Viable urban environment is largely dependent on the size, condition and distribution of urban green spaces within and around cities. Treerows in streets are one of the most essential elements of urban green spaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate tree taxa compositions and lifespan values of trees in tree-row system with special referenc...e to five narrow streets (Garai, Jókai, Tanító, Csokonai and Zsák) of Debrecen. Tree numbers, tree taxa and the origin of tree taxa were determined in two years (2009 and 2017). As a next step, six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer', Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia 'Browseri', Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides 'Olmsted', and Crataegus x lavalleei 'Carrierei') were further estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0–5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0–5 grades), v) estimated tree viability (in 0–5 grades), and vi) tree value in Ft. Our results showed that the numbers of tree taxa were 9 and 11 in 2009 and 2017 as well as an overall 279 and 282 trees were evaluated in 2009 and in 2017, respectively. More than 60% of the trees were native or similar to native taxa. The largest and the lowest trunk diameters were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The largest and the lowest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides ’Olmsted’ and for Magnolia kobus, respectively. The best and the worst trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Crataegus x lavalleei, respectively. The best and the worst tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer platanoides. Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the importance of appropriate choice of tree taxa for an establishment of tree-row system in narrow street conditions.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, the question of essentiali...ty of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. Therefore Raphanus sativus (Se accumulator) and Capsicum annuum (non Se accumulator) were treated with 0-200 mg/l natrium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/l) concentration natrium-selenate increased the fitomass and total antioxodant capacity in seedlings.
The aim of this study was to identify and biologically analyse some Monilinia species from Hungary. 146 M. fructigena and 28 M. laxa species out 174 infectious fruit from all over the country were used for the study. For further study 10 isolates were used and apple fruit was inoculated with them according to Koch postulate. 1–2 mm ochre exog...en stromas were observbed on infectious plant parts and growing signs on culture of all isolates were identical to M. fructigena. To affirm classical identification, isolates with molecular biological method were also prepared using PCR reaction. Control isolates of M. laxa, M. fructigena and M. fructicola were used. The size of PCR product showed that all isolates had a 415 bp band which was typical of M. fructigena. Results support the previous observation that M. fructigena and M. laxa species occure all over Hungary.
In this study, possibilities of environmental-friendly plant protection against domestical brwon rot species were summarized for oecological pome and stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then c...ultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Furthermore, mechanical, agrotecnical, biological, and other control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials) were shown.
In the present study, the suggestions for infection risk and sprays of the most frequently used PC-based scab warning systems (RIMpro and WELTE) and the conventionally used Mills table as a reference were compared in integrated apple production. The efficacy of the spraying programs based on the three different warning systems was evaluated by...assessment of apple scab incidences during primary infection periods.
13 and 11 Mills infection periods were detected in 2000 and 2001, respectively, during primary infection periods (from 15 March until 5 June). Taking into consideration the heaviness of Mills infection periods, 11 and 9 sprays were applied in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The two PC-based scab warning systems detected 1-4 less infection periods and suggested 1-3 less sprayings compared to the numbers of infection periods and sprays according to the Mills table. Our results proved that the 9-11 sprays according to the Mills table could be reduced to 7-9 sprays by RIMpro scab warning systems which did not reduce the efficacy and did not increase the symptoms of leaf and fruit scab significantly. The WELTE scab warning systems detected generally one or two more infection periods and suggested one additional spray compared to RIMpro warnings and sprays.
The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, inci...dence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.
In a 2-year study, Dutch and Hungarian environmentally-friendly apple orchards were compared as regards the amount of apple scab primary inoculum. The PAD (potential ascospore dose) method was used to quantify the potential amount of primary inoculum (ascospores) per m2 orchard floor. Applying this method, the number of lesions per m2 of leaf i...n the autumn (LD), the proportion of the orchard floor covered by leaf litter at bud break (LLD) and potential ascospore dose (PAD) were determined. In autumn, LD values ranged between 2.2 and 13.5 in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards the values were between 42.5 and 106.2, with especially high values in the Dutch organic orchard. LLD values ranged between 24 and 43% at bud break in both countries. PAD values were 10-60 times higher than those of the integrated orchards. The PAD values were between 673 and 4275 ascospore/m2 orchard floor in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards these values were 37102 and 52390 ascospore/m2 orchard floor, respectively. On the basis of the recorded primary inoculum quantity, the Dutch integrated apple orchard is considered to be excellently protected, while the Hungarian orchard has a medium level of protection. However, both countries’ organic orchards can be regarded overall as being very poorly protected. Accordingly, in the integrated orchards the predicted epidemic risk is low or medium, while in the organic orchards it is very high on the basis of PAD values.
Aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of conidia of Spilocaea pomi to main fungicide active ingredients (cyprodinil, pirimethanil, fluquinconazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, dodine és trifloxistrobin) at dosages of 0.5, 1 and 2 times incubated in vitro at 24 and 48 hours collected from three integrated apple orchards. Result...s showed that degree of conidial germinations at the fungicide treatnemts decreased in the order of dosages of untreated, 0.5, 1 and 2 times. Considerable conidial germination was observed at higher dosages of some fungicides (e.g. groups of strobilurines and EBI) which confirmed the possibilities of sensitivity reduction of Spilocaea pomi to some funigicides in the sampled Hungarian apple orchards.
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus ce...rasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.
The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.
In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and p...ests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.
In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from p...ractical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use.