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Antioxidant density of Hungarian kapia and red bell pepper varieties
Published May 23, 2006
80-84

There is a lot of evidence that the pepper is one of the most important sources of vitamin C. Albert Szent-Györgyi was the first to extract ascorbic acid from a red bell pepper in the 1930s. Previously people had eaten vitamin C on the long voyage to protect against scurvy. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, and it is a cell protector toda...y. Vitamin C protects the cardiovascular system against infection. This vitamin decrease blood-pressure, a raises the HDL cholesterol level (good), and inhibits gout.
„Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in synthetic way. „Antioxidant density” indicates the antioxidant capacity of a particular food, e. g. fruits and vegetables, related to 1 Calorie. In our study, we measured the total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C content and „antioxidant density” of Hungarian paprika varieties.

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Large Scale Measurement of the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Different hungaricum Fruit and Vegetable Samples with Photochem Chemiluminometric Device
Published December 6, 2005
300-304

In our present study, we performed a quick test of the antioxidant capacity of domestic fruit and vegetable cultivars with a PHOTOCHEM® instrument (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The instrument is special because it can measure both the total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL method) and the total water-soluble antioxidant capacity. Another... advantage of the system is its quick measurement. With similar instruments, such measurement can take several hours, while PHOTOCHEM® can perform it within a few minutes.
In our model studies, we examined the changes in the antioxidant capacity of sour cherry, green pepper, carrot, pumpkin, red beet and Brassica sp. cultivars. We aimed to determine how suitable the instrument is for quick, routine measurements in the case of the different horticultural products and which species have high antioxidant capacity values.
On the basis of our examinations, we can state that the PHOTOCHEM® system is suitable for routine, semi-automated measurements of the total antioxidant capacity at several vegetables and fruits. Besides this, the system can be used for testing the quality of food products, for monitoring storability in post-harvest technologies, and for special breeding programmes and for physiological and biotechnological studies.

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Effect of Selenium Supplementation on in vitro Radish and Green Pepper Seedlings Germination
Published December 6, 2005
149-155

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, the question of essentiali...ty of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. Therefore Raphanus sativus (Se accumulator) and Capsicum annuum (non Se accumulator) were treated with 0-200 mg/l natrium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/l) concentration natrium-selenate increased the fitomass and total antioxodant capacity in seedlings.

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Selection of powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes with molecular markers
Published November 15, 2007
100-104

Incorporation of competitive quality and resistance against the most important fungal diseases (powdery and downy mildew) in a cultivar is one of the most important aims of grapevine breeding. In the 20th century, the most advanced results in grapevine resistance breeding were achieved by French researchers. They used resistant cultivars in mor...e than 30% of their growing areas. In these varieties, North American wild Vitis
species were the resistance gene sources. The discovery of immunity-like resistance of Muscadinia rotundifolia opened new perspectives in resistance breeding. M. rotundifolia harbours a dominant powdery mildew gene, providing resistance in highquality cultivars after back-crosses with V. vinifera varieties. M. rotundifolia has been involved in the Hungarian grape breeding programs since 1996, thanks to a French-Hungarian variety exchange. In addition to traditional selection methods, application of MAS (Marker Assisted Selection) based on various types of
molecular markers, can provide additional tools for these efforts. Run1 locus, responsible for powdery mildew resistance, was identified in Muscadinia rotundifolia. Molecular markers closely linked to this locus are very significant in screening progenies deriving from M. rotundifolia and V. vinifera crosses, making possible the discrimination between resistant and susceptible genotypes at DNA level. In our analyses BC5 progeny of {(M. rotundifola×V. vinifera) BC4}×Cardinal (V. vinifera) tested for powdery symptoms were analysed with PCR-RFLP (GLP1- 12P1P3) and microsatellite markers (VMC4f3.1, VMC8g9). Our results proved the applicability of the linked markers and reliability of marker assisted selection.

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Application of microsatellite fingerprints for pedigree analysis of Hungaricum grapevine varieties
Published November 15, 2007
71-77

the Carpathian Basin were involved into our examination, which aimed at genotyping their accessions. DNA fingerprints of 101 varieties were determined with 6 microsatellite markers till 2005, resulting in successful discrimination of the accessions. Based on these results for pedigree determination, even more cultivars and primers were involved... into the analyses. For studying the origin of Csabagyöngye and for proving the parent-progeny relations of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály, 19 microsatellite markers were applied, while 11 were selected for tracing the origin of Királyleányka. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated with cluster analysis and demonstrated by dendrogram, proving that the varieties can be discriminated from each other based on the microsatellite allele sizes. Pedigree of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály has been confirmed by microsatellite allele size results, searching for the parents of Csabagyöngye and Királyleányka is in progress, since the molecular-marker based pedigree does not correspond with the putative origin of these cultivars. Our results excluded progeny-parent relationships in the
Csabagyöngye-Bronnerstraube-Muscat ottonel (Ottonel muskotály) and the Királyleányka-Kövérszőlő combinations. 

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The bioactive compounds of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) with special regards to antioxidant activity and antioxidant density
Published September 14, 2005
83-87

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus ce...rasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.

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Anti-Oxidants in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
195-200

Today’s programmes aiming at enhancement of fruit and vegetable consumption have been intensified. In the unanimous view of experts, different health problems, such as those of the immune system, inflammations, and even certain cancerous diseases can be prevented and/or cured with regular consumption of fresh (raw) fruit and vegetables. It is... well-known fact that among the biologically valuable components, antioxidant compounds – C- and E vitamins, as well as carotinoides – play an important role. In this field, Hungary can expect success in the future since it has excellent plant genetic stock. Regretfully, national data banks regarding cultivation technology, cultivation areas or varieties for fruits and vegetables and their antioxidant contents do not exist in Hungary. Nevertheless, in connection with the so-called “Hungaricums” its existence would be of urgent necessity. Such excellent Hungarian products are – among others – a lot of sour cherry varietiles, the Szeged green pepper and the Makó onion. They enjoy high priority as “Hungaricums” even in the European Union and such activities that support these kinds of products should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. Presently’ the USA leads in the research of antioxidant compounds of sour cherry, and so far 17 of these compounds have been found partly in Hungarian varieties. Similar research on green, and ‘pritamin’ peppers have not gone so far since they were limited only for seasoning paprika. In Hungary, studies on onion and garlic have not been performed. It should be mentioned that due to the continental climate, these products may be cultivated, consumed or processed only in a limited period. Taking this into consideration, processing and conserving methods are needed which make the consumption of these fruit and vegetables as functional food possible year-round. Scientific establishment of this set of questions is of current concern, because consumption of these products could have an important role in improving the health status of the Hungarian population in the future.

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Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards
Published September 14, 2005
75-81

The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.

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