Published November 15, 2004

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7-11.
Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpathia...n Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion. In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation. Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
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13-19.
The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera), Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. a...mara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums: 1/ unfavorable environmental conditions 2/ lack of irrigation and 3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices. A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.
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21-26.
Fruit set of two sweet cherry cultivars (Alex' and 'Stella' ) and four Hungarian selections have been studied over two years following open pollination, unassisted self-pollination (autogamy) and artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy). Among accessions 'IV-6/240' proved to be self-sterile, while the other five revealed to be self-fertile. Signi...ficant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments but not among self-fertile accessions. Fruit set following unassisted self-pollination was significantly lower than of other pollination treatments. Thus pollen transfer is essential for profitable yield in sweet cherry growing. There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of open- and self-pollination.
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27-30.
Proper cultivar identification is a requisite for commercial planting and breeding nurseries of cross-pollinated blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars to insure high crop yields and optimize germplasm maintenance and utilization. Fourteen rabbiteye blueberry cultivars and three non-identified clones were screened with amplified fragment leng...th polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with the aim of developing a fast and reliable identification technique. The selective primer pair applied (M-CTG/ E-ACC), which was previously tested, resulted in a large number of reproducible polymorphic fragments for cultivar identification. After comparison of the AFLP fingerprints, the Jaccard similarity indexes were calculated, and an UPGMA dendrogram was constructed. It was revealed that the three non-identified clones belong to the Tifblue' cultivar. Moreover, AFLP technique proved to be a fast, successful and reliable way in rabbiteye blueberry identification.
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31-49.
In the third part of this review, important features of disease management are summarised for brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilia polystroma). Several methods of brown rot disease management practices were collected and interpreted in five main chapters. In these chapters, details ...are given about the legislative control measures, the cultural, physical, biological and chemical control methods. Chemical control is divided into two parts: pre-harvest and post-harvest chemical control. In addition, host resistance and fungicide resistance statuses are also included in this part of the review. Finally, future aspects of brown rot disease control are discussed.
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49-52.
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of fruit rot caused by several fungal pathogens from 1999 to 2003. The study was conducted in three sweet cherry orchards at the Institute of Agriculture (Kyustendil, Bulgaria). One copper containing fungicide was applied in late autumn and early spring. During the growing seasons, 2-5 sprays wer...e applied against fungal diseases. Trees were not sprayed specifically against fruit rot during the growing season, with the exception of 1999, when a spray of myclobutanil was applied after a long rainy period during the maturity of fruits. In one orchard, two nitrogen fertilization treatments were also prepared. In treatment 1, trees were fertilized with ammonium-nitrate 10 g/m2 and in the other treatments trees were not. Incidence of the five most important fruit rot pathogens, Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa, Botritys cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer was assessed in all orchards. The most severe yield loss (14.80 %) was measured in 1999, when weather conditions were the most favourable for fruit rot development. In this year, brown rots (M. fructigena and M. laxa) caused the highest damage (9.22 and 4.04 %, respectively) out of all assessed fruit rot pathogens. In all other years, yield loss was significantly lower than in 1999. In 2002, A. alternata caused the main fruit rot (4.46%) and all other fungi were less important, while in 2003, B. cinerea caused considerable yield loss (2.28 %) compared to all other fruit rot pathogens. Experiments on fertilization showed that nitrogen significantly increased fruit rot damage in 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003. The effect of nitrogen fertilization was higher in years with rainy periods around harvest (1999 and 2002) compared to more dry years (2000 and 2001). Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the results are discussed.
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53-55.
The effect of shaker harvest on root damage was studied on a simple tree structure model. Equations were set up to be able to calculate the relation between shaking height and stress in the roots. To get the strain at break data field experiments were carried out. The acceleration versus time curves were recorded on different heights of the stem. ...Evaluating measured and calculated data it can be concluded, that the risk of root damage increases when the height of shaking is decreased, the stern diameter is smaller, and if the unbalanced mass of the shaker is increased.
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57-61.
Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on r...ootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50 % captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10 % oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 I soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem. Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of II wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Bed. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat. The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils. Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.)Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.
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63-66.
Utilization of the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique as a molecular marker was tested to investigate the relationships between some representative grapevine cultivars and hybrids established at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding (CUB), to distinguish clones as well as to characterize various hybrids between species or ...cultivars and their parents. Vitis vinifera cultivars were easily and successfully distinguished by the RAPD technique and they were grouped according to the traditional taxonomic classification. RAPD patterns of the examined Pinot gris clones proved to be completely identical. Number of generations was reflected by the value of genetic distance of the examined hybrids. Genetic identity of parents and their offsprings was influenced by the selection applied in the process of plant breeding. Parental phenotypic and morphologic characteristics showed high degree of segregation in hybrids, but RAPD analysis revealed that their genetic similarity is considerable. The three Vitis anntrensis clones were properly discriminated from every cultivar and hybrid of Vitis vinifera, i.e. hybrids are much closer to the cultivated grapevine than to V. anzurensis due to the phenotypic selection carried out during the life-cycle of one or two generations.
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67-71.
The root bioassay method allows for 4-6 week continuous observation of grape phylloxera feeding on the grape root. 10 Hungarian phylloxera strains were compared on susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and the resistant rootstocks of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris Georgikon 121 in in vitro observations.... The strains originated from Villany and Eger (Figure 3) had higher reproduction on the root of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C (201 and 119 eggs) and were more aggressive than the others (average production 10 eggs). The continuous high level of survival, development and reproduction of the Eger strain on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. ripuria) until day 46 may be due to adaptation.
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73-74.
Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae FITCH) infests immature roots of both Vitis vinifera L. and phylloxera resistant rootstocks. A capability to transmit viticultural viruses would make grape phylloxera a phytosanitary threat even under conditions where direct damage by the insect is not likely. We tested the hypothesis that phylloxera cou...ld transmit grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by planting infected and non-infected vines in common 10 liter pots and infecting roots of the infected vine with grape phylloxera. In this test infection of a previously non-infected plant in the absence of nematode population suggests that grape phylloxera is a vector of GFLV.
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75-77.
Powdery mildew, Phylloxera and downy mildew epidemics devastated large areas of vineyards in Hungary in the 1800s. To establish new plantages resistant so called "direct producers" were imported from America (direct means "without grafting"). Direct producers have secure yield but their quality is inferior. After World War II, an organized breedin...g programme was started to replace them and parallel to this the law prohibited their production. As a resistance gene source, the E.2 clone (S. V. 12375 E.2) of Seyve-Villard 12375, Franco-American hybrid selected in Eger was used by Hungarian breeders. Several valuable hybrid families have originated from crosses of this variety hybrid. In the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology at Kecskemét, two valuable table grape hybrids were registered under the names of R.65=Esther and R.78=Fanny coming from 2 hybrid families of the parent S. V. 12375 E.2. Both varieties may be cultivated "environmentally".
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79-80.
About 600-year-old plant seeds were discovered in a well of a mediaeval cellar in the course of an excavation in Budapest. After the archaeobotanic purification seed of 16 species were found in large quantities. Seeds preserved in the best state were selected from each group. The existence of endosperm was analysed in these subfossils, which turne...d to be successful mainly in the case of grapes (Vitis vinifera) and cornels (Cornus mas). Seeds of these two species contained the most endosperm and remains of the embryo. DNA was extracted with the help of DNEasy Plant Mini Kit and analysed by RAPD-PCR method. The amplification of DNA extracted from cornel seeds resulted in detecting a 1500 by fragment, which makes the comparison of these samples with present-day cornels possible.
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81-84.
Vegetables of Brassicaceae are especially important because of their inner values, which play a provably positive role in curing and preventing diseases. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata provar. capitata) is still today one of the most frequently consumed green vegetables, which is known to brake the absorption of carcinogenous subst...ances and to obstruct cell mutation. Different cabbage cultivars were compared growing under the same circumstance. The level of different carbohydrate fractions and some biologically active quaternary ammonium compounds were determined. In all cases we analyzed the antioxidant capacity of samples characterizing the free radical scavenging capacity. Clearly detectable significant differences were found between the varieties tested, which appeared suitable for selecting the most precious varieties for human nutrition.
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85-89.
It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability of... plasma) values in pM/I. Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values. Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well. Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.
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91-96.
The production facilities of large-sized microtubers in three potato varieties (cv. Desiree, BorO, Gfilbaba) and the effects of the applied tuberization conditions on the proportion of microtuber tissues, especially on the perimedullary region were investigated in present work. In vitro tuberization was induced on explants with 2 or 5 nodes layere...d on MS medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. Induced cultures were exposed to short days (8 h) for 2 weeks, then to total darkness for further 11 weeks. For volume calculations of different tissue regions, the formula for ellipsoids (V=4/37c1/8/w2) was used. The number of large-size tubers (> 8 mm, up to 16 mm) reached 53%, 59% and 44% in cvs. Desiree, Giilbaba and Bore, respectively, which indicate that the size of microtubers could be increased by appropriate sucrose support and explant type. Microtubers produced on hormone-free medium have well-developed perimedullary region, and its volume rate seemed to be important in the final size of tubers. The increase in the rate of volume of the perimedulla was connected to the increase of tuber size until tubers reached 12 mm diameter. In microtubers larger than 12 mm in diameter, the volume rate of the pith was increased.
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97-99.
Field experiments were conducted during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 to study the effect of basal application (BA) of zinc sulphate (5 and 10 mg kg-i soil) or boric acid (1 and 2 mg kg-1 soil) alone or foliar applications (FA) of water or 1% ZnSO4 or 1% H3 B03 or the combinations of both BA and FA of either ZnSO4 or H3 B03 on yield attributes (number o...f flowers and fruits/ plant, fruit weight, size and total yield). On the basis of the two-year data, it was found that all the treatments of BA as well as FA enhanced yield attributes but the combination of BA of 10 mg kg--1 soil ZnSO4 and FA of 1% H3 B03 gave highest yield as compared to other treatments and control plants.
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101-107.
The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m-3 for 611. Pretreatment with STS and 1-M...CP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.
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109-114.
In order to improve the post production quality of cut flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Baroness, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g LI. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or without sucrose... at 50 g 1-I. l-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g in-3 for 6h. The postproduction quality was improved as a result of using any chemical treatment comparing with untreated control. All the treatments of 8-HQS increased the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of rose cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was lorger when 8-HQS was combined with sucrose. The best treatment of 8-HQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS + 50 g 1-1 sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss compared to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucrose was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose was the best one. l -MCP treatment prolonged the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level compared with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was l -MCP at 0.5 g m-3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chid)) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than the control. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose gave the best results in this respect.
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115-117.
The effect of seven concentrations of two carbohydrate sources were compared to determine the best source and the most suitable source and concentration for micropropagation of some Hosta cultivars: H. 'Gold Haze', H. 'Gold Drop' and H. 'Dew Drop'. 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/1 sucrose or glucose were added to a MS basic medium supplemented with... 3 mg/1 kinetin and 0.1 mg/1 IAA. For 'Gold Haze' 40 g/1 sucrose proved to be the best source and concentration, the proliferation ratio was 15 shoots per explant. Thirty g/1 sucrose concentration was the optimum for 'Gold Drop', the proliferation rate was 14.6 shoots per explant. In 'Dew Drop,' the best results were obtained with 30 g/1 sucrose but 40 g/l sucrose gave good results too. Both cultivars rooted well on these media. On glucose containing media, very low propagation rates were found in all concentrations and all examined cultivars.
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