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The effects of education, culture, research and development in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.

The unfavorable educational level of the region is related to the migration tendencies and the brain-draining trends of the past decades, as a consequence of which the population of the less developed eastern regions has moved either to the capital, or to the county seats, or larger cities of the region. The young are increasingly affected by the process.

The number of kindergartens in the county corresponds to the national average, therefore taking into consideration the regional demographic characteristics the aim should be the equalization of regional disproportions. The number of students per 1000 resident within the Northern Great Plain Region and in the county significantly exceeds the national average. The secondary school network of the county consists of 38 secondary grammar- and 51 secondary vocational schools.

The secondary schools of Debrecen have considerable impact on the county’s secondary education. The vocational training network of Hajdú-Bihar county is a large, in its conditions highly differentiated institutional network in which all types of secondary vocational institutions are present with secondary technical-, vocational-, accredited higher vocational-, specialized or preparatory vocational-, and special skill enhancement programmes. The majority of the secondary institutions have regional, rarely national enrollment.

Students who have the intention to continue their studies in higher education within the county can study in Debrecen or Hajdúböszörmény.

The integrated University of Debrecen has the highest student number within the country and it offers the widest range of academic programmes in Hungarian higher education. The University of Debrecen with the wide range of graduate and postgraduate educational programmes, unified academic qualification system, English language programmes is a European standard scientific centre of the Trans-Tisza Region. The county’s higher education takes exceeding share beyond its weight in the education of Natural Sciences (Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematics), Health- and Social Sciences, Agricultural- and Environmental Sciences and Information Technology, which positively influences its educational structure. The county’s share in the education of Humanities (Hungarian Language, Foreign Languages, History, Archeology, Philosophy) is also significant.

6.3% of the country’s scientific researchers work in the county. In 2010 7.0% of the country’s R+D expenditure was spent here. 3/4 of the region’s research capacity is in Hajdú-Bihar county employed either by the University of Debrecen or by the research teams of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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Regional economic achievements and reindustrialisation in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published July 24, 2014

The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita ...of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.

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Public finance resources and regional distribution of rural development
Published September 18, 2014

...x; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Rural development, more specifically the economic development of counties have three public finance resources: the municipality, the central budgetary and the labour market fund resources. Based on the provisions of public finance, there are currently five provisions of the municipality resources of rural development: supporting settlements struggling with employment problems, supporting multi-purpose small regions, supporting settlements which are in a difficult position through no fault of their own, supporting public utility development and supporting holiday resorts. The opportunity of increasing investments is using EU funds. The structural change has a favourable direction, the proportion of the economic development program and regional developments increased in the recent years, but their share is still low. The proportion of agricultural and rural development programs which are important from the aspect of rural development is a less favourable phenomenon. Furthermore, the share of human and social development somewhat decreased, but it is still high. Apart from the regional programs, the Budget Act does not specify the regional distribution of budgets, only the professional purposes of uses, of which it is possible to conclude to which county development can be requested resources for.

Between 2008 and 2011, the 13–15% share of the North Great Plain region was close to the population share of 14.7%. In 2012, there was a turn of events in which the necessity of developing the region was shown. In this year, not only the proportion, but also the absolute extent of development resources increased. Therefore, the region could use resources of 16.9 billion HUF in 2010, 31.4 billion HUF in 2011 and 56.3 billion HUF in 2012. In order to properly use these resources, determined utilisation structure is necessary to be performed. The distribution of development purposes provides an explanation for the backward position of the economic performance of Hajdú-Bihar county.

Of the development resources available for four years, the region spent only 12.2% on economic development.

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The social basis of regional development in the North Great Plain Region
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County and Hajdu-Bihaur County may be described with completely different characteristics, albeit both of them are part of the North Great Plain Region. On a county level economically important and justified developmental areas may be mapped more precisely.

Hajdu-Bihar County is the 4th most populous county in Hungary. With 80.2% of the population living in cities, the county is significantly urbanized. 2010 statistics show that the birth rate per 1,000 people in the county is practically the same as the birth rate of the country and that of the North Great Plain Region. Following the trends in developed countries, mothers now tend to give birth in an older age. Almost half (44.5%) of the children in Hajdu-Bihar County are born after their mother’s 30th birthday.

The general health condition of the population of Hajdu-Bihar County can be described with various indicators. In terms of medical and hospital care no difference can be observed between regional and national data, the county’s health care does not straggle behind. In sum, with the health care system of the county, estimated life expectancy of men is higher than the regional average, and in case of women it is higher than both the regional and national average, according to the given year’s mortality.

Children’s ratio among the county’s population is 15.9%, which is more than 1% over the national average. The ratio is higher in case of girls and boys alike. The income of the county’s population depends not only on labour income but also on social benefits. According to the analysis, the proportion of old-age pensioners and those receiving pension-like allowances within the whole population is somewhat lower in the county than the national average. The number of children receiving child-welfare and daytime care is prominent in the county.

The number of families and children receiving child-care allowance has not changed significantly in recent years. All important elements of social benefits have increased in the last decade. The quality of life of the county’s population is largely affected by the presence (or absence) of basic infrastructure in their environment. Research conducted at the settlements of the county shows that currently the greater part of the population has access to basic public utility services which form part of everyday services. Although they affect the general quality of life, the network of roads and passenger traffic have their real significance in terms of economic development. The county’s modern, paved road-system had already been built earlier.

Roads and pavements in inner-city areas have been paved up to 70%. The technical condition of roads and pavements can seriously impede the population’s mobility and it may hinder the development of certain settlements and districts.

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The role of agriculture in regional development
Published July 24, 2014

Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of ...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.

Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.

The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.

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The impact of employment and income circumstances on the development of regions
Published July 24, 2014

The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.

As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is ...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.

The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.

The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.

There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
Published February 25, 2014

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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Evaluation of technologies and resources from the spatial and social aspect
Published April 23, 2014

The basic functioning of the world is mostly led by negative trends. One of the fundamental reasons for this phenomenon is that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) do not act properly and in the proper structure by means of the produced products and services. Therefore, the examination of technologies and resources is a k...ey question of our world and development from various aspects. Technologies convey all positive and negative impacts which can be regarded as the fundamental reasons and causes of harmonious or disharmonious development. For this reason, the role of technologies in development and harmonious functioning is of paramount importance.

As a final conclusion, we established that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) are interpreted as impact conveyors which predominate by means of products and services in a way that their relation system is determined. By using the thermodynamic interpretation which is the basis of the functioning of the world, we built a system consisting of 14 elements to evaluate different technologies, to interpret its functioning and to develop positive interactions and trends.

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Comparison of Pálfai’s drought index and the Normalised Precipitation Index in the North Great Plain region
Published February 17, 2015

Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society and creation of job opportunities in Hungary. Our country has resource-related strength of agriculture, because we have more than 4.5 million ha for agricultural production. Agricultural production can be influenced by several factors, including c...limate, hydrology, soil conditions and antropogenic impacts. Climate determines the quality and quantity of the crop yields. The climate conditions in Hungary are variable and it shows spatial and temporal extremes. As a result of this, drought have become more frequent in our country (2003, 2007, 2009, 2012), which is reflected in the decline in yields as well. In the present study, Pálfai's Drought Index (PAI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were compared 2003–2012 in Debrecen. The temperature and precipitation data were calculated from data provided by a local meteorological station to work out PAI, while the SPI-3 index values were downloaded from the database of the European Drought Observatory. This allowed to drought assessment in a local and regional scale. Our study was supplemented with SPI-3, soil moisture anomalies, PAI and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluating the impact of drought on agriculture.

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Examination of soil parameters based on the evaluation of the spectroradiometric reflectance characteristics of the topsoil
Published July 24, 2014

In this article we are presenting the methodology applied to analyse and interpret the topsoil surface reflectance parameters of multiple samples collected in the Mugello valley area in northern Italy in October 2012. The main aim of the whole project was to discover geomorphological behaviour and situation of the area ino order to improve pote...ntial for correct dating of certain archaeological artefacts found in the nearby areas. One of the crucial problem researchers are facing in the area is the lack of understanding of the underlying geological and geomorphological processes that were describing and characterizing the area and that played important role not only in the current geography and landscape formation but also in the transportation of various sediments and artefacts. In this particular research the main aim is to examine the possibility of developing a quick way to assess low level properties of the soil using hand held spectrometer and rapid analysis of cross-section using in situ measurement techniques. In this work we collected over 2000 individual samples of topsoil surface reflectance properties that we organized into a spectral library. This library is then to be used to describe physical and chemical processes in the soil. To support the analysis results were compared to analysis results from different kind of assessments in the same area. Our results show a great potential of application of hand held imaging spectrometer in soil property analysis based on the top soil surface reflectance parameters.

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Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
Published February 25, 2014

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized....>

The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Evaluation of the blood product characteristics of meat meal and hemoglobin with non-invasive methods in the VISNIR wavelength
Published March 23, 2016


The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive., different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.


Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.


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Agricultural land use and food safety
Published July 24, 2014

The world’s food production needs to be doubled in order to cover the need of the population by 2050 even if it exceeds 9 billion. The output of agriculture is expected to increase by 1.7% every year until 2020 (OECD, FAO 2011) which is a major decrease in comparison with the average 2.6% increase of the previous decade. At the same time, the... meat, dairy, sugar and vegetable oil consumption is likely to increase by 2020 to a higher extent than so far. Due to the increasing food prices, the amount of starving people will increase and food consumption will decrease – especially in developing countries – as people will be able to buy less and only cheaper food products. Also, obesity may become a more severe problem and the inequality of the population’s health status could increase.

One of the most important elements of adapting to global climate change is food safety; therefore, it is especially important to breed new biological bases and to introduce production systems which contribute to adapting to changed circumstances.

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Evaluation of decreasing moisture content of different maize genotypes
Published June 30, 2018

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the decrease in grain moisture content in three maize hybrids in Debrecen in 2017. Armagnac, Sushi and Loupiac were the examined hybrids in this study. The culture medium and temperature conditions were applied uniformly for all three hybrids. According to the results obtained from the ratio of moisture c...ontent of seeds per day, the Armagnac variety in the intensive drying down phase loses more time and moisture content, so it can be concluded that the produced dry matter is more than in the case of other varieties. Armagnac requires more time to achieve yield, while the Sushi and Loupiac hybrids produce less harvest. Regarding the slope of the regression line, the rate of loss of moisture in the grain has been negatively correlated with the amount of “b” in the three examined hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97% in the Loupiac, 95% and in the Sushi 90% of the total dynamic value of moisture motion.

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Sensitivity of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The knowledge of the evapotranspiration of natural ecosystems and plant populations is of fundamental importance in several branches of science, research topics and practical uses. Nevertheless, the harmonization of the large number of methods and the changing user needs often causes problems. Sensitivity analysis of 10 ET0 estimation models and model variants was performed. Magnitude of the obtained outputs and the changes triggered by each atmospheric parameter were evaluated. The objective of the analyses was to get to know the sensitivity of the different models and to select the most accurate and the most suitable ones for adaptation to local circumstances. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve as high accuracy as possible in applications which need ET0 estimation.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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Evaluation of the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield in a seasoning paprika (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum) stand
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of our examination was to evaluate the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield, as well as to examine the possibility of yield estimation basedon NDVI in a seasoning paprika population.

Significant correlations were observed during the examination of the correlation between NDVI and yield. Furthermore, it was concluded that yield can be estimated with a 6.6–8.3% mean error based on the regression equations. No significant difference was shown between the error of estimations performed with various regression types and that of the estimations performed at various dates. For this reason, the identification of the optimum estimation method and the determination of the optimum date for estimation call for further examinations.

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Published September 5, 2018

The higher education of economics and agriculture in Debrecen started 150 years ago. The historical roots of our institution reach back to the middle of the 19th century. In the 1850s, the wise leaders of the city of Debrecen realised that the development of agriculture is the sole opportunity which can make the region of the Tisza River and th...e Trans- Tisza region the most valuable pantry of the nation. Due to the generous support of the citizens of Debrecen, as well as the enthusiastic work of scientist and teachers, the National Higher Education Institute of Farming was established on 22nd October 1868 as the first agricultural higher education institution of the Great Hungarian Plain.

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Impact of fertilisation and the fluctuation of precipitation on the ecophysical and production characteristics of maize
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.

The examinations were carried out in a moderately warm and dry production area at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences on calcareous chernozem soil in 2007 and 2008. Six different N doses (0,30,60,90,120,150 kg ha-1) were used in the irrigated and non-irrigated treatments of the field experiment.

The results showed that there is a significant strong positive correlation between Chl content and yield both in the non-irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.777) and the irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.801) treatment. The results of the correlation analyses performed yearly showed that weather factors significantly influence the strength of correlations, but these correlations are always positive.

The Chl content of maize leaves provided a reliable prediction of yield per hectare in the R1 growth stage. In the irrigated treatment, the correlation is always closer than in the non-irrigated treatment.

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Settlement network, demographic circumstances, healthcare, social service and educations in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county shares its borders with three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia. The county is part of the North Great Plain Region, it is the third largest county of Hungary in terms of its population. The peripheric geographical location of the county gained importance by the EU accession, as the county represents a significant part of the eastern border of the EU.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is one of the counties of the Great Plain with significant population in the outlying areas, out of the six counties of the Great Plain the population of outlying areas is the lowest in the county, its ratio has been significantly reducing in the past decades. In the six counties in 1990 the population of the outlying areas represented 22.3% of the total population, whereas in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county the ratio was 13.6%. The ratio has dropped to 6.2% and 4.1% respectively.

The major aim of economic development is the improvement of the living conditions of the population, first and foremost by increasing family incomes. There are two main determining factors of family income level: employment ratio and the sectoral structure of employment.

Between 1992–2010 the number of employees in the financial sector decreased from 89 000 to 75 000, whereas the number of employees in the non-financial sector grew dynamically from 40 000 to 65 000. Structural change was significant. In the non-financial sector the proportion of the two main employment fields (education and healthcare) swapped. The number of employees in the education sector decreased from 16 000 to 14 000, while the number of employees in the health and social care sector grew from 11 000 to 22 000.

On the basis of statistics the number of kindergarten and primary school children reduced in the given period, while the number of secondary school aged children increased. In 1999 the number of secondary school children was 1/5th compared to the number of primary school children, whereas in 2010 their number almost reached 1/2. The student number in higher education doubled, which is a favorable phenomenon, though its structural changes raise some problems. The lack of technical trainings hinders exigent industrial development.

Since 1990 the education level of the population has significantly improved, the number and proportion of secondary school students and university graduates have risen much more dynamically than in other regions of the country. In the county the proportion of secondary school students increased 63% more than the national average, while in the case of university graduates the county passed the average national growth by more than 54%. Due to the effect of structural changes the proportion of university graduates in the corresponding age group improved, its backwardness compared to the national average has ameliorated from 34% to 29%, in the group of secondary school graduates the disadvantage has moderated from 26% to 21%. The computer and internet supply, as well as the number of teachers and students enrolled in secondary education institutions have developed dynamically in the county. Their growth has much excelled the national average.

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Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards
Published September 14, 2005

The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.

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Development of seed analyses by means of various matrix solutions and the MALDI-TOF MS technique
Published May 23, 2019

The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, m...atrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.

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Occurence and spreading of box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker 1859) on the North-East region of Great Hungarian Plain
Published June 14, 2017

Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of ...blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.

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Investigation of the Effect of P-Supply on Maize (Zea mays L.) Development
Published September 8, 2020

Quantification of plant development is important in areas where the actual dates of certain phonological stages should be identified. The influences of different ecological factors are put into algorithms by crop modellers. In this process the effect of plant nutrients are not yet well quantified. This paper gives data on the effect of on maize development prior to flowering stage. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. In lack of phosphorus more degree days are needed for flowering then in case of well P-supply. 2. The effect of P is seen not on leaf initialisation (i.e. final eaf number is the same) but rather on the phyllochron interval. 3. P effect on phyllochron interval can be observed at the younger stage (prior to leaf number 10) but not later.

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