Impact of environmental changes (temperature and RH) on reproductive biology in Duranta repens (Verbenaceae) growing at ten different sites of Agra was studied. It flowers throughout the year, with optimum flowering in September. The flowers are arranged in loose clusters on terminal or axillary racemes. They are either blue or lavender in colour,... hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and complete. The plants exhibit floral polymorphism (increase and decrease in number of petals and stamens) and considerable variation in extent of pollen fertility, floral density, insect pollinators and fruit-set percentage. The changes in temperature and relative humidity during the entire flowering period, was found associated with the variation in floral structure, pollen fertility and fruit-set percentage. Based on the percentage of fruit-set during different seasons of a year, there were three distinct periods, namely maximum, moderate and minimum periods. The present paper deals with the comparative view of reproductive biology of this ornamental plant in these periods. During the months of August—November when temperature ranges between 13.7-36.6 °C and RH between 79-89% the plant exhibits maximum fruit-set percentage (68-85%). This was associated with maximum flowering, increase in floral size, and increase in visitation rates of pollinators and higher degree of pollen fertility. On the other hand, with temperature reaching to the maximum (15.1-41.5 °C) and reduction in RH (14.1-41.3%), the percentage of fruit-set was reduced to the minimum (21-30%). During this period, number of flowers/plant, floral size, pollen fertility, visitation rates of pollinators were reduced to the minimum. During this period floral polymorphism was also 'recorded.
Field experiments were conducted during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 to study the effect of basal application (BA) of zinc sulphate (5 and 10 mg kg-i soil) or boric acid (1 and 2 mg kg-1 soil) alone or foliar applications (FA) of water or 1% ZnSO4 or 1% H3 B03 or the combinations of both BA and FA of either ZnSO4 or H3 B03 on yield attributes (number o...f flowers and fruits/ plant, fruit weight, size and total yield). On the basis of the two-year data, it was found that all the treatments of BA as well as FA enhanced yield attributes but the combination of BA of 10 mg kg--1 soil ZnSO4 and FA of 1% H3 B03 gave highest yield as compared to other treatments and control plants.
A field experiment was conducted during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to study the effect of foliar sprays of ethrel or ethephon (2- chloroethyl phosphonic acid) on pollen sterility and yield parameters in Capsicum annuum var. Pusa jwala. Effect of treatments was also studied in F1 hybrids raised from treated male sterile plants crossed with the control... plants. Plants sprayed with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% (v/v) ethrel exhibited 93.1-100% pollen sterility. This was associated with significant reduction in yield parameters (number of flowers, fruits/plant, fruit size, number of seeds/fruit and total yield/plant). However, the plants sprayed only once with 0.1% ethrel at pre-meiotic stage showed 93.1% pollen sterility without any significant reduction in yield parameter. The F1 hybrids obtained by crossing the 100% male sterile treated plants with the pollen of untreated (control) plants exhibited only insignificant reduction in the number of flowers/ plant, fruits/plant, fruit size, number of seeds/fruit and total yield/plant. However, these parameters in F1 hybrids were significantly higher over the treated plants.
: N-phenylphthalamic acid — Cl4H1 1 NO3 (Nevirol 60 WP) was successfully used for enhancing yield in some important vegetable crops namely, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), chilli (Capsicum annuum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena) of Solanaceae. Aqueous sprays with 0.2% and 3.0% significantly enhanced fruit production in chilli and tomato respec...tively. On the other hand, various treatments in brinjal failed to enhance yield significantly. The increase in yield in both tomato and chilli is largely due to increase in the number of flowers and fruit-set percentage.
Efficacy of a popular synthetic detergent, Surf excel in some important vegetable crops viz. Okra or lady finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), chilli or red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) was evaluated for inducing male sterility and hybrid seed production. Foliar sprays with aqueous solutions of Surf excel (1....0 and 1.5% w/v) in these crops induced complete pollen sterility. The treated plants showed a delay in flowering, a reduction in the number of flowers and fruits/plant, number of seeds/fruit resulting in a reduction in yield/plant. However, the male sterility thus induced was successfully exploited for hybrid seed production.