the rationalization of the production technologies, such as:

    • reduction of the size of the crown
    • adaptation of the severity and method of pruning to the conditions of the actual year
    • removal of the shoot tips
    • timely fruit thinning

    By establishing an improved level of plant nutrient uptake, this will ensure a healthy balance between shoot growth and yield.

  • Severely pollen-limited fruit set in a pear (Pyrus communis) orchard revealed by yield assessments and DNA-based paternity assignment of seedlings
    67-74.
    Views:
    162

    In commercial fruit tree orchards, consistently high yields are necessary for a durable economy. The Swedish pear cultivar 'Carola' has been noted for low setting in some orchards, possibly due to insufficient pollination. In this study, fruit set was evaluated in a research orchard where `Carola' had been planted together with four potential pollinators. Total yield and number of fruits was noted during three and four years, respectively. In 2003, seeds were germinated from the harvested `Carola' fruits, and the paternity of three seedlings from 50 trees was determined with RAPD analysis. 'Clapp's Favourite' had sired 39.6% of the seedlings, closely followed by `Seigneur d'Esperen' (30.7%) and 'Clara Frijs' (26.7%) whereas 'Skanskt sockerparon' only sired 1.1% of the seedlings. The remaining 2.3% appeared to have been derived by selfing. Pollen-limited seed set was indicated at surprisingly short distances; accumulated number of fruits on the `Carola' trees was significantly higher when separated by only 2 m from one of the two most efficient pollinators, 'Clapp's Favourite' or 'Seigneur d'Esperen‘, compared to trees 4—l0 in away in the same row. Number of viable seeds per fruit was also higher in fruits from trees immediately adjacent to the pollinators, suggesting an effect of improved pollination success. The importance of very short inter-cultivar distances for efficient pollen transfer became even more clear when comparisons involved the true pollination distances as determined by RAPD; the accumulated yields decreased linearly from 55 kg at a 2 in distance to only 17 kg at 13 m.

  • Effect of the placement of self-incompatible apricot varieties on their yield in commercial plantations
    82-86.
    Views:
    142

    Earlier studies concerning self-, free- and cross- fertilization of apricot varieties grown in Hungary, proved the existence of self-sterile as well as self-fertile varieties within the recommended assortment. The self-sterile and partially self-fertile varieties should be planted in association with polliniser varieties, only. The present paper reports about the yields of trees of the widely grown, self-sterile local variety, Ceglédi óriás (Giant of Cegléd), depending on the distance of adequate polliniser trees. In the univarietal, 27 row-wide block of the relevant variety, an efficient polliniser, Magyar kajszi was planted to the 10th and 19th row. In the close vicinity, another block of polliniser, Rózsakajszi C. 320 was located. The number of fruits set per tree has been counted or estimated in two consecutive years. In both seasons, the yield of the Ceglédi óriás trees diminished with the growing distance from the nearest polliniser trees. Those trees in the center of the block, between the two (10th and 19th) rows of Magyar kajszi bore acceptable yield (40 kg/tree in 1987), however, considerable reduction of the number of the fruits set was stated already in the 4-5th row from the polliniser away. Similar gradient of fruit set was apparent in relation to the neighbouring block of Rózsakajszi C 320. The beneficial effect of the vicinity of polliniser varieties was obvious as far as the distance of the 10th row. Taking into consideration the self-sterility, the early blooming time and the poor fertilization of the variety Ceglédi óriás, a planting design of associating it with at least two polliniser varieties (e.g. Gönci magyar kajszi and Ceglédi bíbor) is highly recommended. On the basis also of earlier results, a proposal has been developed for the association of apricot varieties as recommendations for optimising yields. Blooming time, fertilizing potential, schedule of the picking season and market possibilities have to be considered simultaneously.

  • Effect of postharvest on the economic viability of walnut production
    28-38.
    Views:
    332

    In this study we were studying the question whether walnut production under domestic natural and economic circumstances shall be considered a profitable activity or not. Our partial objective is to determine, what level of natural inputs and production costs are required for walnut production, what yield level, selling price and production value can be attained, what level of profitability, rentability and efficiency may production have, is the establishment of a walnut orchard profitable on the entire lifespan of the plantation, and the production of which is more efficient: the dry shelled walnut production requiring postharvest activity or the raw, shelled walnut without postharvest activities. In this study, comparison of two systems is conducted. First version: producer establishes a walnut plantation and sells walnut raw and shelled. Second version: producer also invests into a drying facility, and in this case the end product is the dry, shelled walnut. If the producer sells walnut right after harvest in a raw bulk, total production costs in productive years reaches 974,011 HUF/ha. Attainable yield is 2.63 t/ha with 396.3 HUF/kg selling price, therefore the profit is 138,258 HUF/ha with 14.19% cost-related profitability. In the case when the producer sells dried, shelled walnut, production costs are 25% higher compared to that of raw walnut due to the cost of drying. By calculating with the postharvest loss, average yield is 1.84 t/ha, however, its selling price is way higher (882.84 HUF/kg), therefore the profit per hectare reaches 475,496 HUF with 39.01% cost-related profitability. Thus it can be stated that walnut production in an average year may be profitable even without postharvest, but efficiency is improved significantly when the producer sells the products dried. Investment profitability analysis revealed that production of raw, shelled walnut is not economically viable, since the plantation does not pay off on its entire lifespan (30 years), while walnut production with postharvest is efficient and rentable, since both net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) showed more favourable values than in the previous case, and the orchard pays off in the 21th year after establishment.

  • The comparison of several soil cultivation methods in the Tokaj-wine region
    35-37.
    Views:
    190

    Our results show that the different cultivation methods have higher effect on the yield than on the grape quality. In 2007 the weather was extreme dry (from May to August only 195 mm precipitation was recorded) the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield and the grape quality. Although no significant differences were observed in the sugar- and titratable acidity content of the must, the ratio of noble rotted berries was higher on the straw mulched plots. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of the soil and it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection, but for long distance conclusions further examinations need to be investigated. The less yield and ratio of rot was observed in case of barely covered vines and the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines.

  • Nutrient demand of stone fruits
    19-23.
    Views:
    134

    Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization were investigated on the change of nutrient content, vegetative and generative production of apricot, peach and sour cherry trees, as well as on frost hardiness in long term experiments. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization increased only the concentration of these elements in cherry leaves without effect on growth and yield. Consequent potassium effect was proved on these stone fruit species. Effect on yield appeared following the first higher crop load.

    Potassium supply has positive effect on frost hardiness of apricot and sour cherry flowers and peach flower buds.

    In peach, the lime content of soil decreased the yield but it could be compensated by potassium dressing to some extent. Favourable nutrient boundary values were determined for soil and foliage.

  • Yield and composition of supercritical fluid extracts of different Lamiaceae herbs: Satureja hortensis L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Melissa officinalis L.
    75-79.
    Views:
    168

    In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile and nonvolatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles and nonvolatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and powdered cude drugs of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-50 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C), time (5-60 min) and the ratio of modifier (5-50% methanol) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedure, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich extracts were analysed by GC-FID, while extracts rich in nonvolatile compounds were analysed by HPLC. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.

  • New sweet cherry cultivars in intensive plantings
    13-16.
    Views:
    312

    The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.

  • The impact of irrigation on the yield and tuber fraction distribution of potato cultivars
    65-70.
    Views:
    121

    Potato is one of the most important plants in human nutrition, it is grown in about 140 countries. As a food, it can be prepared in many ways, it is easily digestable with proteins of high biological value, favourable dietetical-physiological characteristics, high starch content and good taste. An increase in its consumption would be favourable from the dietetical point of view. In Hungary, the growing area of potato has decreased considerably for the last decades and we are lagging behind the Western-European countries regarding yield. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen at Látókép between 2002 and 2004. In the large-plot experiment, the yields and the distribution of the tuber fractions were studied for 9 medium early cultivars. The experiment was set up on 50 m2 plots on calcareous chernozem soil. Among the studied cultivars, 3 were of Dutch (Desiree, Kondor, Kuroda) and 6 were of Hungarian breeding ('Góliát', 'Hópehely', 'Kankan', 'Lilla', 'Százszorszép', and 'White Lady'). The experiment was set up in 4 repetitions in a randomized design, two of the repetitions were irrigated while two were non-irrigated.

  • Pedological and agrochemical investigations on media using in vegetable forcing
    119-122.
    Views:
    110

    In spite of the several good properties of peat, recently, some experiments were carried out with the aim of finding natural materials which can substitute for peat. According to the results, several inorganic and organic materials were proved to be suitable for this purpose. This study examines the effect of different organic materials (example: pine bark, composts, peats) on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-mixtures and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest at those plants which were planted also in these media. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations in development and in yield, too.

  • Vegetative and generative properties of two apple cultivars ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’ in a multi-row system
    34-38.
    Views:
    207

    In a five-year (2015-2019) study, some vegetative and generative peculiarities of two resistant apple cultivars (‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) were assessed in a young orchard with a multi-row training system. Based on our research, cv. ‘Galiwa’ showed significantly weaker growth, than cv. ‘Story Inored’, which was manifested in lower trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and lower tree height. Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ reached the optimal tree height (3.1 m) at the age of four, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could not achieve it neither in five-year-old trees (2.7 m). Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ showed 28.4-32.6 t/ha calculated average yield, while cv. ‘Story Inored’ produced 41.3-102.7 t/ha. Larger fruit size was found in cv. ‘Galiwa’ (72.7-79.1 mm) and smaller in cv. ‘Story Inored’ (66.9-69.2 mm). The fruit surface color was under 50% for cv. ‘Galiwa’ (43-49%), meanwhile cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached higher coloration (87-93%) and an excellent color intensity (4.8-5.0). Shape of cv. ‘Galiwa’ fruits was rather flat, than globular (0.83-0.84 shape index), as cv. ‘Story Inored’ was more elongated (0.95-1.00 shape index).

  • Association of European plum varieties in the orchards
    21-24.
    Views:
    243

    The flowering phenology, blooming time and inter-fertility relations of 63 European plum varieties has been studied at growing sites with different ecological conditions during a 10 year long period. The purpose was to develop a system of variety combinations which approaches an optimum in fertility as long as inter-fertility relations will cease to be a limiting factor of yield. According to their blooming time, varieties are assigned to 5 groups: very early, early, medium, late and very late. As for their fertility relations, four groups are formed: self-sterile (0%), partially self-fertile (0.1 to 10 %), self-fertile (10.1 to 20 %) and highly self-fertile (more than 20 % fruit set with self pollination). The four categories of fruit set at free pollination are also relevant to the grower: low (less than 10 %), medium (10 to 20 %), high (20 to 40 %) and very high (more than 40 % fruit set).

    By artificial cross pollination, one combination Cacanska najbolja x Stanley proved to be mutually inter-incompatible. Blocks planted to a single self-sterile variety flanking a pollinizer variety proved the spacial distribution of the pollen. The reduction in fruit set was already apparent in the second row away from the pollinizer trees. In a large plantation, without bee hives, relatively low yield was stated on self-sterile trees even close to the pollinizer.

    In the case of self-sterile and partially self-fertile varieties, a combination of three varieties is recommended. The blooming period of the pollinizer variety should overlap the period of the self-sterile variety at least by 70 %, and the distance should not exceed 15 to 20 meters. Association of self-fertile varieties may also enhance the productivity of the trees. In that case an overlap of 50 % in blooming time and a maximum distance between the varieties of 30 to 40 meters will be sufficient.

     

  • Effect of Fertileader® Vital on green pea maturation
    57-59.
    Views:
    207

    The changes of tenderness of three green pea varieties with different maturity were studied after Fertileader® Vital fertilizer treatment. The fertilizer treatment caused signifi cant differences in the tenderness of treated plants in every year. After the second measuring time; the treated plants showed better quality than the control ones. The treated varieties kept their tenderness longer due to this foliar fertilizer, the yield have better quality so even better suited to the requirement of canning industry. Use of Fertileader® Vital is of an economic importance because high economic benefi t can be realized in one hectare after Fertileader® Vital treatment. By using this foliar fertilizer 12,840 HUF extra profi ts can be realized by producing green peas of I. quality class instead of yield with II. quality category. This extra profit could increase to 447,840 HUF considering that green peas belong still to the II. quality class after fertilizer treatment when the quality of non-treated plants are no more suitable for the canning industry.

  • Influence of irrigation and row spacing on the growth, seed yield and active substance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
    78-81.
    Views:
    197

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn) has been used in medicine since ancient times, but it has been cultivated as a medicinal plant only in recent decades. The ripe fruit of milk thistle contains flavonoids, which are used to prepare anti-hepatotoxic drugs. The main purpose of this study was to substantiate the effects of irrigation and row spacing on growth, seed yield and the content of active substances (silybin and silymarin) in milk thistle. The results showed that the suitable amount of irrigation was 20 mm and the appropriate row spacing was 25 cm.