Pear cultivars of variable frost tolerance were tested as for frost injuries suffered as a consequence of artificial freezing temperatures during the endodormancy as well as the ecodormancy. Damages were registered according to a visually defined scale, then peroxidase and polyphenol-oxidase activity was checked in buds, spurs and limbs. Accord...ing to our results, 'Packham's Triumph' was the most frost tolerant cultivar. Regarding enzyme activity of both enzymes, the performance of cultivars displaying different susceptibility was also different in spurs as well as in buds. Results referring to the endodormancy were especially instructive. During the ecodormancy, data obtained at the same time indicated the differences existing between the developmental stages of dormancy in the respective cultivars.
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) has been long regarded to be a health-promoting fruit. Although it is mainly
consumed in processed form, its relatively heat-stable polyphenolics were confirmed to be responsible for most of the beneficial effects. This review aims to show basic nutritional information on quince fruit such as carbohydrate, fibr...e, pectin and mineral element contents. In addition, vitamin and polyphenolic contents and composition as well as the physiological effects of quince consumption were also surveyed. Information on presumable protective effects against several diseases including infl ammation, atopic dermatitis, ulcers and cancer is summarized. Potential antibacterial effects of quince polyphenolics were also considered. Polyphenolics are supposed to be responsible for the major part of benefi cial health-effects, and phenolic compounds predominantly accumulate in peel. There exists a considerable extent of genetic variation in phytochemical composition among cultivars, which might be exploited in designing future breeding programs for quince improvement and opening new ways for health-related uses.
Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of gluc...ose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. The individual amounts and relative proportions of macro- and micro elements present in food is also of great consideration since these are involved in a wide rang...e of physiological processes including the influence of the redox homeostasis. The antioxidant power and mineral nutrient content of fruits might be affected by several factors including genotype, ripening stage, year-effects or a wide range of environmental conditions. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content in fresh fruits of apricot and analyse some genetic and environmental factors that may have important contribution to the inner content of apricot fruits. In addition, the influencing effect of the extraction procedure used for antioxidant analyses was also tested. Our analyses indicate that a considerable fraction of antioxidant capacity is attributable to the hydrophilic antioxidants. The genetic background has crucial importance in determining apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral nutrient content; however, the growing season and the ripening time of fruits may have also important effects.
Two apple cultivars that display enhanced resistance to fire blight (causal agent: Erwinia amylovora) were selected. The aim of the present study was to characterize the peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity of `Szemes alma' (a historical cultivar) and MR-03, (a Hungarian multiresistant hybrid of 'Prima') and compare them to susceptible 'Jo...nathan M 40' and resistant 'Remo' controls. Peroxides enzyme activity during E. amylovora infections was investigated in artificially infected apple shoots. Increases in enzyme activities were observed in a `Jonathan M40' and in 'Remo', MR-03, `Szemes alma' cultivars. There was a consistent relationship between total enzyme activity and fire blight disease severity. High activity of the peroxidase was positively correlated with the degree of resistance to fire blight. A general hypothesis that POD activity is related to fire blight susceptibility/resistance is supported by our results.
Among vegetables produced both for raw consumption and processing, tomato is one of the most important one in Europe, by production area and by yield as well. In the past years several study dealt with the investigation of the inner content of tomato, with special regards to antioxidant content. In this paper cherry tomato varieties and landrac...es from conventional and organic production were compared. Besides basic investigations sensory analysis were designed and Antioxidant Capacity (AOC) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) were measured. The aim of the research was to compare varieties and to study the effect of variety and production methods on antioxidant capacity and sensory profiles.
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.
In the trial the... following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.
From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.
The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.
The morphological and chemical changes in the leaves of eight apple varieties grafted on M4, M26 and MM 106 rootstocks were examined during fruit development in non-irrigated plantation. The aim of the experiment was to examine the defensive mechanisms in apple trees under the mild and serious dryness occurring during fruit development. The con...tent of a relative chlorophyll (SPA D value) of the apple leaves on eastern side of the trees was lower than western and southern sides under drought occurring du ring fruit devclop111ent Under sustained drought from first of July to August the SPAD value, the weight of leaves were larger and the stomata density was significantly larger than in the previous periods. There was a close positive significant correlations bet ween SPAD and stoma density both in the group with less sensitive to drought (r=0,8429) and in the large water demanded group (r=0,9209) equally. The rate of increase in SPAD values and the stoma density was slower in the group with drought tolerant, than in the group required good water supply. The varieties being sensitive to water deficite such as Akane. Pink Lady and Red Rome van Well have a l ready responded intensively to short time of drought by the increasing of carbohydrate and antioxidants product ions. At 42 days of sustained drought as soon as the level of carbohydrate in the leaves decreased, the antioxidant s contents of the leaves rised suddenly in the apple varieties with moderate water requirement s as Greensleeves and ldared. Gala apple variety seemed to be able to defend the drought for longer time because there was no change in relatively high level of carbohydrates and antioxidants of their leaves under severe drought during fruit development.
Isoelectric focusing is an effective and well reproducible method to provide information for identification of various plant species and clones if breeding or other genetic modification(s) for a given species are reflected in changes of an isozyme pattern. The method has been used for characterization of plant proteins and enzymes and for ident...ification of various species and varieties. Our aim was to continue our several-year-work carried out on a wide variety of grapevine varieties and to reveal whether analyses of esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns are suitable to distinguish various grapevine varieties. Therefore we compared esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns of various species. Plant samples were obtained from Szigetcsep, Kecskemet, Tokaj and Eger. The following samples were analyzed: Pinot gris, noir, blanc, Chardonnay, Riesling Theses, Chasselas from Szigetcs6p, Bianca and his parents Eger2 and Bouvier from Kecskemet, Furmint and Hárslevelű from Tokaj, Kékfrankos and Zweigelt from Eger. To identify various species according to their esterase isozyme patterns the after blooming phenological phase while according to their peroxidase isozyme pattern the dormant phenological phase was found as optimal sampling time.
Sour cherry is one of the most famous and characteristic Hungarian fruit what is also commonly used in food production as a colour additive. The sour cherry cultivar, ‘Oblachinska’ was shown to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds, including mainly anthocyanins. Valuable compounds in fruit juice – vitamins, polyphyenols etc. –are h...eat-sensitive molecules, which should be taken into account during the process of concentration to prevent degradation. Osmotic distillation seems a suitable option to product high quality sour cherry juice because this process does not require high temperature or pressure. Raw juice with approximately 15°Brix was used for the experiment and tried to concentrate up to 60° Brix where the water activity low enough to inhibit the microbiological deterioration. Before and after the process, TPC (total phenolic compounds) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) was measured using spectrophotometric methods to determine the effect of the osmotic distillation. Our results point out that osmotic distillation is a promising method to concentrate sour cherry juice and prevent the loss of valuable compounds.
This report forms a part in our long-term study dedicated to reveal the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits through several years. Nineteen apricot cultivars and 8 hybrids were comparatively analysed. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity showed a good correlation. The tested cultivars and hybrids could be arranged in three groups ...representing different antioxidant activities, 12 entries were involved in the group with relatively low antioxidant capacity (FRAP value < 1500 mmol/L); 10 accessions were classified in the group with medium antioxidant capacity (1500 mmol/L < FRAP value < 3000 mmol/L); and 5 genotypes were grouped to the category of high antioxidant value (FRAP > 3000 mmol/L). `Morden 604' produced a surpassingly outstanding antioxidant character. H-donating ability has further supported our results. Phenolic substances were accumulated and ferric reducing ability was increased in the ripe fruits compared to the unripe ones. High levels of variations in the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity in of apricot fruits were revealed in this study. Environment, year or rootstocks may also influence the antioxidant properties of fruits. however it seems to be convincing that crossing parents with outstanding antioxidant character can produce hybrids with higher antioxidant capacity. Hungarian apricots are widely appreciated for their premium flavour and — as it was evidenced in this study — for their relatively good antioxidant properties. However, delicious fruits should be made functional foods having beneficial health effects through accumulating large amounts of antioxidant molecules in the fruit flesh.
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and ant...hocyanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.
Mass propagation of 5 newly introduced Hosta varieties was carried out by the method of micropropagation. Our aim was to determine exact variety specificity after the micropropagation period in the pattern of peroxidase isoenzymes by isoelectric focusing in pH 3-9 range and to determine that phenological phase of mother plant in which ...the isoenzyme pattern of mother plant can safely be comparable to the isoenzyme pattern of micropropagated descendants. The isoenzyme patterns of descendants were similar to the mother plants of the same hybrid lines. The older leaves seemed to be not so suitable for examination than newly developed ones despite of the higher activity of peroxidase enzymes. There were big differences in isoenzyme patterns of leaves in different phenological phases. With this quick and easy method Hosta varieties could be selected already in the very early stage of micropropagation.
Fruits of nine Prunus spinosa and P. insititia selections were compared in their ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 6.36 and 29.26 mmol AA/L, and 5.04 and 29.71 mmol GA/L, respectively. These ranges cover an almost 5-times variation among the tested ge...notypes. The Pearson’s coefficient was very high (0.92) indicating a major contribution of polyphenolics to the antioxidant capacity of the tested Prunus fruits. Conserving resulted in an approximate 20 % loss of antioxidant power and slightly increased phenolic contents. Our results led us to the conclusion that fruit of Prunus spinosa and P. insititia might be considered as rich sources of antioxidants. In addition, procession with heat treatment caused only a slight decrease in the antioxidant capacity without loss in the total polyphenolic content.
The growth rate of three rosemary clones, `Harmat', 'Salem' and `Horvát', their essential oil content and its components as well as the total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity in their aqueous and ethanolic extracts were compaired. Total phenol content (determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and antioxidant power (FRAP-value) of a...queous and ethanolic rosemary extracts were measured by spectrophotometric method. The essential oil content was determined from drug by water-steam distillation. `Harmat' showed the most intensive growth through the vegetation period. The total antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts from all the three clones was similar: a decrease was observed at the end of the season. In most cases more antioxidant compounds were dissolved in the aqueous extracts. The total quantity of phenolic compounds shows a good correlation with the potential extent of stress effects. The difference among the phenol contents of the various clones can be derived from the difference in their tolerance, because phenols have antioxidant effects contributing to protection against harmful impacts. Difference between the two extraction methods (aqueous and ethanolic) is due to the distinct solubility of compounds. Some other components, like essential oil compounds also possess antioxidant effect and in this way they may influence the antioxidant power of extracts.
In recent years consumers tend to pay ever greater attention to food ingredients looking for foods with favourable compositional characteristics. Researches nowadays aim to find out what role the different vegetable species play in protection of the human organism. Consumption of vegetables and fruits more times a day plays an important role in... this process. The valuable chemical components in plants can eventually be influenced, besides, by environmental characteristics, also by the elements of the production technology applied. Our work aimed to find out what eventual changes occur in the composition parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays convar saccharata Koern.) receiving different NPK fertilizations and top dressed with foliar application of Zn and Mg, destined chiefly for fresh consumption, in response to the treatments mentioned above. The fertiliser rates were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening).
Frost tolerance of pear cultivars was checked after artificial cold treatment in 2003-2005. Limbs collected during the endodormancy were exposed in a climatic chamber for 24 hours to —25; —28 °C, while those collected in the ecodormancy were kept at —15 and —18 °C. Frost damages of buds were registered according to a visually defined ...scale, then peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities and carbohydrate contents were checked in buds and spur-part below the buds. POD activity of untreated control in tissue below buds was higher than in the buds, which were increasing continuously during the endodormancy and decreased at the end of the ecodormancy. During endodormancy, cold treatment of —25 and —28 °C effected different changes of enzyme activity in buds of the cultivars. In the ecodormancy, enzyme activities increased after a cold treatment of —15 °C, whereas the activities decreased significantly after —18 °C. `Kaiser' — susceptible to frost — with its higher values of both enzyme activities marked out from other cultivars, which is correlated with its stress response. Changes in carbohydrate components — especially in glucose — of buds monitored well the different stress responses of tolerant and resistant pear cultivars induced by frost stress.
In our country the maindenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) is raised mainly from seeds, so the aim of our experiments was to determine the most useful generative propagation method. However, some experiments have been conducted earlier connected to the germination of the species, but the comparative control of physical seed treatment was d...one first time by the authors.
After the statistical evaluation of the results it can be stated that the percentage of germination has significantly increased if the seeds received physical treatment (scalding, mechanical scouring). Hereby the pericarp is getting soft or growing thinner, so the germination of the seed is easier. These treatments are extraordinarily simple, easy to carry out and their effect is very favourable, that is why their use is strongly advised.
Comparing the seeds collected at different times was found that the ability of germination is decreasing proportionally with the time spent in the open field. On the basis of our experiments and of earlier practice in Hungarian tree nurseries, our opinion is that the stratification of seeds is not necessary.
Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different ...antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.
: Elderberry used to be a common medicinal plant since long. Its ripe fruit and inflorescence has been collected. Cultivation however, started in Hungary recently, with the early 90-es. Initially, has been planted, the 'Haschberg' cultivar. Our Department started first with the selection of favourable genotypes in the Hungarian spontan...eous populations of the species, we aimed to find clones, which are earlier ripening than 'Haschberg', moreover, superior in any of the agronomical or quality traits. Present study deals with 19 new selected clones by their content of vitamin-C, anthocyanins and their antioxidant capacity. Environmental stresses are inducing, increased, accumulation of free radicals in living organisms. To evoid the harmful effects of the free radicals, we need to consume antioxidant compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, etc.) In the literature there are quite a few references related to the anthocyanins and antioxidants of the elderberry. Measurements prove that substantial differences exist among the population of the species as for the content and quality of those compounds. In anthocyanin content, the difference between the highest and lowest values was 3000 mg/I, whereas in antioxidant content this value was 6001.1M. Those types, which contained less anthocyanin (<5000 mg/I), produced lower antioxidant capacity, whereas the highest anthocyanin content was associated with the strongest antioxidant activity. C-vitamin content varied between 36.5 and 96.4 mg/100g. These values provide daily human requirements by their consumption. Summing up all parameters, examined the best type was Cinkota 1.
Berry quality is an important issue in wineprocessing, however evaluating characteristics in a single berry level is very complex. The Phenolic compound analysis is more challenging because of the limited amount of material and a mixture of skin, pulp and seed. No clear protocol exists for evaluating these compounds from single berries. The aim... of our investigation was to develop such a protocol. Single whole grape berries samples were homogenized in 20 replicates by 5 different methods. The most effective method was when berry was placed in a mortar and was crushed with a pestle under liquid nitrogen until seeds were clearly visible. Seeds were then taken from the mortar and crushed between two stainless steel plates with a hammer, and returned to the mortar without residues. Homogenization continued until the sample had a powdery appearance. The homogenized samples were taken for further analysis such as total polyphenols, total anthocyanin contents and total antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that single berries could be processed and that the homogenates were suitable for taking chemically uniform subsamples.
The aims of this study were on the one hand to compare of examined compounds according to their importance in nutrition and human-health, and on the other hand we made preexperiments to investigate the relationships among antioxidant capacity and the endogenous substances which contribute the antioxidant status of the plants. The following spec...ies were involved in the experiment: raspberry, blackberry, black currant, elderberry and sour cherry. These fruits have potent health-promoting antioxidant power. Glucose, fructose, total phenol, formaldehyde and anthocyanin contents were determined in addition to ferric reducing ability. Our results reflected considerable differences in the measured parameters of the analysed species. In blackberries and elderberries the high antioxidant capacity is coupled with low carbohydrate content. Besides the formerly proven correlations between total phenol content, anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity, these parameters also correlated with the measured formaldehyde concentrations, hereby we can follow the methylation /demethylation status of the plant.
The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (PS) is one of the most significant stressors of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemical and agrotechnical treatments have minor importance, so breeding has great part in the protection against this pathogen. Most of the cultivars are susceptible to PS. The genetic background... of resistance in the plant is a complex system. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but there are some modifier genes. The pathogen species can be divided into different races.
To understand the functioning of this resistance gene, experiments were carried out using bean varieties with different genotypes and near isogenic lines of bean. Eight lines were tested. Our main objective was to test bean lines with PS with high virulence.
The experiment was made in greenhouse and on field. The virulent bacterium strain has been isolated in Hungary.
The changes of carbohydrates were tested after infection. In homeostasis the level of carbohydrates (especially glucose and fructose) were higher in susceptible lines. In case of artificial and natural infection the decrease of glucose were more significant in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. In the leaf samples from systemic chlorosis the level of this carbohydrate increased.
These changes are connected with the level of resistance, but more experiments are needed to verify this assumption.
In recent work the effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) agent (commercial name Pentakeep-V) was examined on the chlorophyll content, growth and development of Saintpaulia ionantha. The newly re-rooted potted plants were irrigated or sprayed with 0.3‰ or 0.5‰ Pentakeep-V solution, and plus 30% long lasting fertilizer was added to half of th...e all treatments. Control plants were sprayed with tap water. Best result were obtained on the field of flowering. All the treatments promoted chlorophyll-content in the leaves especially spraying with 0.3‰concentration. Plants treated with Pentakeep-V in both concentrations and independently from the spraying or irrigation flowered more than two weeks earlier than control and those that got plus 30% fertilizer. Besides in the case of some treatments the diameter of leaf rosette, the number and surface size of leaves grew comparing to the control. The longlasting fertilizer had positive effect on the fresh weight but none of treatments had effect on the dry weight.
Vegetables of Brassicaceae are especially important because of their inner values, which play a provably positive role in curing and preventing diseases. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata provar. capitata) is still today one of the most frequently consumed green vegetables, which is known to brak...e the absorption of carcinogenous substances and to obstruct cell mutation. Different cabbage cultivars were compared growing under the same circumstance. The level of different carbohydrate fractions and some biologically active quaternary ammonium compounds were determined. In all cases we analyzed the antioxidant capacity of samples characterizing the free radical scavenging capacity.
Clearly detectable significant differences were found between the varieties tested, which appeared suitable for selecting the most precious varieties for human nutrition.