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  • Topology in the fruit plantation

    The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. The examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.

  • Comparative study of different soybean genotypes in irrigation technology

    In many places in Hungary, early maturity soybean can be successfully grown. The earlier maturity group of soy which ripened in 110–125 days in most crop areas in Hungary. However, to achieve excellent results, the selection of proper varieties is important too. Successful cultivation is largely dependent on the macro and microclimate of the production area, the nutrient supply of the soil and the cultivation technology. Soybean can be produced in places where the amount of precipitation is right, as the lack of water results in lower yields and deteriorated oil and protein concentrations. In the following study, 2 years (2016 and 2017) are compared to the yield, protein and oil content of the soybeans of the early maturation group in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. Based on our experiment, it can be stated that, during the irrigation of soybean, oil and protein content and yields did not always change.

  • The effect of nickel-contamination, nitrogen-supply and liming on the chemical composition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Plant-production is determined by many production-factors. Each of these factors became subject of research-works through the years, still we state, that studying their interaction is even more important. For studying these interactions we set up a potexperiment, within that the direct effect and the interactions of four factors was inspected: soil, nitrogen-supply, nickel-loading and liming. Experiments were carried out on two soil types with extremely different characters: one was a chernozem soil with good fertility and buffering capacity, the other was a shifting sand soil with low humus-content and buffering capacity. Nitrogensupply and liming was added on two levels, while nickel on three within 12 combinations on each soil types. Plant production was cut two times within the vegetation period. The amount of production and dry matter was weighted, fractured and their element-content was measured by an ICP-detector.
    Ca-content on the shifting sand soil was determined by all three factors, however the interaction between nickel-loading and liming was also significant. Nitrogen and liming increased Cauptake, that is due to appropriate nutrient-supply and improvement of a better pH-value. On the chernozem soil nitrogen and CaCO3 also increased the Ca-content. This is caused by a better nutrient supply and a higher amount of available Ca-ions.
    On the shifting sand soil nickel content was increasing parallel to higher nitrogen-dosages. In presence of higher nickelamount the nickel-content of plants was also increasing, still according to liming, this increment was different. On the chernozem soil nitrogen a nickel increased Ni-uptake. However, liming also had a positive effect on Ni-content, that can be explained by the high amount on colloids in the soil, the adsorption of Ni-ions on them and in presence of liming material the replacement of Ca-and Ni-ions. 
    The potassium-content on the shifting sand soil was different in each liming-combination. In combinations without nickel the potassium-content of limed and not limed combinations was on the same level. In not limed combinations by adding nickel potassiumcontent was increasing, while in limed combinations no change was observed. On the chernozem soil by adding liming material the amount of uptaken potassium was decreasing, that is due to the antagonism between Ca- and K-ions. 

  • The impact of sowing date, production area and nutrient supply on the yield and quality parameters of millet

    The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies to the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The examinations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU CAS RINY in the small plots in four replications in 2013. The largest effect was recorded in the sowing time of the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area). The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing. The examined factors did not affect in the protein content and milling rate, except in the latest sowing time when protein content was significantly the highest.

  • Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampling distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

  • Technological and Technical Issues of Efficient Nutrient Supply

    Efficient plant production requires modern production technologies, including a nutrient supply of a scientific basis. The harmonic nutrient supply of quality products that are required by market demands can be produced by the optimal combination of a compound system of requirements. These requirements are partly preparatory (soil investigations, yield measurements, preparation of digital field maps) and are partly based on the knowledge of the most significant characteristics of the applied nutrients. Most artificial fertilizers are applied by spinning disc fertilizer spreaders all over the world, therefore, it is advisable to use them in Hungary as well. Importantly, these machines should be well adjustable, capable of the exact measurement and control of the spread quantity, as well as of even spreading. My report has investigated only the most significant technical requirements affecting the even application of nutrients.

  • Rippl-Rónai’s color in the native parks: production and using of new, synthetic Wild sage color-mixture

    The climate changes is becoming more damaging to ornamental plants. Besides ornamental species and varieties of plants on public spaces. It will be necessary to use domestic, well adaptable climate-tolerant plant species.

    One field of our growing ornamental plants researches from 2001 in the Centre of Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, is studying drought patient, mainly Hungarian improved annual varieties, which are able to get acclimatized with the landscape. Moreover, we have in view to work out new, economical seedling production technologies. In the program, the excellent drought- and frost tolerant annuals and perennials belongs to the climate change tolerant plants. From the evaluated of species we want to create and spread the application. of the new types of ornamental horticulture culture.

  • Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)

    The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
    The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservation tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
    chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
    the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
    enzymes and CO2 production.
    Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
    dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
    especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
    higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
    very important in this soil type.
    According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
    chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

  • New approach in soil tillage – bases of the precision crop production

    A new approach is needed in soil tillage practice. The important achievements of this are the recognition of the risk – poor tillage practices, poor soil quality, soil state defects, and climate extremes etc. – the need for the development of risk reduction, prevention, remediation and maintenance of the favorable soil state. In this paper 13 main soil state defects are listed, to which the prevention and improving tasks are also commented. In the second part of the paper the most important soil tillage tasks are summarized in 30 sections and realization of these points may promote the implementation of precision plant production.

  • From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)

    The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
    Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
    Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farming
    Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
    Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
    Precision farming
    It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
    The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
    The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

  • Sensitivity study on Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita (L.) RUSBY) cv PETEMI to different herbicide agents

    The cultivation of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby) is a relatively new phenomenon in Europe. On the basis of the biology of the plant and the practical work implemented, it has been stated that the traditional field practice does not provide the appropriate conditions of biomass production for energetic purpose. The development of the proper weed control is inevitable for the healthy stand, as in the early phenophases the plant is growing slowly and it is exposed to weeds. 
    Our objective was to test some herbicide agents as no previous relevant data had been published.

  • Investigation of harvest index influencing agrotechnical and botanical factors in hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)

    The biggest problem of Hungarian crop farming is mass production and the simple crop rotation based on cereals. There was a decrease in sowing area of protein crops which raises crucial issues in crop rotation and land use. Therefore, growing papilionaceous plants, which are now considered to be alternative plants, should be taken under close examination. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) belongs to the family of papilionaceous plants and it can be grown in light weak soils.

    In Hungary, hairy vetch was used as green forage at first, but it later became a green manure plant.  Nowadays, it is used as a cover crop and its sowing seed has a good export market. In low fertile soils it is able to produce a big amount of green yield (25–40 t ha-1) even in spring while its seed yield could be 0.4–0.5 t ha-1 at farm level. In addition to its morphological characteristics hairy vetch is grown mainly with a supporting plant, i.e. triticale in many cases.

    Our purpose was to test the harvest index and its agrotechnical and botanical factors of hairy vetch in different cropping systems.

  • The effect of different herbicide on the number and activity of living microorganisms in soil

    Sustainable plant growth, considering the difficulties of weed elimination, cannot be effective without the application of herbicides. However, these chemicals have enormous ecological implications, including effects on the microbiological communities of soils. It is advisable to use herbicides that have minimal secondary effects on the environment and soil-living microorganisms. In contrast, herbicides with prolonged growth stimulating or inhibiting effects are not suitable, because both types have strong influences on the number and activity of bacteria, thus causing changes in the ecological equilibrium.
    Preceding small plot experiments, laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of herbicides used in maize cultures on the number of bacteria and growth of microscopic fungi.
    Substances that were observed to have stronger influences were applied in small plot experiments set up in the experimental garden of the Department of Plant Protection of the University of Debrecen. We studied the effects of four herbicides (Acenit A88EC, Frontier 900 EC, Merlin SC and Wing EC) on the microbiological properties of the soil. These herbicides were used in different concentrations in maize culture, and we investigated the effects in different soil layers.
    In the laboratory experiments, we determined the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi and examined the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum on peptone-glucose agar containing herbicides.
    During the small plot experiments, soil samples were collected 3 times a year from 2-20 cm depth. The total numbers of bacteria and microscopic fungi were determined by plate dilution method, while the method of most probable number (Pochon method) was used to determine the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and cellulose decomposing bacteria. To evaluate the microbiological activity of the soil samples we measured carbon-dioxide release (after 10 days incubation), nitrate production (after 14 days incubation) and the concentration of C and N in the biomass.
    We can summarize our results as follows:
    • In laboratory experiments, herbicides caused a decrease in the number of bacteria and inhibited the growth of microscopic fungi.
    • Frontier 900 EC and Acenit A 880 EC had the strongest inhibiting effect on microorganisms.
    • In small plot experiments, herbicide treatment decreased the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi.
    • Herbicides caused a significant increase in the number of nitrifying and cellulose decomposing bacteria.
    • Different herbicides containing the same active compound had similar influences on soil microoorganisms.
    • A significant increase was observed in the physiological processes of tolerant microorganisms surviving the effects of herbicides

  • Microgreen leaf vegetable production by different wavelengths

    Microgreens are becoming more popular in gastronomy, especially as a salad ingredient. In this study, two plant species belonging to the cabbage family were grown as microgreens, namely red cabbage and broccoli. Three different light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used in the experiment, blue, red, and combined (blue:red) lighting. The experiment was carried out by 118 µmol-2 s-1total Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF), LED lighting was applied for 16 hours a day. Blue light primarily stimulates leaf growth, while red light promotes flowering. In our experiment, blue and combined lighting favorably affected plant development, yield (~3000 g m-2), chlorophyll-a (~8.0 mg g-1), and carotenoid content (9.0 mg g-1). However, the red light resulted in reduced harvest yields (~2200 g m-2), chlorophyll-a (~6.0 mg g-1), and carotenoid content (~7.0 mg g-1). The development of red cabbage was favorably influenced by the blue spectrum, while the combined spectrum favorably influenced the development of broccoli.

  • Fusarium culmorum isolated from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) in Debrecen (East Hungary)

    Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered next to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).

    In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.

    The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.

  • Dieback of apricot plantations caused by 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum' in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county (Northern-Hungary)

    Plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas have increasing importance in all over the world for fruit growers. Lately, phytoplasma diseases occur on many fruit varieties and responsible for serious losses both in quality and quantity of fruit production. In the long-run these diseases cause destruction of fruit trees. The apricot phytoplasma disease (Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum) was first reported in Europe in 1924 from France. In 1992 the disease has also been identified in Hungary. On the base of growers' signals serious damages of "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider, 2004 (formerly: European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma) could be observed in different stone fruit plantations in the famous apricot-growing area nearby Gönc town, Northern-Hungary. Field examinations have been begun in 2009 in several stone fruit plantations in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County mainly in Gönc region which is one of the most important apricot growing regions in Hungary, named “Gönc Apricot Growing Area”. Our goals were to diagnose the occurrence of Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum on stone fruits (especially on apricot) in the North-Hungarian growing areas by visual diagnostics and confirm data by laboratory PCR-based examinations. All the 28 collected samples were tested in laboratory trials and at 13 samples from apricot, peach, sour cherry and wild plum were confirmed the presence of phytoplasma (ESFY). On the base of observations it seems evident that the notable losses caused by "Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum" is a new plant health problem to manage for fruit growers, especially apricot producers in Hungary. 

  • Effect of hail net on the water potential of an apple orchard

     Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.

  • Seasonal changes of photosynthetical parameters as a results of forest gap model

    Photosynthetic parameters of English oak (Quercus robur L.) as a member of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the host forest. The artifical opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important way for plant life and plant production. In the centre of photosynthetic efficiency the quality and quantity traits of photosynthetic pigments are standing. During our work some photosynthetic parameters of plants (in the gap and in the forest as well) were measured: relative chlorophyll content as SPAD index, chlorophyll a and b content, total chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll a and b. Based on our results no significant differences among our data in early spring. Although, during the summer significant differences occurred between the measured values in the gap and in the forest area. Lower total chlorophyll content was experienced in the gap, than in the forest area due to the lower chlorophyll-b content. Because of the high light intensity higher chla/chlb ratio was measured in the gap. The lower chlorophyll contents of gap habitat may have a part of the acclimatization process of photosynthetic apparatus against high light stress, which can determinate the survival chance of individual.

  • The impact of various grape stock cultivars on the As, Cu, Co and Zn content of the grape berry (must, seed)

    Scientific research from the last decades showed that the inappropriate industrial and agricultural production caused an abnormal increase of the potentially toxic elements in the soil. Unfortunately the acidification of the soil is an increasing problem in Hungary. According to Várallyay et al. (2008) 13% of the Hungarian soils are highly acid. Accumulation of toxic elements differs in the genetically diverse plant species. The root of the plant constitutes a filter so that the rootstock is also kind of a filter system, which may prevent that the scion part (such as berry) accumulate high levels of various potentially toxic elements from the soil. The aim of research was to determine how different grape rootstocks influence the As, Co, Cu and Zn content of the musts and seeds. Thus, specifying which of the grape rootstocks takes up the lowest level of these 4 elements (As, Co, Cu and Zn), and accumulates in berries, so could reduce the potentially toxic element load of the grape berries. The grape rootstock collection of the University of Debrecen was set up in 2003 in 3x1 m spacing on immune sandy soil. Grafting of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ was started in 2010. We could evaluate yields harvested from 12 rootstock varieties of the experiment in October 2011. We obtained valuable differences in the arsenic, copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations of musts and seeds of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ grafted into different rootstocks. The results obtained from the 2011 harvest support the statement that the choice of rootstock might be an important factor to increase food safety. The differences in concentration of the four elements observed in case of the rootstock may have been caused on one hand by the rootstock effect, and on the other hand, the vintage effect has a very significant impact on the vines element uptake. Several years of experimental results will be needed to answer these questions.

  • Comparison of the physiological responses of an oil-pumpkin cultivar and hybrid under different nitrogen supply conditions

    Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack of lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants.

    Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.

  • Opportunities for improving the nutritional value of cereal-based products

    We set up experiments for improving the nutritional value of cerealbased products. Our aims were to decrease the energy content of bakery products with the mixing of plant originated raw materials and byproducts with high fibre contents, and we have evaluated the effect of sodium-chloride on the physical properties of bakery products. We found that the apple pomace, the byproduct of juice production, is excellent for increasing of fibre content of bakery products and the further aim of investigation is to develop economical ways of hygienic byproduct handling and purification. Our experiments, evaluate the bakery use of triticale, have significant achievements and the breads made from triticale flour and whole-grain are commercially available nowadays. Our investigations included the possibilities of decrease of toxin contamination of cereals and our results can form a part of risk estimation systems after further experiments .

  • Precision crop production and artificial intelligence – the future of sustainable agriculture

    According to Kay et al. (2004, in Shockley et al., 2017), there are seven steps to the decision-making process: 1) Identify the problem or opportunity, 2) Identify the alternative solution, 3) Collect all data and information, 4) Analyse the alternatives and make a decision, 5) Implement the decision, 6) Monitor the results of the decision, 7) Accept responsibility for the decision. The basic question is what kind of tasks we can perform in the decision-making process and what to leave for Artificial Intelligence (AI).

  • The significance of biological bases in maize production

    The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.

    The weather of the trial year was quite droughty; the monthly average temperature was 3–4 oC higher than the average of 30 years. High temperature, together with lack of precipitation occurred during the most sensitive phenophases of maize (flowering; fecundation, grain saturation).

    The following characteristics have been observed: starting vigour, date of male and female flowering, plant and cob height, dry-down dynamics during maturation and the change of yield composing elements has also been quantified. The yield was recalculated to 14% moisture content grain yield after harvesting.

    The beginning of the growing period was advantageous, therefore the analysed hybrids could grow a high (above 300 cm) and strong stem. The yield of the hybrids changed between 10.33 and 11.87 t ha-1, but as a result of the unfavourable climatic extremes, their genetic yield potential prevailed only at a rate of 30–40%. However, moisture content by the time of harvesting was good despite its early date (12th September); it remained under below 14% in most cases. Dry-down was measured on a weekly basis between 14th August and 5th September.

    The analysis of the qualitative parameters of the maize hybrids (protein %, oil % and starch %) resulted in significant differences. The most significant difference has been observed in the case of protein content (LSD5%=2.01). Oil content was the most advantageous in the case of hybrids belonging to the mid-late growing group (FAO 400). The X9N655 and 36V74 hybrids had the highest oil content (around 4%), while hybrids P9915 and 37F73 had significantly lower oil content. Starch content was above 70% in the case of every hybrid.

    Hybrid selection is highly important in terms of yield and yield security of maize, as well as the application of modern biological fundamentals and hybrid specific technology for the improvement of the level of cultivation technology.

  • The situation of agricultural education in the Hungarian language in Romania

    Our objective was to analyse the situation of Hungarian language agricultural higher education in Romania. Our analyses have been focused mainly on Kovászna county. Following the evaluation of the characteristics of the county, we assessed the situation of Hungarian language higher education in Romania. History is considered important, because Hungarian language agricultural higher education goes back to the 1860s. The best solution for measuring the current reputation was the completion of questionnaires, which was done by 140 randomly selected people in Kovászna county. Following the evaluation and analysis of the questionnaires we found that local agricultural education, plant production and livestock farming are important activities for the locals. However, it is sure that even if they are satisfied with the education, they consider continuous development very important, since it would be a major help for the employment and subsistence of fresh graduates in Kovászna county.

  • Analyses of a few physiological parameters of hybrid wheat in the case of different nitrogen supply levels

    The winter wheat is one of the most determinant crops because its role was always important in human’s life. To increase the average yield there are several possibilities, which are still not clear fields of agricultural plant production. Our main goal was to examine the responses of winter wheat genotypes to different amounts of nitrogen supplies. The sowing area of hybrid wheats are increasing, they may have different nutrient nitrogen utilization compared to varieties, and the question arose if it is possible to achieve same yield at lower nitrogen fertilizer application or not.

    The present study analyzes the results of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from tillering growing stage. Under controlled conditions three different wheat hybrids were grown (Hywin, Hystar, Hybiza) with two different amounts of nitrogen supplies (optimal and the fourth part). The dry matter accumulation, relative chlorophyll content and nitrogen content were measured in order to draw conclusions from the different supplies of nitrogen for winter wheat genotypes and their physiological plasticity.