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Sweet cherry fruit quality by half-intensive orchard management
Published May 23, 2006

We made our study on fruit quality in the summer of 2005 on 6 cultivars („Bigarreau Burlat”, „Germersdorfi 3”, „Germersdorfi 45”, „Katalin”, „Linda” and „Van”) in a half-intensive sweet cherry orchard in Siófok. We measured fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and soluble solids content. There were large differences among cultivars in the datas. These differences are due to genetic fruit-characteristics, because all other conditions were the same. We harvested fruits by 3 cultivars two times to check their characteristics on two ripening phases. We examined on these cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. With these data we can be informed about the role of later than optimal harvesting time and how big an effect it has on fruit quality.

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Environmentally-benign plant protection possibilities against domestic Monilinia spp. in organic apple and stone fruit orchards
Published September 14, 2005

In this study, possibilities of environmental-friendly plant protection against domestical brwon rot species were summarized for oecological pome and stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then c...ultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Furthermore, mechanical, agrotecnical, biological, and other control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials) were shown.

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The effect Benefit PZ biostimulant on the fruit size and yield production of apricot varieties (Prunus Armeniaca)
Published May 23, 2006

Fruit size is determined by the genetic makings of varieties the pomology and enviromental factors. The climate and the previous year’s harvested yield have a great effect on yield volume. It is not easy to harmonize the qualitative and quantitave parameters of the fruit. High yield usually causes smaller fruits.
The aim of our trials was evalaute the effect of Benefit PZ biostimulant on fruit size. We examined two apricot varieties (Bergeron, Magyarkajszi C235) for the efficacy of the product. The three applications were made with 400 l/ha water with 2500 ppm. The optimal interval of application with Benefit PZ is during in the early phases of development. The size of the final fruits depends on the number of cells making up the fruits. The later application could not increase fruit size growth, there are no significant differences between the Benefit PZ sprayed and the control plots. The totally harvested fruit weight was 13.5% more on the trees of cv. Bergeron, it was caused by the higher fruit set. On the sprayed trees were 12.2% more fruit. Therefore were no differences between the average fruit weight. Fruit weights of the treated trees were 44.37 g on cv. Bergeron, 44.15 g on cv. Magyarkajszi C235 and on the no treated trees were 43.83 g as well as 45.33 g.

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The effect of location on the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight infection on apricot
Published September 14, 2005

The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, inci...dence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.

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Studying on the frost damage of some peach and nectarine varieties
Published May 23, 2006

To be able to grow stone fruit species, the peach and the nectarine varieties, yield stability is very relevant. However, the climate is suitable in Hungary for growing stone fruits. We have to calculate with damage. Important winter damage and spring frost damage occur in every second year on the Great Pplains. To reveal the frost tolerance of... cultivars and to clarify the differences among growing areas is the most important point of peach and nectarine production.
We, made our experiments in the winter of 2005 (January-February), at Pallag, Zsombó, Siófok, Sóskút and Szatymaz. These former places are determinant in peach and nectarine growing in Hungarian respects.
In our experiments we analyzed 10-10 fruit shoot from 82 varieties, and we measured the frost damage and the flower bud density.
The minimum and the maximum frost damage values (%) at the different growing places were 7.6-38.7 at Siófok, 6.5-31.3 at Sóskút, 34.3-100 at Szatymaz, 83.7-99.6 at Pallag and 51.9-99.6 at Zsombó. There were expressive differences between the same cultivars depending on the growing area.
The frost damage of „Suncrest” variety was 7.6% at Siófok, 8.2% at Sóskút but it was 69.8% at Szatymaz. The „Maystar” variety had 17.6% at Siófok, 12.4% at Sóskút and 87.2% frost damage at Szatymaz. In case of „Redhaven” variety the frost damage values were 16.8% at Sóskút, 54.6% at Szatymaz. We collected fruit shoots from three different heights in case of „Cresthaven” variety. In case of 1 meter height the frost damage was 74.6%, at 2 meter height 44.7%, and 25.2% at 3 meter.
We experienced also big differences in flower bud density (flower bud/10 cm) of varieties. The following cultivars had the highest flower bud density (6-7 bud/10 cm): „Suncrest”, „Meystar, „Maria Luisa” and the „Maria Bianca”, „Redhaven”, „Michellini” had the lowest flower bud density (2-3 bud/10 cm).
After our experiments we established that there were very expressive differences among the frost damage of peach and nectarine varieties from different climatic conditions and there are also big variance between the frost damage values of those fruit shoots, what were collected from different heights, but from the same variety. It conspicuous very good among our items, that difference of the flower bud density is very big among the varieties.To be able to grow peach and nectarine successfully, the suitable variety (low frost damage value, high flower bud density) and the suitable growing are is determinant.

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Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards
Published September 14, 2005

The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.

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The effect of sunburn damage on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica cv. Idared)
Published September 14, 2005

In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.
The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the... ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).
Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.

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Presentation of winter flower-dub lesions of peach varieties originating from different growing areas
Published July 16, 2007

Although there are many critical points in peach production, in Hungary, winter frost damage is one of the most significant. Serious winter frost damage on the Hungarian Great Plain was the focus of our experiments. The adequate growth and the most adaptable varieties are determining factors in peach production. In our experiments, we compared ...three growing areas (Siófok, Sóskút, Szatymaz) and four different varieties (Suncrest, Redhaven, Meystar, Michellini). Throughout these growing areas and with varieties, we wanted to demonstrate the differences in the frost damage values of the flower buds in 2005 and 2006.
In the course of the statistical trials, we found that the difference between the varieties is significant (table 2). The most tolerant variety as for frost tolerance is the ‘Michellini’ variety, and the worst is the ‘Suncrest’ variety. We also found that these data are significant. When we examined the varieties according to their growth, we got the same results (table 3). We determined that the differences between growth are significant and related to these four varieties and the two years (2005-2006), that frost damage was the highest at Szatymaz, and that it was the lowest in Sóskút.

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The Influence of Cropyear on the Yield and Yield Safety of Different Sunflower Hybrids
Published December 6, 2005

The effectiveness of plant production is basically influenced by the ecological, biological and agricultural technical factors. There are many kinds of sunflower hybrids which differres in their adaptability. If we want to increase the efficiency of sunflower production, we have to design different technologies for each hybrid. In the last, the range of sunflower hybrids increased exceedingly. This is the reason why we have to do experiments with them and examine what the relationship among genotypes, the environment and the hybrids is.
We made our experiments at the Látóképi Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen. We had 57 hybrids in 2001, and 44 in 2002 and 2003. We used only just those hybrids which were planted in every year.
In 2001 the months at summer were hot and the distribution of rainfall was extreme. In the beginning of the year 2002, the summer was also hot. During the abscessing period, the temperature was under the 30 years average and the rainless period was typical. In 2003, the temperature was extrame and the rainfall during the growing season was dry. The yield average which was determined after the three years in the very early group averaged 3998,9 kg/ha. The best hybrids were the LG 5385 (4273,3 kg/ha) and the Magóg (4134,4 kg/ha). The early group’s average was 4129,4 kg/ha. The best hybrid was the Astor in the early group. The middle group’s average was 4169 kg/ha and the Zoltán had a better yield than average (4238 kg/ha). In the confectionary group the Iregi szürke csíkos (3579,9 kg/ha) reached the best yield and it is above the average to it’s group (3225 kg/ha).
To estimate the results, we used factor analysis. Its results allow us to say that rainfall first and second part of June has a negative influence on yield. Aswith to the yield, yield safety is also important to know, which shows the adaptability of the hybrid.
After examining the CV% in the three years we can say that the most stable hybrids were in the very early group Samanta (10,94 CV%) and the LG 5385 (12 CV%) In the early group, the most reliable hybrids were Altesse RM (6,9 CV%) and the Astor (10,8 CV%) and the end in the middle group the Lympil (10 CV%) and in the confectionary group the Birdy (9,8 CV%) and IS 8004 (12 CV%) were the best.
After examining yield and yield safety, our conclusions are that in the Hajdúsági löszhát, the very early group LG 5385, early group Altesse RM, middle group Lympil and the parandial group IS 8004 hybrid had the highest yield and the best yield stability.

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