Effect of postharvest on the economic viability of walnut production28-38.Views:305
In this study we were studying the question whether walnut production under domestic natural and economic circumstances shall be considered a profitable activity or not. Our partial objective is to determine, what level of natural inputs and production costs are required for walnut production, what yield level, selling price and production value can be attained, what level of profitability, rentability and efficiency may production have, is the establishment of a walnut orchard profitable on the entire lifespan of the plantation, and the production of which is more efficient: the dry shelled walnut production requiring postharvest activity or the raw, shelled walnut without postharvest activities. In this study, comparison of two systems is conducted. First version: producer establishes a walnut plantation and sells walnut raw and shelled. Second version: producer also invests into a drying facility, and in this case the end product is the dry, shelled walnut. If the producer sells walnut right after harvest in a raw bulk, total production costs in productive years reaches 974,011 HUF/ha. Attainable yield is 2.63 t/ha with 396.3 HUF/kg selling price, therefore the profit is 138,258 HUF/ha with 14.19% cost-related profitability. In the case when the producer sells dried, shelled walnut, production costs are 25% higher compared to that of raw walnut due to the cost of drying. By calculating with the postharvest loss, average yield is 1.84 t/ha, however, its selling price is way higher (882.84 HUF/kg), therefore the profit per hectare reaches 475,496 HUF with 39.01% cost-related profitability. Thus it can be stated that walnut production in an average year may be profitable even without postharvest, but efficiency is improved significantly when the producer sells the products dried. Investment profitability analysis revealed that production of raw, shelled walnut is not economically viable, since the plantation does not pay off on its entire lifespan (30 years), while walnut production with postharvest is efficient and rentable, since both net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) showed more favourable values than in the previous case, and the orchard pays off in the 21th year after establishment.
The evaluation of grape vine decline pathogens in the experimental field of the Georgikon Faculty of Agriculture in Cserszegtomaj19-22.Views:144
Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-rootstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.
Optimization of sample preparation for determination of antioxidant parameters from one grape berry93-97.Views:173
Berry quality is an important issue in wineprocessing, however evaluating characteristics in a single berry level is very complex. The Phenolic compound analysis is more challenging because of the limited amount of material and a mixture of skin, pulp and seed. No clear protocol exists for evaluating these compounds from single berries. The aim of our investigation was to develop such a protocol. Single whole grape berries samples were homogenized in 20 replicates by 5 different methods. The most effective method was when berry was placed in a mortar and was crushed with a pestle under liquid nitrogen until seeds were clearly visible. Seeds were then taken from the mortar and crushed between two stainless steel plates with a hammer, and returned to the mortar without residues. Homogenization continued until the sample had a powdery appearance. The homogenized samples were taken for further analysis such as total polyphenols, total anthocyanin contents and total antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that single berries could be processed and that the homogenates were suitable for taking chemically uniform subsamples.
Research Note virus transmission by grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vittfoliae Fitch)73-74.Views:116
Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae FITCH) infests immature roots of both Vitis vinifera L. and phylloxera resistant rootstocks. A capability to transmit viticultural viruses would make grape phylloxera a phytosanitary threat even under conditions where direct damage by the insect is not likely. We tested the hypothesis that phylloxera could transmit grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by planting infected and non-infected vines in common 10 liter pots and infecting roots of the infected vine with grape phylloxera. In this test infection of a previously non-infected plant in the absence of nematode population suggests that grape phylloxera is a vector of GFLV.
Polyphenol- and anthocyanin content changes effected by different fermentation- pressing and aging technologies65-67.Views:165
Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil has slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.
The development and reproduction of grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) strains of Hungarian vine-districts in root-bioassays67-71.Views:126
The root bioassay method allows for 4-6 week continuous observation of grape phylloxera feeding on the grape root. 10 Hungarian phylloxera strains were compared on susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and the resistant rootstocks of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris Georgikon 121 in in vitro observations. The strains originated from Villany and Eger (Figure 3) had higher reproduction on the root of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C (201 and 119 eggs) and were more aggressive than the others (average production 10 eggs). The continuous high level of survival, development and reproduction of the Eger strain on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. ripuria) until day 46 may be due to adaptation.
Seasonal root development of Cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks61-63.Views:150
The minirhizotron system gives opportunity to study the root development without disturbing the soil and root. We have found certified differences in root development during the year 2013 among the rootstocks grafted on ‘Cabernet sauvignon’. The number of roots varied according to the rootstocks in different depth of soil layers and also varied the development of ripeness of the root system. We conclude that root system development is affected by soil physical and chemical properties, but differences according to the rootstock genotype on the similar type of soil exist.
Grape rootstock - scion interactions on shoot growth and cane maturing30-34.Views:162
Interaction between the rootstock and scion varieties (clones) was examined. Berlandieri x Riparia T. K. 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia T.5C being the most widely used varieties in Hungary, Fercal, Ruggeri 140 being recently used on special soil conditions ; Georgikon 28 a new established variety and Berlandieri x Riparia T. 8B GK 10 clone were the rootstocks used. The V. vinifera L. varieties were a clone of Italian Riesling and two new hybrids from the same cross population f ( Noble Italian Riesling X Ezerjó) X ( Noble Italian Riesling X Pinot Gris ) }. This study presents the results how the growth habit depends on different scion/stock combinations in the first three years.
Shoot growth characters were observed during the initial years after plantation in the vineyard until we got the first yields. Our results did not agree with those of Pospisilova (1977) that the anticipated vigour of shoot growth will appear later in the vineyard only. However we agree with Zimmerman (1970), who showed that the differences are caused by the rootstocks in the growth habit of vines during the first two years already. The differences in shoot elongation decreased similarly to the rootstocks in the first year of fruit production. It shows us that the intense root development caused vigorous shoot growth, which we think to be a rootstock effect. When the vegetative and generative development are balanced already, the effect of scions in shoot elongation became stronger than the effect of rootstock.
We also found great differences in the maturation of wood each year from planting of the vineyard to the year of fruit production.
During the first years the differences of cane maturation were greater according to the scion varieties, the means were significantly different. In the first ripening year the differences dwindled or increased due to the rootstocks. This means that the effect of the rootstock on cane maturation became stronger in the first year of fruit production.
Eco-friendly methods to control infection of Botrytis cinerea during propagation of grapevines53-56.Views:246
Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.
Effects of DMI and strobilurin fungicide combinations on scab and powdery mildew incidence in apple production: a preliminary study37-39.Views:199
The aim of our study was to evaulate the effectiveness of four DMI and strobilurion fungicide combinations in a season-long disease management programme against apple scab and powdery mildew in two integrated apple orchards on cultivar Jonagold. The four spray programmes were: i) standard, ii) DMI dominant iii) strobilurin dominant, and iv) DMI and strobilurin dominant. Apple scab incidence as generally high in both orchards in the standard fungicide treatment plots ranged between 21.8 and 26.4%. Leaf scab incidence was higher in all treatments compared to fruit incidence. Scab incidence was generally higher at Mándok compared to Ófehértó. In both locations the lowest scab incidence was assessed in DMI dominant treatment ranged between 5 to 10.7%, which was not signifi cantly different from the DMI and strobilurin dominant treatment. Powdery mildew incidence was generally low in both orchards in all fungicide treatments ranged between 0.002 and 0.5%. Although there were no signifi cant differences among treatments, the lowest powdery mildew incidence was assessed in the DMI and strobilurin dominant treatment in Mándok and in the strobilurin dominant treatment in Ófehértó.
Powdery mildew infection dependent on weather factors in vineyards near Keszthely in 200855-59.Views:177
Weather conditions are extremely influential on grapevine productivity and quality. High temperature and humidity makes favorable conditions for powdery mildew infection respectively. The meteorological data around Keszthely, Hungary show the vegetative period is dryer and warmer than it was closely hundred years ago. We examined the development of powdery mildew infection on two variet ies Vitis vinifera L. cv Italian Riesling and cv Merlot in relation with meteorological data. No primer infections were appeared in the vineyard. The year of 2008 was quite ideal for the accumulation of Erysiphe necator in the experimental vineyard. Although the dry summer can lower the infection, but if the high temperature is coupling with rainfall, the possibilities of powdery mildew infection is going to grow higher during the upcoming years.